Delhi Metro
See caption
Overview
OwnerDelhi Metro Rail Corporation
LocaleNational Capital Region (NCR)
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines10[1]
Line number
Number of stations256[a]
Daily ridership25.16 lakh (2.52 million, 2021–22)[2]
Annual ridership203 crore (2.03 billion, 2023)[b][3]
Key peopleManoj Joshi (Chairman)
Vikas Kumar (Managing Director)[4]
HeadquartersMetro Bhawan, Barakhamba Road, New Delhi - 110001
Websitedelhimetrorail.com
Operation
Began operation24 December 2002; 21 years ago (24 December 2002)
Operator(s)Delhi Metro Rail Corporation
Number of vehicles336 trains[5]
Train length6/8 coaches[6]
Headway3 minutes
Technical
System length350.42 km (217.74 mi)[c]
Track gauge
  • 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge (Red, Blue and Yellow lines)
  • 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge (other lines)
Electrification25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead catenary
Average speed45 km/h[7][8]
Top speed120 km/h[9][8]
System map

The Delhi Metro is a mass rapid transit (MRT) system which serves Delhi and its adjoining satellite cities, such as Ghaziabad, Faridabad, Gurugram, Noida and Bahadurgarh, in the National Capital Region of India.[10] The system consists of 10 colour-coded lines[1] serving 256 stations,[a] with a total length of 350.42 kilometres (217.74 mi).[c] It is India's largest and busiest metro rail system and the second-oldest, after the Kolkata Metro. The metro has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using broad-gauge and standard-gauge tracks. The metro makes over 4,300 trips daily.[12]

Construction began in 1998, and the first elevated section (Shahdara to Tis Hazari) on the Red Line opened on 25 December 2002. The first underground section (Vishwa VidyalayaKashmere Gate) on the Yellow Line opened on 20 December 2004.[13] The network was developed in phases. Phase I (three lines) was completed by 2006, and Phase II in 2011. Phase III was mostly complete in 2021, except for a small extension of the Airport Line which opened in 2023.[14] Construction of Phase IV began on 30 December 2019.[15]

Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), a company with funding from the governments of India and Delhi, built and operates the Delhi Metro.[16][17] DMRC was certified by the United Nations in 2011 as the first metro rail and rail-based system in the world to receive carbon credits for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions, reducing annual carbon emission levels in the city by 630,000 tonnes.[6]

The Delhi Metro has interchanges with the Rapid Metro Gurgaon (with a shared ticketing system) and Noida Metro. On 22 October 2019, DMRC took over operations of the financially-troubled Rapid Metro Gurgaon.[18] The Delhi Metro's annual ridership was 203.23 crore (2.03 billion) in 2023.[b][19][20] The system will have interchanges with the Delhi-Meerut RRTS, India's fastest urban regional transit system.[21][22]

History

Background

Animated timeline of the metro
Evolution of the Delhi Metro from 2003 to 2018

The concept of mass rapid transit for New Delhi first emerged from a 1969 traffic and travel characteristics study in the city.[23] Over the next several years, committees in a number of government departments were commissioned to examine issues related to technology, route alignment, and governmental jurisdiction.[23] In 1984, the Urban Arts Commission proposed the development of a multi-modal transport system which would build three underground mass rapid transit corridors and augmenting the city's suburban railway and road transport networks.[24]

The city expanded significantly while technical studies and financing the project were in progress, doubling its population and increasing the number of vehicles five-fold between 1981 and 1998.[24] Traffic congestion and pollution soared as an increasing number of commuters used private vehicles, and the existing bus system was unable to bear the load.[23] A 1992 attempt to privatize the bus transport system compounded the problem, with inexperienced operators plying poorly-maintained, noisy and polluting buses on lengthy routes; this resulted in long waiting times, unreliable service, overcrowding, unqualified drivers, speeding and reckless driving[25] which led to road accidents. The government of India under Prime Minister H.D. Deve Gowda[26] and the government of Delhi set up the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) on 3 May 1995, with Elattuvalapil Sreedharan its managing director.[27] Mangu Singh replaced Sreedharan as DMRC managing director on 31 December 2011.[28]

