Sonny Perdue
Official portrait, 2017
14th Chancellor of the University System of Georgia
Assumed office
April 1, 2022
Preceded bySteve Wrigley
Teresa MacCartney (acting)
31st United States Secretary of Agriculture
In office
April 25, 2017 – January 20, 2021
PresidentDonald Trump
DeputyMike Young (acting)
Stephen Censky
Preceded byTom Vilsack
Succeeded byTom Vilsack
81st Governor of Georgia
In office
January 13, 2003 – January 10, 2011
LieutenantMark Taylor
Casey Cagle
Preceded byRoy Barnes
Succeeded byNathan Deal
Member of the Georgia State Senate
from the 18th district
In office
January 9, 1991 – January 9, 2002
Preceded byEd Barker
Succeeded byMichael J. Moore
Personal details
George Ervin Perdue III

(1946-12-20) December 20, 1946 (age 77)
Perry, Georgia, U.S.
Political partyRepublican (1998–present)
Other political
Democratic (before 1998)
Mary Ruff
(m. 1972)
  • Leigh
  • Lara
  • Jim
  • Dan
  • George Ervin Perdue Jr.
  • Ophie Viola Holt
RelativesDavid Perdue (cousin)
EducationUniversity of Georgia (BS, DVM)
Military service
Branch/serviceUnited States Air Force
Years of service1971–1974

George Ervin "Sonny" Perdue III[1] (born December 20, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 31st United States secretary of agriculture from 2017 to 2021.[2] A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as the 81st governor of Georgia from 2003 to 2011 and as a member of the Georgia State Senate from 1991 to 2002.

Founder and partner in an agricultural trading company,[3] Perdue was elected governor of Georgia in 2002, defeating incumbent Roy Barnes and becoming the first Republican to hold the office since the Reconstruction era.[4] He was reelected in 2006 with nearly 60% of the vote. He later served from 2012 to 2017 on the Governors' Council of the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington, D.C.[4][5]

On January 18, 2017, President-elect Donald Trump announced that he would nominate Perdue to be Secretary of Agriculture. His nomination was transmitted to the U.S. Senate on March 9, 2017.[6] His nomination was approved by the Senate Agriculture Committee by a 19–1 voice vote on March 30.[7] His appointment was approved by an 87–11 vote by the Senate on April 24.[8] He became the second secretary of agriculture from the Deep South, after Mike Espy of Mississippi. Perdue served as Secretary of Agriculture throughout Trump's term.

On March 1, 2022, the Board of Regents of University System of Georgia appointed Perdue as the system's 14th chancellor, effective April 1, 2022.[9]

Early life and education

Perdue was born in Perry, Georgia, the son of Ophie Viola (Holt), a teacher, and George Ervin Perdue Jr., a farmer.[1][10] He grew up and still lives in Bonaire, an unincorporated area between Perry and Warner Robins. Born George Ervin Perdue III, Perdue has been known as Sonny since childhood, and prefers to be called by that name; he was sworn in and signs official documents as "Sonny Perdue". Perdue is the first cousin of former U.S. Senator David Perdue by their grandfather George Ervin Perdue I.[11]

Perdue played quarterback at Warner Robins High School and was a walk-on at the University of Georgia,[12] where he was also a member of the Beta-Lambda chapter of Kappa Sigma fraternity.[13]

In 1971, Perdue earned his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) from the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, and worked as a veterinarian before becoming a small business owner, eventually starting three small businesses.[14][15]

Perdue is not related to the family who owns and operates Perdue Farms (commonly associated with the brand "Perdue Chicken").[16][17]


Perdue (far right) and other U.S. state governors with U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice
Perdue greeting President George W. Bush and former First Lady Barbara Bush in July 2005
Perdue in March 2007
Perdue campaigning for former U.S. Sen. Saxby Chambliss (R-GA) in December 2008
Perdue and then Vice President Joe Biden tour Impulse Manufacturing in Dawsonville, Georgia, December 2009
Perdue with U.S. Navy sailors in October 2010

Perdue served in the U.S. Air Force, rising to the rank of captain before his discharge.

