Sandusky, Ohio
Downtown Sandusky
Downtown Sandusky
Official seal of Sandusky, Ohio
Nickname: 
"Home of Cedar Point"
Map
Interactive map of Sandusky
Sandusky is located in Ohio
Sandusky
Sandusky
Sandusky is located in the United States
Sandusky
Sandusky
Coordinates: 41°26′48″N 82°42′33″W / 41.44667°N 82.70917°W / 41.44667; -82.70917
Country United States
State Ohio
CountyErie
Founded1818
Government
 • City ManagerJohn Orzech Jr.
 • CommissionersRichard R. Brady
Dennis E. Murray
Kate M. Vargo
Jeffrey N. Krabill
Richard S. Koonce
Stephen R. Poggiali
David L. Waddington
Area
 • City21.83 sq mi (56.53 km2)
 • Land9.63 sq mi (24.96 km2)
 • Water12.19 sq mi (31.58 km2)
Elevation
597 ft (182 m)
Population
 (2020)
 • City25,095
 • Density2,604.57/sq mi (1,005.58/km2)
 • Metro
75,662
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
44870–44871
Area code419/567
FIPS code39-70380[3]
GNIS feature ID1076832[4]
Websitewww.ci.sandusky.oh.us

Sandusky (/sænˈdʌski/ san-DUSS-kee) is a city in and the county seat of Erie County, Ohio, United States.[5] Situated along the southern shore of Lake Erie, Sandusky is located roughly midway between Toledo (45 miles (72 km) west) and Cleveland (50 miles (80 km) east). According to 2020 census, the city had a population of 25,095,[6] and the Sandusky metropolitan area had 115,986 residents.[7]

Sandusky is home to the Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, which owns large amounts of property in Sandusky. These properties include Cedar Point, Cedar Fair's flagship park and one of the most popular amusement parks in the world, as well as Cedar Point Shores waterpark, adjacent to Cedar Point itself.[8][9]

In 2011, Sandusky was ranked first by Forbes magazine as the "Best Place to Live Cheaply" in the United States due to its high median family income of $64,000 compared to its relatively low cost of living.[10] The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Sandusky as a Tree City USA.

Etymology

The accepted etymology is that the name "Sandusky" is derived from the Wyandot word saundustee, meaning "water"[11][12] or andusti, "cold water."[13] In his 1734 history of New France, Charlevoix transliterated the word as "Chinouski." Sandusky Bay, formed at the mouth of the Sandusky River, is identified as "Lac (Lake) Sandouské" on a 1718 map by Guillaume DeLisle.[14] The name "L.(Lac) Sandoski" appears on a 1733 map.[15] Sandusky Bay was also called Lac Ondaské, in another French transliteration of the Wyandot.[16]

The river and bay gave rise to a number of eponymous forts and settlements along their shores. These consisted of the short-lived English trading post Fort Sandusky north of the bay, the French Fort Sandoské that replaced it, the British Fort Sandusky on the south shore of the bay, the American Fort Sandusky (later Fort Stephenson) upriver at Lower Sandusky (now known as Fremont, Ohio), as well as the Wyandot Indian village of Upper Sandusky farther upriver.[16]

Another, less accepted etymologic version claims that the city's name goes back to an Polish–American trader and frontiersman named Anthony Sadowski, a neighbor of the Boone family and co-founder of Amity village. He was employed by the governor of then British Pennsylvania as a trader and interpreter, speaking several Indian languages, especially Iroquois. He moved to the Pennsylvania frontier in January 1712 and could easily have made it to Lake Erie by 1718 to establish a trading post. One genealogical line of his descendants is actually called "Sandusky."[citation needed]

History

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The view of city park in 1897

18th century

This area was a center of trading and fortifications since the 18th century: the English, French, and Americans had trading posts and forts built on both the north and south sides of Sandusky Bay.[16]

19th century

George Croghan was one of the more prominent men who operated in this area in the 18th century. A federal fur trade factory was established in 1808 but was lost at the beginning of the War of 1812.[17]

Development by European Americans of the city of Sandusky, starting in 1818, on the southeast shore of Sandusky Bay, followed settlement of the war of 1812. Part of the city quickly enveloped the site of an earlier small village named Portland (established about 1816). Sandusky was incorporated as a city in 1824.[18] Eventually the city of Sandusky encompassed most of the entire township that had been called Portland.[19] Some of the city was built on land formerly occupied by a Native American man named Ogontz, and therefore the city is said to have been built on "Ogontz' place".

