The scene in the summer of 1995; unknown duo from Residencial Luis Llorens Torres in San Juan, rapping at a club on the beach in Puerto Nuevo, Vega Baja

Reggaeton (UK: /ˈrɛɡtn, ˌrɛɡˈtɒn/,[5][6] US: /ˌrɛɡˈtn, ˌrɡ-/),[7][8] also known as reggaetón or reguetón,[9] (Spanish: [reɣeˈton]) is a modern style of popular and electronic music that originated in Panamá during the late 1980s, and which rose to prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s through a plethora of Puerto Rican musicians.[10][11][12] It has been popularized and dominated by artists from Puerto Rico since the early 1990s.[3]

It has evolved from dancehall, with elements of hip hop, Latin American, and Caribbean music. Vocals include toasting/rapping and singing, typically in Spanish.

Reggaetón, today, is regarded as one of the most popular music genres, worldwide; it is the top music genre among the Spanish-speaking Caribbean nations and one of the primary modern genres within the Spanish-language music industry. Seemingly endless artists have risen to fame, not only from the Caribbean (Puerto Rico, Panamá, Dominican Republic, Cuba), but particularly from Colombia (Feid, J Balvin, Karol G, Maluma, Manuel Turizo, etc.) as of around 2010. Argentina has seen a modern surge in young artists inspired by the reggaetón style, fusing their music with Spanish rap verses, trapetón and R&B-style vocals (such as the “Los Del Espacio”, including LIT killah, Tiago PZK, Duki, Emilia, and María Becerra, as well as Argentine pop star Tini).

Several established, world-famous performers—notably Puerto Rican-American Jennifer Lopez and Shakira from Colombia—have embraced the style, recording numerous duets and collaborations with top reggaetoneros. Several other emerging international artists are seeing success in the genre as well, including Catalán-Spanish singer Bad Gyal (from Barcelona) and trilingual Brazilian star Anitta (from Rio de Janeiro). Mexican-American singer Becky G (from Los Angeles, California) has experienced huge success in recent years, as a Latino American artist in the reggaetón genre.[13] In 2004, Daddy Yankee released his smash single “Gasolina”, regarded by many as the first globally-successful reggaetón song; Daddy Yankee is credited with bringing the style to western pop music listeners. By the 2010s, the genre had seen increased popularity across Latin America, as well as modern acceptance within mainstream Western music; during the 2010s, several new award categories (focusing on reggaetón and Latin music) were unveiled at various American music awards shows, notably the English-language American Music Awards, Billboard Music Awards, Grammy Awards, and MTV Video Music Awards.[14]


There are several versions about the origin of the word reggaeton. El General's representative Michael Ellis is said to have originated the term, adding the -ton suffix to "make the word big."[15][1] One of them states that the word reggaeton emerged in 1994 when Daddy Yankee mentioned it for the first time while freestyling on the mixtape "Playero 34."[16] Another version suggests that it appeared the following year when DJ Erick released the album titled "Reggaetón Live Vol.1," abbreviating the words reggae and maratón (marathon).[17]

The spellings reggaeton and reggaetón are common, although prescriptivist sources such as the Fundéu BBVA and the Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española recommend the spelling reguetón, as it conforms more closely with traditional Spanish spelling rules.[9][18]


Don Omar (left) and Daddy Yankee (right) are both referred to as the "King of Reggaeton".[19][20]

1980s-2000s: Emergence

Often mistaken for Reggae or reggae en Español, reggaeton is a younger genre that originated in the late 1980s in Panama and was later popularized in Puerto Rico.[11][21][7][22][23] It had its origins in what was known as rap y reggae "underground" music, due to its circulation through informal networks and performances at unofficial venues. DJ Playero and DJ Nelson were inspired by hip hop and dancehall to produce "riddims", the first reggaeton tracks. As Caribbean and African-American music gained momentum in Puerto Rico, reggae rap in Spanish marked the beginning of the Boricua underground and was a creative outlet for many young people. This created an inconspicuous-yet-prominent underground youth culture which sought to express itself. As a youth culture existing on the fringes of society and the law, it has often been criticized. The Puerto Rican police launched a campaign against underground music by confiscating cassette tapes from music stores under penal obscenity codes, levying fines and demonizing rappers in the media.[24] Bootleg recordings and word of mouth became the primary means of distribution for this music until 1998, when it coalesced into modern reggaeton. The genre's popularity increased when it was discovered by international audiences during the early 2000s.[25]

Cassettes were made in carports (marquesinas) and then sold on the street, out of the trunk of a car.

