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Track gauge
By transport mode
Tram · Rapid transit
Miniature · Scale model
By size (list)
Graphic list of track gauges

  Fifteen inch 381 mm (15 in)

  • 600 mm
  • 610 mm
  • (1 ft 11+58 in)
  • (2 ft)
  • 750 mm
  • 760 mm
  • 762 mm
  • (2 ft 5+12 in)
  • (2 ft 5+1516 in)
  • (2 ft 6 in)
  • 891 mm
  • 900 mm
  • 914 mm
  • 950 mm
  • (2 ft 11+332 in)
  • (2 ft 11+716 in)
  • (3 ft)
  • (3 ft)1+1332 in)
  Metre 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in)
  Three foot six inch 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
  Four foot 1,219 mm (4 ft 0 in)
  Four foot six inch 1,372 mm (4 ft 6 in)

  Standard 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in)

  • 1,445 mm
  • 1,450 mm
  • (4 ft 8+78 in)
  • (4 ft 9+332 in)
  Leipzig gauge 1,458 mm (4 ft 9+1332 in)
  Toronto gauge 1,495 mm (4 ft 10+78 in)
  • 1,520 mm
  • 1,524 mm
  • (4 ft 11+2732 in)
  • (5 ft)
  • 1,581 mm
  • 1,588 mm
  • 1,600 mm
  • (5 ft 2+14 in)
  • (5 ft 2+12 in)
  • (5 ft 3 in)
  Baltimore gauge 1,638 mm (5 ft 4+12 in)
  • 1,668 mm
  • 1,676 mm
  • (5 ft 5+2132 in)
  • (5 ft 6 in)
  Six foot 1,829 mm (6 ft)
  Brunel 2,140 mm (7 ft 14 in)
Change of gauge
Break-of-gauge · Dual gauge ·
Conversion (list· Bogie exchange · Variable gauge
By location
North America · South America · Europe · Australia
World map, rail gauge by region

Gauge conversion is the change of one railway track gauge to another. This may be required if loads are too heavy for the existing track gauge or if rail cars are of a broader gauge than the existing track gauge. Gauge conversion may become less important as time passes due to the development of variable gauge systems, also called Automatic Track Gauge Changeover Systems.


If tracks are converted to a narrower gauge, the existing sleepers may be used. However, replacement is required if the conversion is to a wider gauge. Some sleepers may be long enough to accommodate the fittings of both existing and alternative gauges. Wooden sleepers are suitable for conversion because they can be drilled for the repositioned rail spikes. Being difficult to drill, concrete sleepers are less suitable for conversion. Concrete sleepers may be cast with alternative gauge fittings in place. Steel sleepers may have alternative gauge fittings cast at production, may be drilled for new fittings or may be welded with new fittings.

For example, during the conversion of the Melbourne–Adelaide railway in Australia from 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) a sleeper with variable gauges and a reversible chair for the Pandrol clip was used.


Conversion from a narrow to a wider gauge may require enlargement of the structure gauge of the bridges, overpasses and tunnels, embankments and cuts. The minimum curve radius may have a larger radius on broader gauges requiring route deviations to allow the minimum curve radius to be increased. Track centers at stations with multiple tracks may also have to be increased. Conversion from narrow to standard gauge means several changes not because of the gauge itself, but in order to be compatible with the structure gauge of standard gauge track, such as height of overpasses so that trains can be exchanged. The choice of train couplers may be a factor as well.

Rolling stock

See also: Bogie exchange and Variable gauge

Where vehicles move to a different gauge, they must either be prepared for bogie exchange or be prepared for wheelset exchange. For example, passenger trains moving between the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge in France, and the 1,668 mm (5 ft 5+2132 in) gauge in Spain, now pass through an installation which adjusts their variable gauge axles. This process is known as "gauge change". Goods wagons are still subject to either bogie exchange or wheelset exchange.

Steam locomotives

Few steam locomotives are constructed to allow for gauge change. Those that were include some in East African Railways, Garratts, and the Victorian Railways R class R766. Construction of steam locomotives in this way is difficult due to the width of the boilers and the fireboxes. The gauge change is only to a wider gauge because of the widths of the boilers and fireboxes on the 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)s locomotives as opposed to those on 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge.

In about 1860, the Bristol and Exeter Railway converted five 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge locomotives to 7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm) gauge, and later converted them back again. Also in the 19th century, in the United States, some broad 5 ft (1,524 mm) gauge locomotives were designed for easy conversion to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) gauge. In the 20th century, in Victoria station, London, some broad 7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm) gauge locomotive classes of the Great Western Railway were designed for easy conversion to a narrower 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) gauge. Between 1922 and 1949, five South Australian Railways T class narrow 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) gauge locomotives were converted to Tx-class broad 1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) gauge, and later back again. After World War II, a number of captured German 03 class Pacifics locomotives were regauged to the Russian gauge.

Diesel and electric trains

Most diesel and electric rolling stock can undergo gauge conversion by replacement of their bogies. Engines with fixed wheelbases are more difficult to convert. In Australia, diesel locomotives are regularly re-gauged between broad, standard, and narrow gauges.

Wagons and coaches

Gauge conversion of wagons and coaches involves the replacement of the wheelsets or the bogies. In May 1892, wagons and coaches were converted when the 7 ft 14 in (2,140 mm) gauge of the Great Western Railway was abandoned.

Gauge orphan

During gauge conversion work, some stations and branch lines may become "gauge orphans". Trains can't operate to them until costly gauge conversion work is completed, if it does occur. For example, on the standard gauge Adelaide–Wolseley railway line between Adelaide and Melbourne, the broad gauge Victor Harbor branch line became a gauge orphan after the main line was converted in 1995.

See also

Rail transport