Initial construction

Construction of the Delhi Metro began on 1 October 1998.[29] To avoid problems experienced by the Kolkata Metro, which was badly delayed and 12 times over budget due to "political meddling, technical problems and bureaucratic delays", the DMRC was created as a special-purpose vehicle vested with autonomy and power to execute the large project which involved many technical complexities in a difficult urban environment within a limited time frame. Putting the central and state governments on an equal footing gave an unprecedented level of autonomy and freedom to the company, which had full powers to hire people, decide on tenders, and control funds.[30][31] The DMRC hired the Hong Kong MTRC as a technical consultant on rapid-transit operation and construction techniques.[32] Construction proceeded smoothly except for a major disagreement in 2000, when the Ministry of Railways forced the system to use 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) broad gauge despite the DMRC's preference for standard gauge.[33] This decision led to an additional capital expenditure of 260 crore (US$33 million).[34][35]

The Delhi Metro's first line, the Red Line, was inaugurated by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee on 24 December 2002.[36] The metro became India's second underground rapid transit system, after the Kolkata Metro, when the Vishwa VidyalayaKashmere Gate section of the Yellow Line opened on 20 December 2004. The underground line was inaugurated by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. The project's first phase was completed in 2006,[37][38] on budget and almost three years ahead of schedule, an achievement described by Business Week as "nothing short of a miracle".[39]

Phase I

A 64.75-kilometer (40.23-mile)-long network of 59 stations was constructed in Delhi, encompassing the initial sections of the Red, Yellow, and Blue Lines. The stations were opened to the public between 25 December 2002 and 11 November 2006.

Phase 1 Network[40]
No. Line Stations Length (km) Terminals Opening date
1 Red Line 6 8.35 Shahdara Tis Hazari 25 December 2002
4 4.87 Tis Hazari Inderlok 3 October 2003
8 8.84 Inderlok Rithala 31 March 2004
2 Yellow Line 4 4.06 Vishwa Vidyalaya Kashmere Gate 20 December 2004
6 6.62 Kashmere Gate Central Secretariat 3 July 2005
3 Blue Line 22 22.74 Dwarka Barakhamba Road 31 December 2005
6 6.47 Dwarka Sector 9 1 April 2006
3 2.80 Barakhamba Road Indraprastha 11 November 2006
Total 59 64.75

Phase II

A total of 123.3-kilometre-long (76.6 mi) network of 86 stations and 10 routes and extensions was built. Seven routes were extensions of the Phase I network, three were new colour-coded lines, and three routes connect to other cities (the Yellow Line to Gurgaon and the Blue Line to Noida and Ghaziabad) of the national capital region in the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. At the end of Phases I and II, the network's total length was 188.05 km (116.85 mi) and 145 stations became operational between 4 June 2008 and 27 August 2011.[6]

Phase 2 network[40]
No. Line Stations Length (km) Terminals Opening date
1 Red Line 3 2.86 Shahdara Dilshad Garden 4 June 2008
2 Yellow Line 5 6.38 Vishwa Vidyalaya Jahangirpuri 4 February 2009
9 15.82 Millenium City Centre Qutab Minar 21 June 2010
1 Chhatarpur 26 August 2010
9 11.76 Qutab Minar Central Secretariat 3 September 2010
3 Blue Line 1 2.17 Indraprastha Yamuna Bank 10 May 2009
10 12.85 Yamuna Bank Noida City Centre 12 November 2009
2 2.28 Dwarka Sector 9 Dwarka Sector 21 30 October 2010
4 Blue Line Branch 6 6.25 Yamuna Bank Anand Vihar 27 January 2010
2 2.26 Anand Vihar Vaishali 14 July 2011
5 Green Line 14 14.19 Inderlok Mundka 2 April 2010
2 3.41 Ashok Park Main Kirti Nagar 27 August 2011
6 Violet Line 13 15.34 Central Secretariat Sarita Vihar 3 October 2010
3 4.82 Sarita Vihar Badarpur Border 14 January 2011
Airport Express 4 22.91 New Delhi Dwarka Sector 21 23 February 2011
2 Dhaula Kuan & Delhi Aerocity 15 August 2011
Total 86 123.30

