Track gauge
By transport mode
By size (list)
Graphic list of track gauges

  Fifteen inch 381 mm (15 in)

  • 600 mm
  • 610 mm
  • 686 mm
  • (1 ft 11+58 in)
  • (2 ft)
  • (2 ft 3 in)
  • 750 mm
  • 760 mm
  • 762 mm
  • (2 ft 5+12 in)
  • (2 ft 5+1516 in)
  • (2 ft 6 in)
  • 891 mm
  • 900 mm
  • 914 mm
  • 950 mm
  • (2 ft 11+332 in)
  • (2 ft 11+716 in)
  • (3 ft)
  • (3 ft1+1332 in)
  Metre 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in)
  Three foot six inch 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
  Four foot 1,219 mm (4 ft)
  Four foot six inch 1,372 mm (4 ft 6 in)
  1432 mm 1,432 mm (4 ft 8+38 in)

  Standard 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in)

  • 1,445 mm
  • 1,450 mm
  • (4 ft 8+78 in)
  • (4 ft 9+332 in)
  Leipzig gauge 1,458 mm (4 ft 9+1332 in)
  Toronto gauge 1,495 mm (4 ft 10+78 in)
  • 1,520 mm
  • 1,524 mm
  • (4 ft 11+2732 in)
  • (5 ft)
  • 1,581 mm
  • 1,588 mm
  • 1,600 mm
  • (5 ft 2+14 in)
  • (5 ft 2+12 in)
  • (5 ft 3 in)
  Baltimore gauge 1,638 mm (5 ft 4+12 in)
  • 1,668 mm
  • 1,676 mm
  • (5 ft 5+2132 in)
  • (5 ft 6 in)
  Six foot 1,829 mm (6 ft)
  Brunel 2,140 mm (7 ft 14 in)
  Breitspurbahn 3,000 mm (9 ft 1018 in)
Change of gauge
By location
World map, rail gauge by region

5 ft 6 in / 1,676 mm is a broad track gauge, used in India, Pakistan, western Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Argentina, Chile, and on BART in the San Francisco Bay Area.

In North America, it is called "Indian gauge", Provincial, Portland, or "Texas gauge". In Argentina and Chile, it is known as "trocha ancha" (Spanish for "broad gauge"). In the Indian subcontinent it is simply known as "broad gauge". It is the widest gauge in regular passenger use anywhere in the world.



Main article: Rail transport in India

See also: Indian Railways

In India, the initial freight railway lines were built using standard gauge. In the 1850s, the Great Indian Peninsula Railway adopted the gauge of 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) for the first passenger railway in India between Bori Bunder and Thane.[1][2] This was then adopted as the standard for the nationwide network.

Indian Railways today predominantly operates on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge. Most of the metre gauge and narrow gauge railways have been converted to broad gauge. Small stretches of the network that remain on metre and narrow gauges are also being converted to broad gauge. Rapid transit lines are mostly on standard gauge, although some initial lines use 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge.


Main article: Bangladesh Railway

Bangladesh Railways uses a mix of 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge and metre gauge. The broad gauge network is primarily located to the west of the Jamuna River, while the metre gauge network is primarily located to its east. The Jamuna Bridge is a mixed-use bridge that contains a dual gauge connection across the river linking both networks.


Main article: Nepal Railway Company Limited

In Nepal, all services currently operate on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge only.


Main article: Pakistan Railways

In Pakistan, all services currently operate on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge only.

Sri Lanka

Main article: Sri Lanka Railways

In Sri Lanka, all services currently operate on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge only.


United Kingdom

The 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge was first used in Scotland for two short, isolated lines, the Dundee and Arbroath Railway (1836-1847) and the Arbroath and Forfar Railway (1838-). Both the lines were subsequently converted to standard gauge.

Spain and Portugal

The Iberian-gauge railways, that service much of Spain and Portugal, have a track gauge of 1,668 mm (5 ft 5+2132 in), just 8 mm (516 in) different from 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in). Used rolling stock from Iberia has been employed on broad-gauge lines in Argentina and Chile.

North America

Main article: Track gauge in North America


Main article: Track gauge in Canada

Canada became the first British colony, in the 1850s, to use 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge. It was known as the "Provincial gauge" in Canada.

The earliest railways in Canada, including the 1836 Champlain and St. Lawrence and 1847 Montreal and Lachine Railway however, were built to 4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge.[3]

The Grand Trunk Railway which operated in several Canadian provinces (Quebec and Ontario) and American states (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont) used it, but was changed to standard gauge in 1873. The Grand Trunk Railway operated from headquarters in Montreal, Quebec, although corporate headquarters were in London, England. The St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad which operated in Quebec, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine also used it but was converted in 1873.