State senator (1991–2002)

After serving as a member of the Houston County Planning & Zoning Commission in the 1980s, Perdue ran as a Democrat for a seat in the Georgia General Assembly.[14] He defeated Republican candidate Ned Sanders in 1990 and succeeded Democratic incumbent Ed Barker as the senator representing the 18th district.[18]

Perdue was elected as a Democrat in 1991, 1994, and 1996. He served as his party's leader in the Senate from 1994 to 1997 and as president pro tempore.[19] After his first year in office, Senator Perdue wrote then Lt. Governor Pierre Howard asking for more responsibilities, and Howard obliged. He shortly thereafter became a committee chairman, then climbed the leadership ladder to majority leader and to Senate president pro tempore. Many credit Pierre Howard for helping Perdue build the early foundation of what would become his future political career.[20]

His committee assignments included Ethics, Finance & Public Utilities, Health & Human Services, Reapportionment, and Economic Development, Tourism & Cultural Affairs.

He switched party affiliation from Democrat to Republican in 1998 amid feuding with then-Majority Leader Charles Walker and was re-elected to the State Senate as a Republican.[21] He also won reelection in 2000.

Governor of Georgia (2003–2011)



In December 2001, Perdue resigned as state senator and devoted himself entirely to running for the office of Governor of Georgia. He won the 2002 Georgia gubernatorial election, defeating Democratic incumbent Roy Barnes 51% to 46%, with Libertarian candidate Garrett Michael Hayes taking 2% of the vote.[22] He became the first Republican governor of Georgia in 131 years since Benjamin F. Conley.[4]


In 2006, Perdue was re-elected to a second term in the 2006 Georgia gubernatorial election, winning nearly 58% of the vote. His Democratic opponent was Lieutenant Governor Mark Taylor. Libertarian Garrett Michael Hayes was also on the ballot.[23]

Political positions

Economic issues

Perdue advocated reforms designed to cut waste in government, most notably the sale of surplus vehicles and real estate.[24] Prior to Perdue's becoming governor, no state agency had compiled an inventory of what assets were owned by the state.[24]

In January 2003, Perdue signed an executive order prohibiting himself and all other state employees from receiving any gift worth more than $25.[25] During his governorship, Perdue collected at least $25,000 in gifts, including sporting event tickets and airplane flights.[25]

Late in the evening of March 29, 2005, the penultimate day of the legislative session, Representative Larry O'Neal, who also worked part-time as Perdue's personal lawyer, introduced legislation making capital gains tax owed on Georgia land sales deferrable if the income goes to purchase out-of-state land, also, unusually, making the tax break retroactive.[26] Perdue signed the legislation into law on April 12, 2005, three days before tax day.[26] Perdue then used the new law on his 2004 tax return to defer $100,000 in taxable gains from the sale of land.[26]

In 2007, Perdue convinced a skeptical legislature to approve a $19 million fishing tourism program he called Go Fish Georgia. Perdue then decided that the Go Fish Education Center would be built down the road from his home.[12]

Education reform

In education, Perdue promoted the return of most decision-making to the local level. After Perdue took office, in 2003 and 2004, Georgia moved up from last place in the country in SAT scores. Although it returned to last place in 2005,[27] Georgia rose to 49th place in 2006 in the combined math and reading mean score, including the writing portion added to the test that year.[28] In 2007, Georgia moved up to 46th place.[29] In 2008, Georgia moved up again, to 45th place.[30] Perdue also created additional opportunities for charter schools and private schools.[31]

Georgia state flag

In 2001, Democratic governor Roy Barnes replaced the 1956 state flag, which incorporated the battle flag of the Confederacy, and which had been adopted by Georgia largely as a protest against desegregation. In his 2002 election campaign, Perdue promised that he would let the state's citizens vote to determine the state flag.[32] The choices were a modified version of the First National Flag of the Confederate States of America, with the Georgia State Seal prominently displayed inside a circle of 13 stars, or the flag created in 2001 by the Roy Barnes administration. The design of the 2001 Georgian flag was widely unpopular, being derisively named the "Barnes flag". The North American Vexillological Association had deemed it the ugliest U.S. state flag.[33] Perdue disappointed some Georgians by not making the 1956 flag one of the choices on the ballot, despite a campaign promise to do so. However, Perdue was faced with a Democratic House that would not allow the 1956 flag to be included in the referendum, due to its Confederate origins, and he needed support for a tobacco tax he wanted to pass to raise revenue.[34]