Sandusky's rise in the 19th century was heavily influenced by its location at the head of Sandusky Bay. This made it a key point both for the movement of goods and for the movement of people. The mild climate caused by its proximity to Lake Erie also caused it to become the center of Ohio's wine industry. The presence of limestone was also important in its development. It was also a key location for ice harvesting in the 19th century.[20] Lumber transport, stone quarrying and, in the early 20th century, manufacturing, have all contributed to the city's economic development.

Prior to the abolition of slavery in the United States, Sandusky was a stop for refugee slaves on the Underground Railroad, as some would travel across Lake Erie to reach freedom in Canada. Although Ohio was a free state, they felt at risk from slavecatchers because of bonuses offered under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. As depicted in Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1855), many refugee slaves seeking to get to Canada made their way to Sandusky, where they boarded boats crossing Lake Erie to the port of Amherstburg in Ontario.

Sandusky's original plat was designed by surveyor Hector Kilbourne according to a modified grid plan, known today as the Kilbourne Plat. Kilbourne later became the first Worshipful Master of the first Sandusky Masonic Lodge, known as Science Lodge #50, still in operation on Wayne Street. His design featured a street grid with avenues cutting diagonally to create patterns reminiscent of the symbols of Freemasonry.

On September 17, 1835, Sandusky was the site of groundbreaking for the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, which brought change to the town. Industrial areas developed near the railroad and goods were transported through the port. The coal docks located west of downtown still use a portion of the original MR&LE right-of-way. In 1838, Erie County, Ohio was formed by the state legislature and Sandusky was designated the county seat. This led to the foundation of a court house and Sandusky becoming a regional government center.[21] In 1846 Sandusky had a population of approximately 3,000 people. At that point Sandusky had two railroads and was also a main focus of lake traffic. The town then consisted of many stores, two printing offices, two machine shops, two banks, six churches, one high school, and several iron furnaces.[22]

The English author Charles Dickens visited the city in 1842, and briefly wrote of it in his subsequent travelogue, American Notes. Said Dickens, who rode the newly constructed MR&LE railroad from Tiffin:

At two o'clock we took the railroad; the travelling-on which was very slow, its construction being indifferent, and the ground wet and marshy; and arrived at Sandusky in time to dine that evening. We put up at a comfortable little hotel on the brink of Lake Erie, lay there that night, and had no choice but to wait there next day, until a steamboat bound for Buffalo appeared. The town, which was sluggish and uninteresting enough, was something like the back of an English watering-place out of the season.

By 1880, Sandusky had risen to a population of 16,000. There were then 20 churches and three newspapers in the community. The city boasted 29 businesses with at least 10 employees. Products being products included lime, railroad locomotives and cars, carriages, wheels, crayons, chalk, beer, paper, baskets, and tools.[22] By 1886 Sandusky was the center of wood wheel manufacture in the United States. It was also the location of the Ohio State Fish hatchery and the Ohio Soldiers and Sailor's Home.[22]

20th century

Loading coal into a freighter at one of the Pennsylvania Railroad docks in Sandusky in 1943

The city developed as a center of paper-making. With a mill in the industrial area near the lake, the Hinde & Dauch Paper Company was the largest employer in the city in the early 1900s.

As the 20th century progressed, the economy of Sandusky came to focus mainly on tourism and fishing. Since the late 20th century, Battery Park Marina was developed on the original site of the MR&LE Railroad after restructuring of the industry reduced traffic on the line. The tracks that ran through downtown Sandusky have since been removed. Most of the downtown industrial area is also being redeveloped for other purposes, including mainly marina dockage.

Geography

Geography

Aerial view in 2021

Sandusky is located at 41°26′48″N 82°42′33″W / 41.44667°N 82.70917°W / 41.44667; -82.70917 (41.446741, −82.709092).[23]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.91 square miles (56.75 km2), of which 9.73 square miles (25.20 km2) is land and 12.18 square miles (31.55 km2) is water.[24]

Sandusky occupies the defunct township Portland[25] and borders the following townships:

Climate

Sandusky has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), typical of the Midwestern United States, with warm summers and cold winters. Winters tend to be cold, with an average January high temperature of 32 °F (0 °C), and an average January low temperature of 19 °F (−7 °C), with considerable variation in temperatures. Sandusky averages 23.3 inches (59 cm) of snow per winter.[26] Summers tend to be warm with an average July high temperature of 82 °F (28 °C), and an average July low temperature of 66 °F (19 °C). Summer weather is more stable, generally humid with thunderstorms. Fall usually is the driest season with many clear warm days and cool nights.