Phase III

Phase I (Red, Yellow and Blue Lines) and Phase II (Green, Violet, and Airport Express Lines) focused on adding radial lines to expand the network. To further reduce congestion and improve connectivity, Phase III included eight extensions to existing lines, two ring lines (the Pink and Magenta Lines) and the Grey Line. It has 28 underground stations, three new lines and seven route extensions, totaling 160.07 kilometres (99.46 mi), at a cost of 410.079 billion (US$5.1 billion).[41][42] The three new Phase III lines are the Pink Line on Inner Ring Road (Line 7), the Magenta Line on Outer Ring Road (Line 8) and the Grey Line connecting Dwarka and Najafgarh (Line 9).[1]

Phase 3 network[40]
No. Line Stations Length (km) Terminals Opening date
1 Red Line 8 9.63 Dilshad Garden Shaheed Sthal
(New Bus Adda)
9 March 2019[43]
2 Yellow Line 3 4.38 Jahangirpuri Samaypur Badli 10 November 2015
3 Blue Line 6 6.80 Noida City Centre Noida Electronic City 9 March 2019[44]
5 Green Line 7 11.19 Mundka Brigadier Hoshiyar Singh 24 June 2018
6 Violet Line 7 9.27 Central Secretariat Kashmere Gate 28 May 2017
9 13.56 Badarpur Border Escorts Mujesar 6 September 2015
2 3.35 Escorts Mujesar Raja Nahar Singh 19 November 2018
Airport Express 1 1.878 Dwarka Sector 21 Yashobhoomi - Dwarka Sector 25 17 September 2023
7 Pink Line 12 21.57 Majlis Park Durgabai Deshmukh
South Campus
14 March 2018
6 8.53 Durgabai Deshmukh
South Campus
Lajpat Nagar 6 August 2018
15 17.86 Trilokpuri Sanjay Lake Shiv Vihar 31 October 2018
5 9.63 Lajpat Nagar Mayur Vihar Pocket I 31 December 2018
0 1.65 Mayur Vihar Pocket I Trilokpuri Sanjay Lake 6 August 2021
8 Magenta Line 9 12.64 Kalkaji Mandir Botanical Garden 25 December 2017
16 24.82 Janakpuri West Kalkaji Mandir 29 May 2018
9 Grey Line 3 4.30 Dwarka Najafgarh 4 October 2019
1 0.89 Najafgarh Dhansa Bus Stand 18 September 2021
109 160.07[d]

Work on Phase III began in 2011,[45][46] with 2016 the planned deadline.[47] Over 20 tunnel-boring machines were used simultaneously to expedite construction,[48] which was completed in March 2019 (except for a small stretch due to non-availability of land).[49] Short extensions were later added to Phase III, which was expected to be completed by the end of 2020, but construction was delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It was completed on 18 September 2021 with the opening of the Grey Line extension from Najafgarh to Dhansa Bus Stand.[50] An extension of the Airport Line to Yashobhoomi Dwarka Sector - 25 metro station was later added, and it was completed on 17 September 2023.[51]

Driverless operations on the 38-kilometre-long (24 mi) Magenta line began on 28 December 2021, making it the Delhi Metro's (and India's) first driverless metro line.[52] On 25 November 2021, the 59-kilometre-long (37 mi) Pink Line also began driverless operations. The total driverless DMRC network is nearly 97 km (60 mi), putting Delhi Metro in fourth position globally among such networks behind Kuala Lumpur.[53]

The expected daily ridership of the network after the completion of Phase III was estimated at 53.47 lakh passengers. Actual DMRC ridership was 27.79 lakh in 2019–20, 51.97 percent of the projected ridership. Actual ridership of the Phase III corridors was 4.38 lakh, compared with a projected ridership of 20.89 lakh in 2019–20 (a deficit of 79.02 percent).[54][55] The communication-based train control (CBTC) on Phase III trains enables them to run at a 90-second headway, although the actual headway between trains is higher because of the relatively low demand on the new corridors.[56] Keeping the short headway and other constraints in mind, DMRC changed its decision to build nine-car-long stations for new lines and opted for shorter stations which can accommodate six-car trains.[57]

Construction accidents

On 19 October 2008, a launching gantry and part of the overhead Blue Line extension under construction in Laxmi Nagar collapsed and fell on a bus passing underneath. Workers were using a crane to lift a 400-tonne concrete span of the bridge when the gantry and a 34-metre-long (112 ft) span of the bridge collapsed on a Blueline bus, killing the driver and a labourer.[58]