Environmental issues

In 2004, Perdue sued the Environmental Protection Agency to block environmental regulations on reformulated gasoline.[35] In a 2014 editorial published by National Review, Perdue criticized attempts by "some on the left or in the mainstream media" to connect climate change to weather events. Perdue wrote that "liberals have lost all credibility when it comes to climate science because their arguments have become so ridiculous and so obviously disconnected from reality."[36]


In 2006, Perdue signed a law that gave Georgia "some of the nation's toughest measures against illegal immigrants."[37]

Georgia drought

On November 13, 2007, while Georgia suffered from one of the worst droughts in several decades, Perdue led a group of several hundred people in prayer on the steps of the state Capitol. Perdue addressed the crowd, saying "We've come together here simply for one reason and one reason only: to very reverently and respectfully pray up a storm" and "God, we need you; we need rain." According to The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, "As the vigil ended, the sun shone through what had been a cloudy morning. In fact, for the next two weeks after the prayer, the state's epic dry streak grew worse."[38]

African-Americans in the Confederacy

According to a March 5, 2008, proclamation by Perdue, "Among those who served the Confederacy were many African-Americans, both free and slave, who saw action in the Confederate armed forces in many combat roles. According to the Georgia government's website on Confederate History Month, they also participated in the manufacture of products for the war effort, built naval ships, and provided military assistance and relief efforts ..."[39] The proclamation was criticized by historians for its historical inaccuracies,[40] although there were, in fact, African-Americans who served the Confederacy. However, most served in the early years of the war and were either forced at gunpoint or feared reprisals for disloyalty.[41]

Disaster preparedness

In 2008, Perdue worked with the Georgia Emergency Management Agency to implement Ready Georgia, a campaign to increase disaster preparedness throughout the state.[42] The next year, Georgia was affected by the September floods, which were the most severe in Georgia's recorded history.[43] The floods resulted in Perdue declaring a state of emergency in 17 counties.[44]

Go Fish Education Center criticism

Beginning in 2007, Governor Perdue began to pursue the goal of making Georgia the "bass-fishing tourism mecca". The administration began acquiring bond money for the Go Fish Education Center near his home in Perry, GA. According to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution, payments on the Go Fish bonds, approved by Perdue and the General Assembly in 2007, runs through December 2027 with most payments $1 million a year in bond money.[45]

Upon the end of Perdue's term as governor, many in the Georgia General Assembly condemned the project and Perdue after an advisory council (appointed by Perdue) began to funnel additional bond money to the project located in his home county. "To me it was a boondoggle because of the amount of money they were spending and the location," said Rep. Alan Powell, R-Hartwell, a member of the House Appropriations Committee. "You have got to have stuff where there is a lot of traffic. It's a little off the beaten path."[46]

The project overall has been scrutinized as a waste of taxpayer money due to mismanagement of bond money and extremely low visitors. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources figures showed 21,101 people visited the Perry facility in fiscal 2015, which ended June 30. It generated $102,077 in revenue or about 11 cents for every dollar it cost to run the center in years past.[46]

Ethics complaints

During his governorship, the Georgia State Ethics Commission received thirteen complaints against Perdue.[25] The State Ethics Commission ruled against Perdue twice, finding that he had taken improper campaign contributions from donors including SunTrust Banks and that he had improperly used one of his family business's airplanes on the campaign, for which the commission fined the sitting governor.[25]

Land purchases

In mid-2003, Perdue purchased 101 acres (0.41 km2) of land next to his Houston County, Georgia, home.[47] The land was adjacent to the 20,000 acres (81 km2) Oaky Woods preserve being sold by Weyerhaeuser.[47] The land was eventually sold to developers; however, the state was evaluating bidding on the property and keeping it as a reserve.[47] After the state dropped out of the bidding and the land was sold to developers, the value of Perdue's property more than doubled.[47] Perdue failed to disclose his ownership of the property in required financial disclosure forms.[47]

In December 2004, Perdue bought $2 million worth of land near Disney World from a developer who he had previously appointed to the state's economic development board.[12] A 2005 tax bill passed by the Georgia Legislature allowed residents to gain a tax break if they sold a property in Georgia to buy similar property in another state, and made the change retroactive to 2004. The new law saved Perdue $100,000 in state taxes.[48]