The highest recorded temperature in Sandusky of 105 °F (41 °C) was set on July 14, 1936, and the lowest recorded temperature of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994.[27]

Climate data for Sandusky, Ohio (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1896–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 73
(23)
75
(24)
85
(29)
90
(32)
93
(34)
104
(40)
105
(41)
105
(41)
99
(37)
93
(34)
82
(28)
73
(23)
105
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 56
(13)
59
(15)
68
(20)
79
(26)
86
(30)
92
(33)
93
(34)
91
(33)
88
(31)
80
(27)
68
(20)
59
(15)
94
(34)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 34.4
(1.3)
37.0
(2.8)
45.0
(7.2)
57.3
(14.1)
68.5
(20.3)
78.1
(25.6)
82.3
(27.9)
80.5
(26.9)
74.5
(23.6)
63.0
(17.2)
50.1
(10.1)
39.3
(4.1)
59.2
(15.1)
Daily mean °F (°C) 28.1
(−2.2)
30.2
(−1.0)
38.0
(3.3)
49.3
(9.6)
60.8
(16.0)
70.8
(21.6)
74.7
(23.7)
73.2
(22.9)
66.7
(19.3)
55.3
(12.9)
43.5
(6.4)
33.6
(0.9)
52.0
(11.1)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 21.8
(−5.7)
23.4
(−4.8)
30.9
(−0.6)
41.3
(5.2)
53.2
(11.8)
63.4
(17.4)
67.2
(19.6)
65.8
(18.8)
58.9
(14.9)
47.6
(8.7)
36.8
(2.7)
27.8
(−2.3)
44.8
(7.1)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 1
(−17)
6
(−14)
14
(−10)
28
(−2)
39
(4)
50
(10)
58
(14)
56
(13)
45
(7)
33
(1)
21
(−6)
10
(−12)
−3
(−19)
Record low °F (°C) −20
(−29)
−15
(−26)
−7
(−22)
14
(−10)
30
(−1)
41
(5)
41
(5)
45
(7)
34
(1)
22
(−6)
3
(−16)
−16
(−27)
−20
(−29)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.90
(48)
1.77
(45)
2.56
(65)
3.76
(96)
3.25
(83)
3.67
(93)
3.55
(90)
3.02
(77)
3.07
(78)
2.72
(69)
2.64
(67)
2.12
(54)
34.03
(864)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 5.4
(14)
4.1
(10)
2.7
(6.9)
0.6
(1.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
3.3
(8.4)
16.2
(41)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.6 10.1 12.2 13.1 13.3 12.1 9.8 9.7 10.0 11.8 11.1 11.7 135.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 3.8 2.3 1.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.9 9.7
Source: NOAA (snow 1981–2010)[28][29][30]

Local areas

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Historically, the Wyandot used the term andoske to refer to the river, the bay, and the general area where the city of "Sandusky" later developed. This practice was also used by French and English settlers in the area. Often in historical documents, the word "Sandusky" is used without clarification as to which specific site or location is being referred to. Historical references to "Sandusky" might mean any one of the following locations, depending also on the date of the reference.[31]

List of locations, with approximate dates of usage:

Downtown Sandusky

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1830593
18401,433141.7%
18505,087255.0%
18608,40865.3%
187013,00054.6%
188015,83821.8%
189018,47116.6%
190019,6646.5%
191019,9891.7%
192022,89714.5%
193024,0224.9%
194024,8743.5%
195029,37518.1%
196031,9898.9%
197032,6742.1%
198031,360−4.0%
199029,764−5.1%
200027,844−6.5%
201025,793−7.4%
202025,095−2.7%
Sources:[3][32][33]

2010 census

Largest ancestries (2010) Percent
German 34.4%
Irish 15.9%
English 8.4%
Italian 6.8%
American 3.7%

As of the census[34] of 2010, there were 25,793 people, 11,082 households, and 6,415 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,650.9 inhabitants per square mile (1,023.5/km2). There were 13,386 housing units at an average density of 1,375.7 per square mile (531.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 70.4% White, 22.0% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 1.1% from other races, and 5.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.9% of the population.

There were 11,082 households, of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.9% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.1% were non-families. 35.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.93.

The median age in the city was 38.5 years. 23.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.3% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.2% were from 25 to 44; 27.7% were from 45 to 64; and 15% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.6% male and 52.4% female.

2000 census

Largest ancestries (2000) Percent
German 32.1%
Irish 12.4%
English 7.8%
Italian 7.4%
American 6.7%

As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 27,844 people, 11,851 households, and 7,039 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,770.5 inhabitants per square mile (1,069.7/km2). There were 13,323 housing units at an average density of 1,325.7 per square mile (511.9/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 74.50% White, 21.08% African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.97% from other races, and 2.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.09% of the population.