The new genre, simply called "underground" and later "perreo", had explicit lyrics about drugs, violence, poverty, friendship, love and sex. These themes, depicting the troubles of inner-city life, can still be found in reggaeton. "Underground" music was recorded in marquesinas (or carports)[26] and at public housing complexes such as Villa Kennedy, and Jurutungo,[27][24] often by creators using second-hand recording equipment.[26] Despite that, the quality of the cassettes was good enough to help increase their popularity among Puerto Rican youth. The cassettes were sold or distributed on the streets from the trunks of cars.[26][24] The availability and quality of the cassettes led to reggaeton's popularity, which crossed socioeconomic barriers in the Puerto Rican music scene. The most popular cassettes in the early 1990s were DJ Negro's The Noise I and II and DJ Playero's 37 and 38. Gerardo Cruet, who created the recordings, spread the genre from the marginalized residential areas into other sectors of society, particularly private schools.

By the mid-1990s, "underground" cassettes were being sold in music stores. The genre caught on with middle-class youth, then found its way into the media. By this time, Puerto Rico had several clubs dedicated to the underground scene; Club Rappers in Carolina and PlayMakers in Puerto Nuevo were the most notable. Bobby "Digital" Dixon's "Dem Bow" production was played in clubs. Underground music was not originally intended to be club music. In South Florida, DJ Laz and Hugo Diaz of the Diaz Brothers were popularizing the genre from Palm Beach to Miami.

Underground music in Puerto Rico was harshly criticized. In February 1995, there was a government-sponsored campaign against underground music and its cultural influence. Puerto Rican police raided six record stores in San Juan,[28] hundreds of cassettes were confiscated and fines imposed in accordance with Laws 112 and 117 against obscenity.[24] The Department of Education banned baggy clothing and underground music from schools.[29] For months after the raids local media demonized rappers, calling them "irresponsible corrupters of the public order."[24]

In 1995, DJ Negro released The Noise 3 with a mockup label reading, "Non-explicit lyrics". The album had no cursing until the last song. It was a hit, and underground music continued to seep into the mainstream. Senator Velda González of the Popular Democratic Party and the media continued to view the movement as a social nuisance.[30]

During the mid-1990s, the Puerto Rican police and National Guard confiscated reggaeton tapes and CDs to get "obscene" lyrics out of the hands of consumers.[31] Schools banned hip hop clothing and music to quell reggaeton's influence. In 2002, Senator González led public hearings to regulate the sexual "slackness" of reggaeton lyrics. Although the effort did not seem to negatively affect public opinion about reggaeton, it reflected the unease of the government and the upper social classes with what the music represented. Because of its often sexually-charged content and its roots in poor, urban communities, many middle- and upper-class Puerto Ricans found reggaeton threatening, "immoral, as well as artistically deficient, a threat to the social order, apolitical".[29]

Despite the controversy, reggaeton slowly gained acceptance as part of Puerto Rican culture — helped, in part, by politicians including González who began to use reggaeton in election campaigns to appeal to younger voters in 2003.[29] Puerto Rican mainstream acceptance of reggaeton has grown and the genre has become part of popular culture, including a 2006 Pepsi commercial with Daddy Yankee[32] and PepsiCo's choice of Ivy Queen as musical spokesperson for Mountain Dew.[33][unreliable source?] Other examples of greater acceptance in Puerto Rico are religiously- and educationally-influenced lyrics; Reggae School is a rap album produced to teach math skills to children, similar to School House Rock.[34] Reggaeton expanded when other producers, such as DJ Nelson and DJ Eric, followed DJ Playero. During the 1990s, Ivy Queen's 1996 album En Mi Imperio, DJ Playero's Playero 37 (introducing Daddy Yankee) and The Noise: Underground, The Noise 5 and The Noise 6 were popular in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Don Chezina, Tempo, Eddie Dee, Baby Rasta & Gringo and Lito & Polaco were also popular.

The name "reggaeton" became prominent during the early 2000s, characterized by the dembow beat. It was coined in Puerto Rico to describe a unique fusion of Puerto Rican music.[25] Reggaeton is currently popular throughout Latin America. It increased in popularity with Latino youth in the United States when DJ Joe and DJ Blass worked with Plan B and Sir Speedy[35] on Reggaeton Sex, Sandunguero and Fatal Fantasy.

2004: Crossover

In 2004, reggaeton became popular throughout the United States and Europe. Tego Calderón was receiving airplay in the U.S., and the music was popular among youth. Daddy Yankee's El became popular that year in the country, as did Héctor & Tito. Luny Tunes and Noriega's Mas Flow, Yaga & Mackie's Sonando Diferente, Tego Calderón's El Abayarde, Ivy Queen's Diva, Zion & Lennox's Motivando a la Yal and the Desafío compilation were also well received. Rapper N.O.R.E. released a hit single, "Oye Mi Canto". Daddy Yankee released Barrio Fino and a hit single, "Gasolina", opening the door for reggaeton globally.[36] Tego Calderón recorded the singles "Pa' Que Retozen" and "Guasa Guasa". Don Omar was popular, particularly in Europe, with "Pobre Diabla" and "Dale Don Dale".[37] Other popular reggaeton artists include Tony Dize, Angel & Khriz, Nina Sky, Dyland & Lenny, RKM & Ken-Y, Julio Voltio, Calle 13, Héctor el Father, Wisin & Yandel and Tito El Bambino. In late 2004 and early 2005, inspired by the success of "Gasolina", Shakira collaborated with Alejandro Sanz to record "La Tortura" and "La Tortura – Shaketon Remix" for her album, Fijación Oral Vol. 1, further popularizing reggaeton.[38] Four reggaeton songs were sung at the 2005 MTV Video Music Awards: by Don Omar ("Dile"), Tego Calderón, Daddy Yankee, and Shakira with Sanz – the first time any reggaeton song was performed on that stage.