Perdue was constitutionally ineligible to seek a third consecutive term as governor in the 2010 Georgia gubernatorial election. In 2011, he founded Perdue Partners, which facilitated the export of U.S. goods and services.[49]

During meetings with Georgia state port officials, then-Governor Perdue discussed his family business's use of a terminal, then started a new export company in Savannah soon after leaving office.[25]

Secretary of Agriculture (2017–2021)

Perdue being sworn in by Justice Clarence Thomas in April 2017
Secretary Perdue tours a family rose farm in Litchfield Park, Arizona, November 2017
Perdue with President Donald Trump in October 2018

On January 18, 2017, President Donald Trump announced that he would nominate Perdue to be United States secretary of agriculture. The United States Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry overwhelmingly approved his nomination on March 30, with a 19–1 vote. The sole vote against him came from Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY). Senator David Perdue (R-GA) abstained, as they are first cousins. He was confirmed by the Senate on April 24,[50] with Bernie Sanders and nine Democrats voting against him. He was sworn in by Supreme Court associate justice and fellow Georgian Clarence Thomas.[51]

In September 2017, Politico reported that, according to 42 reviewed resumes, the department hired 22 former Trump campaign workers, many of which had no significant agricultural knowledge or experience with federal policies.[52]

Perdue was the designated survivor on January 30, 2018, for President Trump's first State of the Union address.[53]

During his tenure as Secretary of Agriculture, Perdue focused on helping new farmers get started in agriculture.[54] In August 2017, he announced a mentoring program for new farmers. Other issues addressed by Perdue include assisting rural communities, helping farmers operate with less regulation, increasing exports, passing the 2018 farm bill, and addressing crop damage caused by dicamba.[55] In December 2018, he changed the nutrition standards for school lunches to allow more refined grains, allow milk with added sugar, and increased sodium.[56]

In July 2019, Perdue ordered two USDA agencies—the Economic Research Service (ERS) and the National Institute of Food and Agriculture—to move from the USDA's headquarters in Washington, D.C. to the Kansas City metropolitan area. Two-thirds of the reassigned USDA employees chose to quit rather than accept relocation.[57] The attrition rate was particularly high in the Resource and Rural Economics Division (90%) and in the Food Economics Division (up to 89%).[58] Current and former employees of the ERS were strongly critical of the relocation to Kansas City, saying the resulting exodus of scientific and economic talent caused disruption to federal research, especially on climate change and food security.[59][60]

Under Perdue, the Department of Agriculture (USDA) was accused of suppressing scientific publications for political reasons. Economists in the USDA's research branch were told to include disclaimers in their peer-reviewed publications stating that the findings were "preliminary" and "should not be construed to represent any agency determination or policy".[61] In August 2019, Lewis Ziska, a USDA plant physiology climate scientist, quit after department administrators attempted to impede the publication of one of his studies in the journal Science Advances. The USDA's press office rejected CNN's request to interview Ziska, but not Politico's, where he went on to describe the department as internally fearful of Perdue's open skepticism towards climate change, which, according to Ziska, has led officials to "go to extremes to obscure their work to avoid political blowback".[62][63]

In February 2020, Perdue endorsed putting a price on carbon dioxide, a climate change policy favored by many economists. He stated that “legitimate, measurable carbon trading” could spur so-called carbon sequestration by giving farmers an incentive to innovate. He was the only member of the Trump administration to endorse such a plan.[64]

In August 2020, Perdue supported the president's re-election while promoting the Farmers to Families Food Box Program; Perdue was fined for violating the Hatch Act.[65][66][67]

Financial controversies

In June 2021, a news story broke of financial dealings Perdue had after his nomination as Secretary of Agriculture but before his confirmation. On December 30, 2016, Perdue's company AGrowStar purchased property and a facility from Archer-Daniels-Midland (ADM), a large American agribusiness corporation that the Department of Agriculture regulates. The property (in Estill, South Carolina) had originally been purchased by ADM for 5.5 million dollars, and independent assessments and government tax assessors agree on that as a fair range; however, AGrowStar was offered the property for US$250,000, a fraction of its value. After the sale, the huge boiler on the property was sold for approximately $500,000, easily covering the cost of the purchase even if the rest of the land had been valueless. A low-ball estimate of the value of storage in the grain silos was US$3 million. Critics argued that the deal should be investigated, and speculated that ADM, which spends millions of dollars on lobbying regardless, used the property sale as a bribe for favorable treatment.[68]

