This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Portuguese. (January 2012) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Portuguese article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 1,326 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Portuguese Wikipedia article at [[:pt:Sancho II de Portugal]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|pt|Sancho II de Portugal)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
This article does not cite any sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Sancho II of Portugal" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Sancho II
D. Sancho II - Compendio de crónicas de reyes (Biblioteca Nacional de España).png
King Sancho in the Castilian manuscript Compendium of Chronicles of Kings, c. 1312-1325
King of Portugal
Reign26 March 1223 – 4 December 1247
PredecessorAfonso II
SuccessorAfonso III
Born8 September 1209
Coimbra, Kingdom of Portugal
Died4 January 1248 (aged 38)
Toledo, Kingdom of Castile
Burial
SpouseMécia Lopes de Haro
HouseBurgundy
FatherAfonso II of Portugal
MotherUrraca of Castile
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Sancho II (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsɐ̃ʃu]; 8 September 1209 – 4 January 1248), nicknamed the Cowled or the Capuched (Portuguese: o Capelo), alternatively, the Pious (Portuguese: o Piedoso), was King of Portugal from 1223 to 1248. He was succeeded on the Portuguese throne by his brother, King Afonso III, in 1248.

Sancho was born in Coimbra, the eldest son of Afonso II of Portugal by his wife, Urraca of Castile.

Military career and reign

By the time of his accession to the throne, in 1223, Portugal was embroiled in a difficult diplomatic conflict with the Catholic Church. His father, Afonso II, had been excommunicated by Pope Honorius III, for his attempts at reducing the Church's power within the country. A treaty of 10 articles was signed between the Pope and Sancho II, but the king paid little attention to its fulfillment. His priority was the Reconquista, the reconquest of the southern Iberian Peninsula from the Moors. From 1236 onwards, Sancho II conquered several cities in the Algarve and Alentejo, securing the Portuguese position in the region.

Dispossession from throne

Sancho II proved a capable commander but, with regard to equally important administrative issues, he was less competent. With his total attention focused on military campaigns, the ground was open for internal disputes. The nobility was displeased by the king's conduct and started to conspire against him. Moreover, the middle class of merchants quarrelled frequently with the clergy, without any intervention from the king. As a result, the bishop of Porto made a formal complaint to the pope about this state of affairs. Since the Church was the dominant power of the 13th century, Pope Innocent IV felt free to issue bull Grandi non immerito, ordering the Portuguese to choose a new king to replace the so-called heretic.

In 1246, recalcitrant nobles invited Sancho's brother Afonso, Count of Boulogne, to take the throne. Afonso immediately abdicated from his French possessions and marched into Portugal.

Exile and death

After a civil war lasting from late 1245 to mid 1247 and a Castilian intervention by the Castilian heir, Prince Alfonso, he fled in exile to Toledo, Spain when Alfonso retreated his forces to support his father in the siege of Seville. It was in the former city where he died on 4 January 1248 and was buried in its cathedral.

Marriage

Sancho married, circa 1240, a Castilian lady, Mécia Lopes de Haro, widow of Alvaro Peres de Castro, and daughter of Lope Díaz II de Haro and Urraca Alfonso de León, an illegitimate daughter of Alfonso IX of León, but they had no legitimate sons.

References

Sancho II of Portugal House of BurgundyCadet branch of the Capetian dynastyBorn: 8 September 1207 Died: 4 November 1248 Regnal titles Preceded byAfonso II King of Portugal 1223–1248 Succeeded byAfonso III