Musicians began to incorporate bachata into reggaeton,[39] with Ivy Queen releasing singles ("Te He Querido, Te He Llorado" and "La Mala") featuring bachata's signature guitar sound, slower, romantic rhythms and emotive singing style.[39] Daddy Yankee's "Lo Que Paso, Paso" and Don Omar's "Dile" are also bachata-influenced. In 2005 producers began to remix existing reggaeton music with bachata, marketing it as bachaton: "bachata, Puerto Rican style".[39]

2006–2017: Topping the charts

In May 2006, Don Omar's King of Kings was the highest-ranking reggaeton LP to date on the U.S. charts, debuting atop the Top Latin Albums chart and peaking at number seven on the Billboard 200 chart. Omar's single, "Angelito", topped the Billboard Latin Rhythm Radio Chart.[40] He broke Britney Spears' in-store-appearance sales record at Downtown Disney's Virgin music store.

That same year, Shakira's "Hips Don't Lie", featuring Wyclef Jean of the Fugees, became "the most popular song in the genre's history", with "the dembow beat in the background, the trumpet sample of Jerry Rivera's "Amores como el nuestro" in the chorus, the obvious salsa influence."[41]

In June 2007, Daddy Yankee's El Cartel III: The Big Boss set a first-week sales record for a reggaeton album, with 88,000 copies sold.[42] It topped the Top Latin Albums and Top Rap Albums charts, the first reggaeton album to do so on the latter. The album peaked at number nine on the Billboard 200, the second-highest reggaeton album on the mainstream chart.[43]

Wisin & Yandel, performing in front of a large sign with their names
Wisin & Yandel

The third-highest-ranking reggaeton album was Wisin & Yandel's Wisin vs. Yandel: Los Extraterrestres, which debuted at number 14 on the Billboard 200 and number one on the Top Latin Albums chart later in 2007.[44] In 2008 Daddy Yankee soundtrack to his film, Talento de Barrio, debuted at number 13 on the Billboard 200 chart. It peaked at number one on the Top Latin Albums chart, number three on Billboard's Top Soundtracks and number six on the Top Rap Albums chart.[43] In 2009, Wisin & Yandel's La Revolución debuted at number seven on the Billboard 200, number one on the Top Latin Albums and number three on the Top Rap Albums charts.

By 2008, Reggaeton was the "biggest-selling genre of Latin music" and one of its artists, Tego Calderon, was using it to describe and encourage black pride.[45]

Since 2017: "Despacito" effect

J Balvin in 2017

In 2017, the music video for "Despacito" by Luis Fonsi featuring Daddy Yankee reached one billion views in less than three months. From January 2018 to November 2020, the music video was the most viewed YouTube video of all-time. With its 3.3 million certified sales plus track-equivalent streams, "Despacito" became one of the best-selling Latin singles in the United States. The success of the song and its remix version led Daddy Yankee to become the most listened-to artist worldwide on the streaming service Spotify on 9 July 2017, being the first Latin artist to do so.[46][47][48] He later became the fifth most listened-to male artist and the sixth overall of 2017 on Spotify.[49] In June 2017, "Despacito" was cited by Billboard's Leila Cobo as the song that renewed interest in the Latin music market from recording labels in the United States.[50] Julyssa Lopez of The Washington Post stated that the successes of "Despacito" and J Balvin's "Mi Gente" is "the beginning of a new Latin crossover era."[51] Stephanie Ho of Genius website wrote that "the successes of 'Despacito' and 'Mi Gente' could point to the beginning of a successful wave for Spanish-language music in the US."[52] Ho also stated that "as 'Despacito' proves, fans don't need to understand the language in order to enjoy the music", referring to the worldwide success of the song, including various non-Spanish-speaking countries.[52]

"Te Boté" and the minimalist dembow

In April 2018, "Te Boté" was released by Nio Garcia, Casper Magico, Darell, Ozuna, Bad Bunny and Nicky Jam. It reached number one on the Billboard Hot Latin Songs chart. It currently has over 1.8 billion views on YouTube.[53] Many artists began to mark strong commercial trends in a market dominated by mixing Latin trap and reggaeton followed by a new minimalist dembow rhythm. For example, songs such as "Adictiva" by Daddy Yankee and Anuel AA, "Asesina" by Brytiago and Darell, "Cuando Te Besé" by Becky G and Paulo Londra, "No Te Veo" by Casper Magico and many other songs have been made in this style.[54] [55]