Perdue's assets during his time as Secretary were placed in blind trusts, as is common to prevent financial conflicts of interest. The complex arrangements were criticized as breaking the spirit of the rule, however, and that Perdue and his family's ties to his corporation were not distanced as much as the law intended. AGrowStar (including the assets acquired as part of the Estill deal) was sold by Perdue's trusts in 2018 for 12 million dollars, but due to the secretive nature of the trusts, this was not widely disclosed.[68]

Regardless of whether the deal was intended to influence Perdue's actions, and if it was if it actually had any impact, the Perdue years were good ones for ADM. The Washington Post detailed several wish-list items that ADM achieved: loosening of regulations on pork production, fewer inspections, helping lobby against proposed government bans on glyphosate by Thailand and Vietnam, and promoting ethanol and biodiesel.[68]

Personal life

Perdue and his wife, Mary (née Ruff), were married in 1972 after dating for four years.[69] They have four children (Leigh, Lara, Jim, and Dan),[69] 14 grandchildren (six boys and eight girls), and have also been foster parents for many children.[70] Perdue lives in Bonaire, Georgia.[71]

Perdue is an avid sportsman. He enjoys flying and, in a 2003 incident, was accused of flying a state helicopter without a license.[72]

In 2006, while still governor, Perdue made a cameo appearance as the coach of the East Carolina Pirates football team in the movie We Are Marshall, large portions of which were filmed in Georgia.[73]

In 2006, Perdue's financial disclosure forms revealed that he had a net worth of approximately $6 million and received compensation of $700,000 that year.[74]

Electoral history

As state senator

Senator 18th district, 1990
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Sonny Perdue 17,932 70.5
Republican Ned Sanders 7,451 29.5
Turnout 25,383
Democratic hold Swing
Senator 18th district, 1996
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Sonny Perdue (Incumbent) 28,920 100
Turnout 28,920
Democratic hold Swing
Senator 18th district, 1998
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Sonny Perdue (Incumbent) 24,543 100
Turnout 24,543
Republican hold Swing
Senator 18th district, 2000
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Sonny Perdue (Incumbent) 30,681 69.2
Democratic Miller Heath 13,647 30.8
Turnout 44,328
Republican hold Swing

As Governor of Georgia

2002 Georgia gubernatorial election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Sonny Perdue 1,041,677 51.4
Democratic Roy Barnes (Incumbent) 937,062 46.3
Libertarian Garrett Michael Hayes 47,122 2.3
Turnout 2,025,861
Republican gain from Democratic Swing
2006 Georgia gubernatorial election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Sonny Perdue (incumbent) 1,229,724 57.9 +6.5
Democratic Mark Taylor 811,049 38.2 -8.0
Libertarian Garrett Michael Hayes 81,412 3.8 +1.5
Turnout 2,102,185
Republican hold Swing