There were 11,851 households, out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.7% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.6% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the city the population was spread out, with 25.8% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,133, and the median income for a family was $37,749. Males had a median income of $31,269 versus $21,926 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,111. About 12.2% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.7% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over.

Economy

The interior of the Fish-Packing Establishment in Sandusky in 1887

Top employers

According to Sandusky's 2022 Annual Comprehensive Financial Report,[35] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Magnum Management Corp. 8,049
2 Firelands Regional Health System 2,142
3 Ventra Sandusky LLC 1,049
4 Sandusky Board of Education 757
5 Erie County 692
6 City of Sandusky 334
7 John Bean Technology Corp 255
8 State of Ohio 218
9 North Coast Professional 127
10 CIVISTA Bank 99

Tourism

Sandusky has a tourism industry led by the Cedar Point amusement park, as well as various water parks and neighboring islands. It is also noted for being the location of the fictional "Callahan Auto Parts" in the 1995 comedy film Tommy Boy.

Cedar Point

Main article: Cedar Point

Cedar Point, the second-oldest operating amusement park in the U.S.

Cedar Point is a 364-acre (147 ha) amusement park located on a peninsula on Lake Erie. America's second-oldest theme park and popularly known as "America's Roller Coast", the park has the third largest collection of roller coasters at 17, behind only Six Flags Magic Mountain.[36][37]

Cedar Point is also the only park in the world to have six roller coasters with heights of over 200 feet (61 m), and numerous Cedar Point roller coasters have set world records; the most notable of these being Magnum XL-200, Millennium Force, and Top Thrill Dragster each setting the record for the tallest full-circuit roller coaster at one point, and GateKeeper having the highest (from ground level) inversion of any roller coaster from 2013 to 2019, and today having the fourth highest inversion.[38][39]

Waterparks

Kalahari Resorts, an African-themed indoor waterpark that opened in 2005

Cedar Fair operates two water parks in Sandusky: Cedar Point Shores, an outdoor park adjacent to Cedar Point that opened in 1988, and Castaway Bay, an indoor park and resort opened in 2004.

Another indoor water park, Great Wolf Lodge, opened in Sandusky in 2001 and features restaurants, arcades, spas, and other children's activities.[40] Kalahari Resorts opened an African safari-themed indoor water park in 2005 that was the largest of its kind at one time.[41] Its hotel is the largest in the state of Ohio.[42] The resort also features an 215,000-square-foot (20,000 m2) convention center.

Islands

May through August every year, Sandusky residents and incoming tourists flock to the neighboring islands north of the city, with many transportation options leaving right from downtown. The islands include Kelleys Island, South Bass Island (host of the popular village known as Put-in-Bay), Middle Bass Island and North Bass Island.

Themed parties are a common occurrence in the summer season throughout Sandusky and on the neighboring islands, such as "Island Fest", "Rock on the Dock", and "Christmas in July"; thousands of residents and tourists join in the festivities annually.

In 2008, the residents of Sandusky hosted their first annual "Barge Party", where boats from as far as Toledo and Cleveland came to dock up their boats together at the sandbar, just inside Sandusky Bay.[43] The barge party ensues twice every year, typically in late June and late July.[43]

Museums

Sandusky is home to several museums and historic homes. These include the Cooke-Dorn House historic site which was the home of Eleutheros Cooke, the Follett House Museum which was the home of Oran Follett, the Maritime Museum of Sandusky, the Merry-Go Round Museum, and the Ohio Veterans Home Museum.[44]

Government

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Erie County Office Building

Sandusky operates under a council–manager government; there are seven city commissioners elected as a legislature and a mayor who serves as the council's president. All are elected for four-year terms. The council employs a city manager for administration. John Orzech is the current city manager and Richard Brady is the president of the City Commission.[45]

Politics

Sandusky is heavily Democratic when it comes to elections. It is, on average, a 70% - 30%, Democratic stronghold for the region. Sandusky is represented by US Rep. Marcy Kaptur (D-Toledo) in congress and the city has voted for Democratic presidential candidates for decades.

Education

Sandusky Public Schools enroll 3,775 students in public primary and secondary schools.[46] Sandusky City Schools operates six public schools. Sandusky Early Learning Academy, constructed on the grounds of the former Hancock Elementary School, serves Pre-K and Kindergarten students. Sandusky Primary School, constructed on the grounds of the former Ontario Elementary School, serves 1st and 2nd grade students. Sandusky Intermediate School serves grades 3rd through 6th. Sandusky Middle School, serves grades 7th and 8th, which moved to Sandusky High School after the closing of Adams Junior High (formerly served 7th grade) and Jackson Junior High (formerly served 8th grade). Sandusky High School serves 9th through 12th grade students. Sandusky Digital Academy is an alternative school for students who struggle in mainstream classrooms. Sandusky Career Center offers vocational programs for adults, now located at the former Venice Elementary School.