The dembow riddim was created by Jamaican dancehall producers during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Dembow consists of a kick drum, kickdown drum, palito, snare drum, timbal, timballroll and (sometimes) a high-hat cymbal. Dembow's percussion pattern was influenced by dancehall and other West Indian music (soca, calypso and cadence); this gives dembow a pan-Caribbean flavor. Steely & Clevie, creators of the Poco Man Jam riddim, are usually credited with the creation of dembow.[56] At its heart is the 3+3+2 (tresillo) rhythm, complemented by a bass drum in 4/4 time.[57]

The riddim was first highlighted by Shabba Ranks in "Dem Bow", from his 1991 album Just Reality. To this day, elements of the song's accompaniment track are found in over 80% of all reggaeton productions.[58] During the mid-1980s, dancehall music was revolutionized by the electronic keyboard and drum machine; subsequently, many dancehall producers used them to create different dancehall riddims. Dembow's role in reggaeton is a basic building block, a skeletal sketch in percussion.

In Reggaeton 'dembow' also incorporates identical Jamaican riddims such as Bam Bam, Hot This Year, Poco Man Jam, Fever Pitch, Red Alert, Trailer Reloaded and Big Up riddims, and several samples are often used. Some reggaeton hits incorporate a lighter, electrified version of the riddim. Examples are "Pa' Que la Pases Bien" and "Quiero Bailar", which uses the Liquid riddim.[59] Since 2018 a new variation of the Dembow rhythm has emerged; Starting with Te Bote, a sharper minimalist Dembow has become a stable of Reggaeton production which has allowed for more syncopated rhythmic experiments.[60] [61]

Lyrics and themes

Reggaeton lyrical structure resembles that of hip hop. Although most reggaeton artists recite their lyrics rapping (or resembling rapping) rather than singing, many alternate rapping and singing. Reggaeton uses traditional verse-chorus-bridge hip hop structure. Like hip hop, reggaeton songs have a hook which is repeated throughout the song. Latino ethnic identity is a common musical, lyrical and visual theme.

Unlike hip-hop CDs, reggaeton discs generally do not have parental advisories. An exception is Daddy Yankee's Barrio Fino en Directo (Barrio Fino Live), whose live material (and with Snoop Dogg in "Gangsta Zone") were labeled explicit. Snoop Dogg and Daddy Yankee filmed the video for "Gangsta Zone" in Torres Sabana housing projects in Carolina, Puerto Rico on January 27, 2006. Shot in grayscale,[62] Daddy Yankee said the video depicts "the real way we live on the island".[63]

Artists such as Alexis & Fido circumvent radio and television censorship by sexual innuendo and lyrics with double meanings. Some songs have raised concerns about their depiction of women.[64] Although reggaeton began as a mostly-male genre, the number of women artists has been a slowly increasing and include the "Queen of Reggaeton", Ivy Queen,[65] Mey Vidal, K-Narias, Adassa, La Sista and Glory.


Main article: Sandungueo

Sandungueo, or perreo, is a dance associated with reggaeton which emerged during the early 1990s in Puerto Rico. It focuses on grinding, with one partner facing the back of the other (usually male behind female).[66] Another way of describing this dance is "back-to-front", where the woman presses her rear into the pelvis of her partner to create sexual stimulation. Since traditional couple dancing is face-to-face (such as square dancing and the waltz), reggaeton dancing initially shocked observers with its sensuality but was featured in several music videos.[67] It is also known as daggering, grinding or juking in the English-speaking areas of the U.S.[68]


Latin America

Over the past decade,[when?] reggaeton has received mainstream recognition in the Spanish-speaking Caribbean, where the genre originated from, including Puerto Rico, Cuba, Panama, the Dominican Republic, Colombia and Venezuela, where it is now regarded as one of the most popular music genres. Reggaeton has also seen increased popularity in the wider Latin America region, including in Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Ecuador and Peru.

In Cuba, reggaeton came to incorporate elements of traditional Cuban music, leading to the hybrid Cubaton. Two bands credited with popularizing Cubaton are Máxima Alerta (founded in 1999) and Cubanito 20.02. The former is notable for fusing Cubaton with other genres, such as son Cubano, conga, cumbia, salsa, merengue, and Cuban rumba, as well as styles and forms such as rap and ballads, whereas the latter's music is influenced more by Jamaican music.[69][70] The government of Cuba imposed restrictions on reggaeton in public places in 2012. In March 2019, the government went a step further; they banned the "aggressive, sexually explicit and obscene messages of reggaeton" from radio and television, as well as performances by street musicians.[71]

The first name of reggaeton in Brazil was the Señores Cafetões group, who became known in 2007 with the track "Piriguete" - which at the time was mistakenly mistaken by Brazilians for hip hop and Brazilian funk because reggaeton was still a genre almost unknown in the country.[72] In Brazil, this musical genre only reached a reasonable popularity around the middle of the decade of 2010. The first great success of the genre in the country was the song "Yes or no" by Anitta with Maluma. One of the explanations for reggaeton has not reached the same level of popularity that exists in other Latin American countries is due to the fact that Brazil is a Portuguese-speaking country, which has historically led it to become more isolationist than other Latin American countries in the musical scene. The musical rhythm only became popular in the country when it reached other markets, like the American.[clarification needed] The genre is now overcoming the obstacle of language. Some of the biggest names in the Brazilian music market have partnered with artists from other Latin American countries and explored the rhythm.