See also


  1. ^ a b "Sonny Perdue (b. 1946)". New Georgia Encyclopedia. August 25, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
  2. ^ "7 things to know about Sonny Perdue". National Hog Farmer. January 19, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  3. ^ "Company Overview of Perdue Partners, LLC". Bloomberg. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  4. ^ a b c "Former Georgia governor tapped as Trump's agriculture secretary, sources say". NBC News. January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
  5. ^ "BPC Congratulates Sec. Sonny Perdue on Confirmation to Lead Dept. of Agriculture" (Press release). Washington, D.C. April 25, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
  6. ^ Congressional Record for March 9, 2017
  7. ^ "Business Meeting Transcript" (PDF). U.S. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition & Forestry.
  8. ^ "U.S. Senate: U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 115th Congress – 1st Session". Retrieved June 13, 2017.
  9. ^ "Sonny Perdue Named Chancellor of the University System of Georgia". University System of Georgia. March 1, 2022. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
  10. ^ "Ancestry of Sonny Perdue". Retrieved December 29, 2016.
  11. ^ "Meet David Perdue—He Might Be Georgia's Next Senator". The Atlantic. May 21, 2014. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
  12. ^ a b c James Salzer, Greg Bluestein and Shannon McCaffrey (January 19, 2017). "Trump taps Perdue as agriculture chief". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
  13. ^ Kappa Sigma Fraternity: Prominent Alumni
  14. ^ a b National Governors Association: Sonny Perdue
  15. ^ Tony Pugh and Anita Kumar (January 18, 2017). "Trump taps former Georgia governor for agriculture secretary". McClatchy.
  16. ^ "Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue – Perdue Farms Plans Major Expansion in Georgia". July 14, 2005. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
  17. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 22, 2016. Retrieved February 23, 2017.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ Our Campaigns: GA Senate 18
  19. ^ Charles S. Bullock, III, The Georgia Political Almanac, The General Assembly 1993–94.
  20. ^ Salzer, James. "Sonny Perdue the Democrat". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  21. ^ Wheatley, Thomas (June 10, 2009). "Harpers: Give former state Sen. Charles Walker justice". Creative Loafing Atlanta. Retrieved September 1, 2023.
  22. ^ "Official Results of the November 5, 2002 General Election". Georgia Secretary of State. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2011.
  23. ^ "Georgia Election Results". Georgia Secretary of State. Archived from the original on March 30, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2010.
  24. ^ a b Bipartisan Policy: Sonny Perdue Archived February 2, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ a b c d e Eric Lipton; Steve Eder (March 9, 2017). "Ethical Lapses Trail Nominee For Agriculture – Conflicts of Interest as Governor of Georgia". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
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  27. ^ Johnny Jackson (August 30, 2005). "Georgia SAT scores in the basement". Clayton News Daily.
  28. ^ "Georgia climbs in SAT rankings despite drop in score". AccessWDUN. August 29, 2006.
  29. ^ "State, local SAT scores slip". Early County News. September 5, 2007.
  30. ^ "2008 SAT Results Highlight Need for Rigor" (Press release). Georgia Department of Education. August 26, 2008.
  31. ^ Bill Crane (January 2011). "Georgia View: Sonny Perdue's Non-Legacy". GeorgiaTrend.
  32. ^ Joshua Green (March 2004). "The Southern Cross". The Atlantic.
  33. ^ Larry Copeland (March 2, 2004). "Georgia leaders try to skip controversy in flag vote". USA Today.
  34. ^ Jim Galloway (January 19, 2017). "Tom Price, Kasim Reed, Sonny Perdue and the Art of the Georgia Deal". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
  35. ^ Sonny Perdue (October 20, 2004). "Statement of Governor Sonny Perdue Regarding Court Ruling to Stay Transition to Reformulated Gasoline". State of Georgia.
  36. ^ Sonny Perdue (May 8, 2014). "The Common Core Blame Game". National Review.
  37. ^ "Georgia Enacts a Tough Law on Immigrants". The New York Times. Associated Press. April 18, 2006.
  38. ^ Greg Bluestein (January 10, 2017). "That time Sonny Perdue prayed for rain". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on April 25, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  39. ^ The Confederate and Neo-Confederate Reader: The "Great Truth"
  40. ^ Josh Israel (January 2, 2017). "Trump could name Agriculture Secretary whose drought strategy was to pray for rain". Think Progress.
  41. ^ John Stauffer (January 20, 2015). "Yes, There Were Black Confederates. Here's Why". The Root.
  42. ^ "About Us". Ready Georgia. Archived from the original on December 5, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  43. ^ Edward Martin (September 24, 2009). "USGS Release: Atlanta Flooding Sets New Records". USGS. Retrieved September 27, 2009.
  44. ^ "Gov. Sonny Perdue issues state of emergency for 17 Georgia counties". Savannah Now. September 21, 2009.