Alternatively, St. Mary Central Catholic High School, a private Roman Catholic school associated with Holy Angels Church, St. Mary's Church, and Sts. Peter & Paul Church, focuses on giving students a faith-centered learning environment. Monroe Prep Academy is a private charter school in downtown Sandusky. Monroe Prep is located in the former Monroe Elementary, which served students in Kindergarten through 6th grade as a part of the Sandusky City Schools District. It is located on E. Monroe St. on Sandusky's East Side.

Sandusky is served by the Sandusky Library, which also operates a branch on Kelleys Island.[47]

Media

Print

Sandusky (along with nearby Port Clinton and the Lake Erie Islands - known in the region collectively as "Vacationland")[48] is served by a daily newspaper, the Sandusky Register.

TV

The Vacationland region–which encompasses Sandusky–has one locally targeted television station, religiously oriented WGGN-TV channel 52. Sandusky's location between Toledo and Cleveland means that the city is also served by stations (albeit at a fringe level) in both of those markets as well.

Radio

Twelve local radio stations serve the Sandusky/Vacationland market. BAS Broadcasting, based in nearby Fremont, owns and operates WCPZ 102.7 FM (hot AC), WMJK 100.9 FM (country), WOHF 92.1 FM (classic hits), WFRO-FM 99.1 FM (AC), and WLEC 1450 AM/93.5 FM (oldies/sports/full service).[49] Elyria-Lorain Broadcasting Co. operates three stations serving the "Vacationland" region, including WKFM 96.1 FM (country), WLKR-FM 95.3 (Adult album alternative) and WLKR 1510 AM/92.9 FM (classic hits).[50] Ideastream Public Media operates Kent State University-owned WNRK 90.7 FM (NPR news/information), a repeater of WKSU in Kent.[51]

Religious stations include WVMS 89.5 FM (run by the Moody Bible Institute as a repeater of WCRF in Cleveland), WGGN 97.7 FM (Contemporary Christian) and WHRQ 88.1 FM (carrying Toledo-based Annunciation Radio, an EWTN Radio affiliate).

Transportation

See also: Sandusky (Amtrak station)

U.S. Customs and Border Protection entry site in Sandusky Bay
Muddy brown water fills Sandusky Bay, just south of Lake Erie in this astronaut photograph.

Sandusky Transit System (STS) runs a full-service transit system across the Greater Sandusky Area. Its located at 1230 N. Depot St.

Blue Line: serves the suburban area, route 250, Sandusky Mall, and Kalahari Resort. Red: Serves the East side and Downtown. Yellow: Cedar Point, Sports Center. Orange: Midtown Purple: Serves the south side. Green: Serves the west side.

[52]

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Sandusky. There are four trains daily, all arriving in the late night/early morning hours: the Capitol Limited between Chicago and Washington, D.C., via Pittsburgh; and the Lake Shore Limited between Chicago and New York/Boston via Buffalo. The Sandusky Amtrak Station is also home to a Greyhound Lines bus station. Into the 1930s, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad operated a passenger train from Willard in north-central Ohio, as a section of a Wheeling, WV-Chicago train.[53]

Several ferry boats and routes serve Sandusky. These depart from the Jackson Street Pier, except Jet Express which departs from an adjacent pier.

The city was previously served by Griffing Sandusky Airport until its closure in 2013. The community is currently served by Erie–Ottawa International Airport in nearby Port Clinton for general aviation and limited commercial service to the Lake Erie Islands.[54] Today, flights from Detroit Metropolitan Airport, John Glenn Columbus International Airport, Cleveland Hopkins International Airport serve Sandusky.

In terms of road access, Sandusky is a short drive off the Ohio Turnpike (Interstate 90 and Interstate 80), enabling easy transportation to Sandusky from cities like Toledo, Cleveland, and Erie, Pennsylvania via those roads. U.S. Route 6 runs through Sandusky, and both Ohio State Route 4 and U.S. Route 250 converge on Sandusky.

Notable people

References

  1. ^ "City Commission Meet Your Commissioners". City of Sandusky. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
  2. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  3. ^ a b c "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  6. ^ "Census - Geography Profile: Sandusky city, Ohio". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  7. ^ "Census - Geography Profile: Erie County, Ohio". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  8. ^ "Cedar Point Shores Waterpark | Ohio's Lake Erie Shores & Islands". www.shoresandislands.com. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
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