United States

The New York–based rapper N.O.R.E., also known as Noreaga, produced Nina Sky's 2004 hit "Oye Mi Canto", which featured Tego Calderón and Daddy Yankee, and reggaeton became popular in the U.S.[73] Daddy Yankee then caught the attention of many hip-hop artists with his song "Gasolina",[73] and that year XM Radio introduced its reggaeton channel, Fuego (XM). Although XM Radio removed the channel in December 2007 from home and car receivers, it can still be streamed from the XM Satellite Radio website. Reggaeton is the foundation of a Latin-American commercial-radio term, hurban,[73] a combination of "Hispanic" and "urban" used to evoke the musical influences of hip hop and Latin American music. Reggaeton, which evolved from dancehall and reggae, and with influences from hip hop has helped Latin-Americans contribute to urban American culture and keep many aspects of their Hispanic heritage. The music relates to American socioeconomic issues, including gender and race, in common with hip hop.[73]


As in Latin America, reggaeton is a fairly widespread genre within Spain. For years it has topped the list as the most listened to musical genre in the Iberian country. Reggaeton arrived in Spain due to the large immigration flows of the 2000s and today it is a genre that is quite integrated into Spanish society, which also has its own exponents of the genre such as Enrique Iglesias, Rosalía, Ana Mena, Lola Índigo and Juan Magán.[74][75][76][77] In the rest of Europe, Reggaeton is less popular in Europe than in Latin America, however it attracts Latin American immigrants.[78] A Spanish media custom, "La Canción del Verano" ("The Song of the Summer"), in which one or two songs define the season's mood, was the basis of the popularity of reggaeton songs such as "Baila Morena" by Héctor & Tito and Daddy Yankee's "Gasolina" in 2005.


In the Philippines, reggaeton artists primarily use the Filipino language instead of Spanish or English. One example of a popular local reggaeton act is Zamboangueño duo Dos Fuertes, who had a dance hit in 2007 with "Tarat Tat", and who primarily uses the Chavacano language in their songs.

In 2020, Malaysian rapper Namewee released the single and music video "China Reggaeton" featuring Anthony Wong. It is the first time reggaeton was sung in the Chinese languages of Mandarin and Hakka and accompanied by traditional Chinese instruments like the erhu, pipa and guzheng, creating a fusion of reggaeton and traditional Chinese musical styles.[79]

LGBTQ Influence

Reggaeton has traditionally been male dominated and heteronormative, known to "reinforce the most unpleasant aspects of machismo".[80] The genre began to accept queer and trans artists into the mainstream after Bad Bunny publicly voiced his allyship to the queer community through challenging gender norms and homophobic notions.[81] New generation artists like Villano Antillano, Young Miko, La Cruz and others have been challenging the stereotypes and values traditionally associated with the genre.[82] In 2022 Villano Antillano, a trans-femme rap/reggaeton artist from Puerto Rico, broke the record as "the first transwoman to hit number 50 on Spotify" with Villano Antillano: Bzrp Music Sessions, Vol. 51 in collaboration with producer Bizarrap.[83] She began her music career as a male-presenting person under the artist name "Villano Antillano" and later decided to "step into [her] femininity" and transition.[84] She has since kept her original artist name, but identifies as non-binary and is referred to as her legal name "Villana".[85] Villana has spoken on her experience confronting the barriers for queer and trans people in the reggaeton and urban industry; she says, "all of these cis male artists, who are very close, aren't going to collaborate with a trans woman. There are very few. We can count them on one hand."[86] In 2023 Young Miko, a queer trap and reggaeton artist from Puerto Rico, charted in the Billboard Hot 100 with her single "Classy 101". In the same year, she was featured on Spanish rapper Bad Gyal's "Chulo Pt2", along with Tokischa, a queer Dembow singer; as of October 2023, the song has over 100 million views on YouTube.[87][88] In the start of her career, Young Miko grew a local following in Puerto Rico releasing music independently on SoundCloud, but gained national visibility after Bad Bunny invited her on stage during his Un Verano Sin Ti tour.[89] In June 2023, reggaeton artist, La Cruz, from Venezuela released a music video for his single "TE CONOCI BAILANDO", which featured several homoerotic images including several shirtless men, locker room interactions and guys twerking in front of urinals.[90] He challenged what is expected from traditional reggaeton music visuals by having gay men be the object of desire rather than women.[91] The music video has amounted 2 million views on YouTube as of October 2023.[92]