  45. ^ James Salzar (October 28, 2015). "Go Fish Center". AJC.
  46. ^ a b James Salzar (October 27, 2015). "Five Years Later Go Fish Center". AJC.
  47. ^ a b c d e "Perdue fails to disclose '04 purchase of land". Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
  48. ^ Salzer, James (March 8, 2017). "3 minutes, 1 tax bill, $100,000 for Sonny Perdue". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  49. ^ Helena Bottemiller Evich (January 18, 2017). "Trump to announce Sonny Perdue for Agriculture". Politico.
  50. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Vote PN90". Retrieved April 24, 2017.
  51. ^ "Sonny Perdue Sworn in as 31st U.S. Secretary of Agriculture". USDA Press. April 25, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017.
  52. ^ Hopkinson, Jenny (September 21, 2017). "Trump hires campaign workers instead of farmworkers at USDA". Retrieved October 29, 2019.
  53. ^ "Sonny Perdue is Trump's 'designated survivor' for State of the Union 2018". January 30, 2018. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  54. ^ Eller, Donnelle (August 5, 2017). "Perdue tells second Iowa Ag Summit he wants to support new farmers". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  55. ^ McGinnis, Mike (August 5, 2017). "USDA's Sonny Perdue on a Roll In Iowa". Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  56. ^ "Trump administration to return refined grains to school lunches". December 6, 2018.
  57. ^ Ben Guarino, Many USDA workers to quit as research agencies move to Kansas City: 'The brain drain we all feared' Archived October 8, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, The Washington Post (July 18, 2019).
  58. ^ Liz Crampton, ERS union predicts mass exodus ahead of relocation Archived September 5, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Politico (June 25, 2019).
  59. ^ Emily Moon, 'Cut, Relocate, Eviscerate': Moving a USDA Research Agency Will Have Lasting Consequences, Employees Say Archived October 29, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Pacific Standard (July 18, 2019).
  60. ^ Ryan McCrimmon, Economists flee Agriculture Dept. after feeling punished under Trump Archived October 22, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Politico (May 7, 2019).
  61. ^ McCrimmon, Ryan (May 7, 2019). "Economists flee Agriculture Dept. after feeling punished under Trump". Retrieved October 29, 2019. The administration didn't appreciate some of our findings, so this is retaliation to harm the agency and send a message.
  62. ^ 'It feels like something out of a bad sci-fi movie', Politico, August 5, 2019. Retrieved October 12, 2019.
  63. ^ The Trump administration is suppressing climate science, Columbia Journalism Review, Jon Allsop, August 7, 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  64. ^ "US agriculture secretary breaks ranks to endorse carbon pricing". Financial Times. Archived from the original on December 10, 2022.
  65. ^ "USDA chief violated Hatch Act by advocating for Trump re-election, gov't watchdog says". NBC News. October 9, 2020. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
  66. ^ Beitsch, Rebecca (October 8, 2020). "USDA's Perdue fined for violating Hatch Act while promoting food boxes". TheHill. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
  67. ^ Mccrimmon, Ryan (October 8, 2020). "Perdue rebuked for violating ethics law by boosting Trump's reelection". POLITICO. Retrieved October 26, 2020.
  68. ^ a b c Butler, Desmond (June 29, 2021). "The land was worth millions. A Big Ag corporation sold it to Sonny Perdue's company for $250,000". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  69. ^ a b Sandra D. Deal, Jennifer W. Dickey, Catherine M. Lewis (October 2015). Memories of the Mansion: The Story of Georgia's Governor's Mansion. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820348599.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  70. ^ "Perdue's wife takes up cause". Athens Banner-Herald. March 1, 2003.
  71. ^ "Agriculture secretary pick Perdue led big political change in Georgia". Star Tribune. January 25, 2017.
  72. ^ "Official: Perdue flew copter without license". Athens Banner-Herald. April 29, 2003. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
  73. ^ "±Governor Perdue Makes Acting Debut in "We Are Marshall"". State of Georgia. June 14, 2006.
  74. ^ Tom Crawford (May 3, 2006). "Georgia's affluent candidates".
Georgia State Senate Preceded byEd Barker Member of the Georgia Senatefrom the 18th district 1991–2001 Succeeded byRoss Tolleson Party political offices Preceded byGuy Millner Republican nominee for Governor of Georgia 2002, 2006 Succeeded byNathan Deal Preceded byMitt Romney Chair of the Republican Governors Association 2006–2007 Succeeded byRick Perry Political offices Preceded byRoy Barnes Governor of Georgia 2003–2011 Succeeded byNathan Deal Preceded byTom Vilsack United States Secretary of Agriculture 2017–2021 Succeeded byTom Vilsack U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial) Preceded byRick Perryas Former US Cabinet Member Order of precedence of the United Statesas Former US Cabinet Member Succeeded byAlexander Acostaas Former US Cabinet Member