There is a longstanding rumour that the Provincial gauge was selected specifically to create a break-of-gauge with US railways, the War of 1812 still being a fresh memory. However, there is little supporting evidence for this, and this story appears to be traced to a single claim from the late 1800s.[3]

United States

Main article: Track gauge in the United States

The Bay Area Rapid Transit system is the only operating railroad in the United States to use 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge, with 120 miles (190 km) of double tracked routes. The original engineers chose the wide gauge for its "great stability and smoother riding qualities"[4] and intended to make a state-of-the-art system for other municipalities to emulate. The use of 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge rails was one of many unconventional design elements included in its design which, in addition to its unusual gauge, also used flat-edge rail, rather than typical rail that angles slightly inward[5] (although the shape of BART wheels and rail has been modified since then[6]). This has complicated maintenance of the system, as it requires custom wheelsets, brake systems, and track maintenance vehicles.[5]

The New Orleans, Opelousas and Great Western Railroad (NOO&GW) used 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge until 1872, and the Texas and New Orleans Railroad used 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge ("Texas gauge") until 1876. The Grand Trunk Railway predecessor St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad which operated in Quebec, Vermont, New Hampshire and Maine also used 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge ("Canadian gauge", "Provincial gauge" or "Portland gauge") but was converted in 1873. Several Maine railroads connected to the Grand Trunk Railway shared its "Portland Gauge". The Androscoggin and Kennebec Railroad and the Buckfield Branch Railroad were later consolidated as the Maine Central Railroad which converted to standard gauge in 1871. John A. Poor's chief engineer Alvin C. Morton compiled the following advantages of "Portland Gauge" for Maine railways in 1847:[7]

South America


Main article: Rail transport in Argentina

The national railway network is predominantly on 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge.


Main article: Track gauge in Chile

Most links of 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge railways are in the center-south of the country. Only a few lines of the Ferrocarril del Sur (Southern Railroad Network) were 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge or 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge, the notable exceptions being one of the few active links: the Ramal Talca-Constitución branch and the Metro de Santiago. On the contrary, just a few branches of the FCN (Ferrocarril del Norte) were broad gauge, most notably the Mapocho-Puerto mainline between Santiago and Valparaiso, the Santiago–Valparaíso railway line. This link was directly connected to the southern railroad network using the Matucana tunnel that connected Mapocho and the Central Station in Santiago. The Transandine Railway that connected both Argentinean and Chilean broad gauge networks through the Uspallata pass in the Andes mountains was actually a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) narrow gauge link.

Similar gauges and compatibility

Main articles: Rail transport in Spain and Rail transport in Portugal

The Iberian gauge (1,668 mm or 5 ft 5+2132 in) is closely similar to the Indian gauge, with only mm (516 in) difference, and allows compatibility with the rolling stock. For example, in recent years Chile and Argentina have bought second hand Spanish/Portuguese Iberian-gauge rolling stock. 1,668 mm trains can run on 1,676 mm gauge without adaptation, but for better stability in high-speed running a wheelset replacement may be required (for example, Russian-Finnish train Allegro has 1,522 mm or 4 ft 11+2932 in gauge, intermediate between Russian 1,520 mm or 4 ft 11+2732 in and Finnish 1,524 mm or 5 ft). Backward compatibility—1,676 mm trains on 1,668 mm gauge—is possible, but no examples and data exist. Due to the narrower gauge, a strong wear of wheelsets may occur without replacement.

Operational railways

Country/territory Railway Route length Notes
Argentina San Martín Railway operating
Argentina Sarmiento Railway operating
Argentina Mitre Railway except Tren de la Costa in standard gauge; operating
Argentina Roca Railway except La Trochita, Central Chubut Railway and Ramal Ferro Industrial Río Turbio [es] in 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) gauge; operating
Bangladesh Bangladesh Railway 1,575 km (979 mi) operating
Chile Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado - EFE Sur operating
Chile Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado - EFE Central Except Ramal Talca-Constitución; operating
Chile Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado - Metro de Valparaíso operating
Chile Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado - Biotrén operating
India Indian Railways 126,366 km
(78,520 mi)
India Delhi Metro 65 km (40 mi) operating
India Kolkata Metro 45.48 km (28.26 mi) operating
Iran Zahedan railway station to border with Pakistan operating
Nepal Nepal Railways 59 km (37 mi) operating
Pakistan Pakistan Railways 7,791 km (4,841 mi) operating
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Railways 1,508 km (937 mi) operating
United States Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) San Francisco Bay Area 109 mi (175 km) operating

Closed railways

Country/territory Railway Length Notes
Canada Grand Trunk Railway Converted to 4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge in 1873
Canada St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad Converted to 4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge in 1873
Canada Grand Trunk Railway of Canada Converted to 4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Canada Intercolonial Railway of Canada Converted to 4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge in 1875
Paraguay Paraguayan railway From Asunción to Encarnación was originally laid in this gauge in the hope that the connecting line from Posadas to Buenos Aires would be built to the same gauge; that line was laid to standard gauge, and when the FCPCAL reached Encarnación in 1912 the whole line had to be re-gauged to standard gauge to allow through-working.
United Kingdom Arbroath and Forfar Railway see Scotch gauge, converted to standard gauge
United Kingdom Dundee and Arbroath Railway 16+34 mi (27.0 km) see Scotch gauge, converted to standard gauge
United States Maine Central Railroad converted to standard gauge in 1871

See also


  1. ^ "Railroads Asia - Up And Down India".
  2. ^ Indian Railways: Some Fascinating Facts, “Train Atlas”, Train Atlas, Indian Railways, 2003
  3. ^ a b Omer Lavallee, "The Rise and Fall of the Provincial Gauge", Canadian Rail, February 1963, pp. 22-37
  4. ^ "Why Does BART Use Wider Non-Standard Gauge Rails". BayRail Alliance.
  5. ^ a b Gafni, Matthias (March 25, 2016). "Has BART's cutting-edge 1972 technology design come back to haunt it?". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  6. ^ Tuzik, Bob (February 26, 2019). "Refining Approaches to Corrective and Preventive Rail Grinding". ON Track Maintenance.
  7. ^ Holt, Jeff (1985). The Grand Trunk in New England. Railfare. p. 78. ISBN 0-919130-43-7.