Despite the great popularity of the genre as a whole, reggaeton has also attracted criticism due to its constant references to sexual and violent themes, similar to those of hip-hop. Mexican singer-songwriter Aleks Syntek made a public post on social media complaining that such music was played at Mexico City's airport in the morning with children present.[93] By 2019, other singers who expressed dismay over the genre included vallenato singer Carlos Vives and Heroes Del Silencio singer Enrique Bunbury.[94] That same year, some activists stated that reggaeton music gives way to misogynistic and sadistic messages.[95]

Some reggaeton singers have decided to counteract such accusations. One notable example is singer Flex, who in 2009 committed himself to singing songs with romance messages, a subgenre he dubbed "romantic style".[96]

See also


  1. ^ a b Castillo, Pamela (6 July 2016). "El reggaetón: cuatro décadas de historia con fusiones latinas". El Comercio (in Spanish). Quito, Ecuador. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
  2. ^ "Reggaeton's true origins have long been overlooked. An important new podcast sets the record straight". Washington Post. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  3. ^ a b "You Love Reggaeton, But Do You Know Where it Came From?". Shondaland. 12 June 2019. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  4. ^ "Vibra Urbana Festival Spotlighted Reggaeton Around the World: Get to Know 15 Artists". 9 May 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  5. ^ "Reggaeton". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  6. ^ "reggaeton". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020.
  7. ^ a b "reggaeton". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). HarperCollins. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  8. ^ "reggaeton". Dictionary. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  9. ^ a b "reguetón". FundéuRAE (in Spanish). 24 November 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
  10. ^ Cabrera, María (15 July 2008). "El Reggaetón nació en Panamá". El Diario Vasco. Donostia–San Sebastián, Spain. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
  11. ^ a b "Reggaetón nació en Panamá y no en Puerto Rico". ABC Color (in Spanish). Asunción, Paraguay. EFE. 18 November 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
  12. ^ Herrera, Isabelia (11 August 2021). "Reggaeton's History Is Complex. A New Podcast Helps Us Listen That Way". New York Times. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  13. ^ "The rise of reggaeton". The Stanford Daily. 27 April 2018. Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  14. ^ "The reggaeton revolution is here, and Nicky Jam saw it coming". NBC News. Archived from the original on 17 November 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  15. ^ "Tu Pum Pum: Panamanian Artists Helped Birth Reggaeton, Then the Industry Left Them Behind". Remezcla. Retrieved 14 April 2024.
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ [2]
  18. ^ "Ya no sería "reggaetón" sino "reguetón"". El Mundo (in Spanish). Medellín, Colombia. EFE. 12 November 2006. Archived from the original on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2023.
  19. ^ Don Omar as King of Reggaeton:
  20. ^ Daddy Yankee as King of Reggaeton:
  21. ^ "El reguetón nació en Puerto Rico". HABLACULTURA (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  22. ^ Herrera, Isabelia (11 August 2021). "Reggaeton's History Is Complex. A New Podcast Helps Us Listen That Way". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  23. ^ "Culture Spotlight: Reggaeton Music". KID Museum. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  24. ^ a b c d e Mayra Santos, "Puerto Rican Underground", Centro vol. 8 1 & 2 (1996), p. 219-231.
  25. ^ a b Wayne Marshall (19 January 2006). "Rise of Reggaetón". The Phoenix. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2006.
  26. ^ a b c "Crónica: Las guardianas del reguetón". El Nuevo Día (in Spanish). 24 July 2022. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
  27. ^ "Portraits of Daddy Yankee in Villa Kennedy Puerto Rico". Alamy. 23 July 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  28. ^ Sara Corbett (5 February 2006). "The King of Reggaetón". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2008.
  29. ^ a b c Frances Negrón-Muntaner and Raquel Z. Rivera. "Reggaeton Nation". Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  30. ^ Hilda Garcia and Gonzalo Salvador. "Reggaeton: The Emergence of a New Rhythm". Archived from the original on 15 January 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2007.
  31. ^ John Marino, "Police Seize Recordings, Say Content Is Obscene", San Juan Star, 3 February 1995; Raquel Z. Rivera, "Policing Morality, Mano Dura Style: The Case of Underground Rap and Reggae in Puerto Rico in the Mid-1990s", in Reading Reggaeton.
  32. ^ Matt Caputo. "Daddy Yankee: The Voice of His People". Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
  33. ^ " Sentimiento: Music: Editorial Reviews". Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
  34. ^ Giovannetti, Jorge L. (2003). Frances R. Aparicio and Cándida F. Jáquez (ed.). "Popular Music and Culture in Puerto Rico: Jamaican and Rap Music as Cross-Cultural Symbols" Musical Migrations: Transnationalism and Cultural Hybridity in the Americas. New York: Palgrave.
  35. ^ "Q&A with DJ Blass". 3 July 2014. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  36. ^ Corbett, Sara (5 February 2006). "The King of Reggaetón". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  37. ^ "El Reggaeton". 8 February 2007. Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  38. ^ Staff (18 July 2019). "15 Years Ago, Daddy Yankee's Barrio Fino Set The Template For Reggaeton's Big Rise". MTV. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  39. ^ a b c Rivera, Raquel Z.; Marshall, Wayne; Hernandez, Deborah Pacini (24 April 2009). Reggaeton. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-9232-3.
  40. ^ "Reggaeton Music News - Lyrics & Noticias de Musica Urbana". Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  41. ^ "Turning the Tables: The 200 Greatest Songs by 21st Century Women", Part 7, NPR, July 30, 2018, "Song 67" by Maria Sherman.
  42. ^ Hasty, Katie (13 June 2007). "T-Pain Soars To No. 1 Ahead Of Rihanna, McCartney". Billboard. Retrieved 1 January 2023.
  43. ^ a b Artist Chart History – Daddy Yankee – – Accessed 10 November 2008
  44. ^ – Artist Chart History – Wisin & Yandel
  45. ^ "Tego Calderon: Reggaeton On Black Pride". 3 September 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2022. I started to do music from a black beat, so that blacks can feel proud being black.
  46. ^ Ratner-Arias, Sigal (9 July 2017). "Daddy Yankee is #1 on Spotify; 1st Latin artist to do so". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 July 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  47. ^ Calle, Tommy (9 July 2017). "Hace historia Daddy Yankee y es ahora oficialmente el primer latino número uno del mundo en Spotify" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  48. ^ Pickens, Ashley (10 July 2017). "Daddy Yankee Breaks Barriers Becoming Top Streamed Artist On Spotify". Vibe. Archived from the original on 11 July 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
  49. ^ Wang, Evelyn (5 December 2017). "Rihanna and Ed Sheeran Were the Most-Streamed Artists on Spotify in 2017". W. Archived from the original on 5 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  50. ^ Cobo, Leila (15 June 2017). "The Success of 'Despacito' Has Labels Looking to Latin". Billboard. Archived from the original on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  51. ^ Lopez, Julyssa (24 August 2017). "What's next for Latin music after the summer of 'Despacito'?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  52. ^ a b Ho, Stephanie (12 September 2017). "No Translation Necessary: Beyond "Despacito," The Latin Music Scene Is Booming". Genius. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  53. ^ Leight, Elias (26 January 2019). "'Te Boté' Was a Massive Hit — Now It's Spawned Imitators". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  54. ^ Leight, Elias (8 January 2019). "Las 4 mejores canciones influenciadas por "Te Boté"". Heabbi.
  55. ^ "The Evolution of Reggaeton From Despacito to Te Bote". Mitu.
  56. ^ "Marshall, "Dem Bow, Dembow, Dembo: Translation and Transnation in Reggaeton." Lied und populäre Kultur / Song and Popular Culture: Jahrbuch des Deutschen Volksliedarchivs 53 (2008): 131-51" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 August 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  57. ^ Reggaeton. Rivera, Raquel Z., Wayne Marshall, and Deborah Pacini Hernandez, eds. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2009 and Marshall, Dem Bow, Dembow, Dembo: Translation and Transnation in Reggaeton Archived 29 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  58. ^ Marshall, Wayne (2008). "Dem Bow, Dembow, Dembo: Translation and Transnation in Reggaeton". Lied und Populäre Kultur / Song and Popular Culture. 53: 131–151. JSTOR 20685604.
  59. ^ Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise and Fall of Reggaeton: From Daddy Yankee to Tego Calderón and Beyond" in Jiménez Román, Miriam, and Juan Flores, eds. The Afro-Latin@ reader: history and culture in the United States. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2010, p. 401.
  60. ^ "'20 Best Latin Singles of 2018'". Rolling Stone. 28 December 2018.
  61. ^ "'Puerto Rican Environment, Reggaeton and Boricuaness'". University of Tennessee.
  62. ^ Watkins, Grouchy Greg (28 January 2006). "Snoop Shoots Video With Daddy Yankee In Puerto Rico". AllHipHop. Archived from the original on 23 July 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  63. ^ Tecson, Brandee J. "Daddy Yankee Sticks To His Roots, Won't Lean On Snoop". mtv. Archived from the original on 23 July 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  64. ^ "ICM: Instituto Canario de la Mujer". 17 January 2007. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  65. ^ Ben-Yehuda, Ayala (31 March 2007). "Reggaetón Royalty – Ivy Queen Earns Her Crown As A Very Male Subgenre's Only Female Star". Billboard. Vol. 119, no. 13. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  66. ^ "Reggaeton Nation". 19 December 2007. Archived from the original on 21 February 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2016.
  67. ^ Fairley, Jan (2009). "How To Make Love With Your Clothes On: Dancing Regeton, Gender, and Sexuality in Cuba". In Rivera, Raquel Z.; Marshall, Wayne; Hernandez, Deborah Pacini (eds.). Reggaeton. Duke University Press. doi:10.1215/9780822392323-014. S2CID 192110981.
  68. ^ Hidalgo, Andrea (2 June 2005). "Perreo causes Controversy for Reggaeton". Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  69. ^ Sullivan, Al (16 October 2016). "Trash truck worker competes for a Latin Grammy: Local Cuban exile fulfills dream as musician" Archived 22 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine. The Hudson Reporter.
  70. ^ van Boeckel, Rik (19 September 2006). "Reggaeton a lo Cubano: From Cuba to the Rest of the World" Archived 22 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine. 'LA' Latin American Rhythm Magazine. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  71. ^ Bellaco, Daniel (11 March 2019). "Cuba prohíbe el reggaeton por sexista, machista y violento" Archived 30 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Digital Sevilla.
  72. ^ "Reggaeton: como a batida certa e a mistura com funk e sertanejo fizeram do gênero um fenômeno". 6 April 2017. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  73. ^ a b c d Marshall, Wayne. "The Rise of Reggaeton". [Boston Phoenix], 19 January 2006.
  74. ^ Zahumenszky, Carlos (21 January 2016). "El Reggaeton es el género más escuchado en España (aunque todo el mundo diga que lo odia)". Gizmodo. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  75. ^ "¿Dónde empezó el reguetón? ¿Cómo llegó a España?: de las calles a la radio". MegaStarFM. 15 September 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  76. ^ Montero, Natalia (29 November 2023). "El 'reggaeton' se corona: estas son las canciones más escuchadas en España este 2023". el Periodico de España. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  77. ^ "España es país de reggaeton: es el género que más se escucha en Spotify". elEconomista. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  78. ^ "Home -". Archived from the original on 13 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  79. ^ "黃明志邀黃秋生合唱 《中國痛》 - 帶有華人色彩的《Despacito》". 香港01. 24 January 2020.
  80. ^ Díez-Gutiérrez, Palomo-Cermeño, E., & Mallo-Rodríguez, B. (2023). Education and the reggaetón genre: does reggaetón socialize in traditional masculine stereotypes? Music Education Research, 25(2), 136–146.
  81. ^ Díaz Fernández S. (2021). Subversión, postfeminismo y masculinidad en la música de Bad Bunny. Investigaciones Feministas, 12(2), 663-676.
  82. ^ Herrera, Isabelia (2023). "In Puerto Rico, Queer Femmes Are Dreaming Up Rap and Reggaeton's Future".
  83. ^ Arellano, Susanne Ramírez de (2023). "Villano Antillano, First Transwoman in Spotify's Top 50 Talks Transition: 'I Always Knew It Would Antagonize'". we are Mitú. 100% American & Latino. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  84. ^ Eccleston, Katelina (2022). "Villano Antillano Is Making History: 'We Have to Be Proud and Stand Tall'". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 6 October 2023.
  85. ^ VoxPopuli, Redacción (2022). "La historia de Villano Antillano, la primera artista no binaria en sacar una canción con Bizarrap". (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  86. ^ Lopez, Quispe (2023). "Villano Antillano Is the Breakout Rebel of Latin Rap".
  87. ^ Villa, Lucas (2023). "WATCH: Tokischa & Young Miko Hop on Bad Gyal's 'Chulo Pt. 2' Remix". Remezcla. Retrieved 6 October 2023.
  88. ^ Bad Gyal, Young Miko, Tokischa - Chulo pt.2 - (Official Video), retrieved 6 October 2023
  89. ^ Raygoza, Isabela (2023). "Cómo Young Miko pasó de SoundCloud a ser una artista en ascenso en el Billboard Hot 100".
  90. ^ Sim, Bernardo (2023). "Meet La Cruz, the Gay Latino Stud Who's Making Queer Reggaeton Music". Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  91. ^ Cepeda, Eduardo (2018). "Women Have Carried Reggaeton Since the Beginning. Now They're Its Future". Remezcla. Retrieved 2 October 2023.
  92. ^ TE CONOCÍ BAILANDO - La Cruz (Official Video), retrieved 6 October 2023
  93. ^ Yo Informativo, Aleks Syntek enojado arremete contra el reggaeton, archived from the original on 23 May 2018, retrieved 7 February 2019
  94. ^ Soria, César García (4 June 2018). "Estos tíos también odian el reggaetón... perdón, estos artistas". (in European Spanish). Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  95. ^ "Reggaeton Is Not The Problem, Misogyny Is". The Gazelle. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  96. ^ "Latin singer Flex leads 'Romantic' evolution". Reuters. 10 January 2009. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.