On 12 July 2009, a section of a bridge collapsed while it was being erected at Zamrudpur, east of Kailash, on the Central Secretariat – Badarpur corridor. Six people died, and 15 were injured.[59] A crane removing the debris collapsed the following day and collapsed two other nearby cranes in a bowling-pin effect, injuring six.[60] On 22 July 2009, a worker at the Ashok Park Metro station was killed when a steel beam fell on him.[61] Over a hundred people, including 93 workers, have died since work on the metro began in 1998.[62]

On 23 April 2018, five people were injured when an iron girder fell off the elevated section of a Metro structure under construction at the Mohan Nagar intersection in Ghaziabad. A car, an auto rickshaw, and a motorbike were also damaged in the accident.[63]

Network

Main article: List of Delhi Metro stations

The Delhi Metro has been undergoing construction in phases. Phase I consisted of 59 stations and 64.75 km (40.23 mi) of route length,[64] of which 13.0 km (8.1 mi) is underground and 52.0 km (32.3 mi) at grade or elevated.[65] The inauguration of the DwarkaBarakhamba Road corridor of the Blue Line completed Phase I in October 2006.[66] Phase II consists of 123.3 km (76.6 mi) of route length and 86 stations,[64] and is completed; the first section opened in June 2008, and the last section opened in August 2011.[67] Phase III consists of 109 stations, three new lines and seven route extensions, totaling 160.07 km (99.46 mi),[64] at a cost of 410.79 billion (US$5.1 billion).[41] Most of it was completed on 5 April 2019, except for a small section of the Pink Line between the Mayur Vihar Pocket 1 and Trilokpuri Sanjay Lake stations[68] (which opened on 6 August 2021) and the Grey Line extension from Najafgarh to Dhansa Bus Stand[69] (which opened on 18 September 2021). Phase IV, with six lines totaling 103.93 km (64.58 mi), was finalized in July 2015. Of this, 61.679 km (38.326 mi) across three lines (priority corridors) with 45 stations was approved by the government of India for construction on 7 March 2019. The Golden Line was lengthened in October 2020, making the project 65.1 km (40.5 mi) long. It is planned to be completed by 2025.[70][71]

Delhi Metro network
Line No. Line Name Opened[1] Last extension[1] Stations[11] Length (km)[11] Terminals Rolling stock[72] Track gauge
(mm)
1 Red Line 24 December 2002 8 March 2019 29 34.55 Shaheed Sthal Rithala 33 trains, 197 coaches 1676
2 Yellow Line 20 December 2004 10 November 2015 37 49.02 Samaypur Badli Millennium City Centre 55 trains, 438 coaches
3 Blue Line 31 December 2005 9 March 2019 50 56.11 Noida Electronic City Dwarka Sector 21 64 trains, 507 coaches
4 7 January 2010 14 July 2011 8 8.51 Vaishali
5 Green Line 3 April 2010 2022-03-29 24 28.78 Inderlok Brigadier Hoshiyar Singh City Park 20 trains, 80 coaches 1435
27 August 2011 Kirti Nagar
6 Violet Line 3 October 2010 19 November 2018 34 46.34 Kashmere Gate Raja Nahar Singh Ballabhgarh 38 trains, 227 coaches
Airport Express Line 23 February 2011 17 September 2023 7 22.91 New Delhi Yashobhoomi Dwarka Sector 25 6 trains, 36 coaches
7 Pink Line 14 March 2018 6 August 2021 38 59.24 Majlis Park Shiv Vihar 42 trains, 251 coaches
8 Magenta Line 24 December 2017 29 May 2018 25 37.46 Botanical Garden Janakpuri West 25 trains, 152 coaches
9 Grey Line 4 October 2019 18 September 2021 4 5.19 Dwarka Najafgarh West 3 trains, 17 coaches
2002-12-24 2023-09-17 256 350.42 286 trains, 1905 coaches

Lines

Red Line (Line 1)

Main article: Red Line (Delhi Metro)

Older, but still modern, rapid-transit train at a station
Older rolling stock used by the DMRC on Line 1. Most of the stock running on Lines 2, 3, and 4 are planned to be sent to Line 1.

The Red Line, the first metro line opened, connects Rithala in the west to Shaheed Sthal (New Bus Adda) in the east for a distance of 34.55 kilometres (21.47 mi).[73] Partly elevated and partly at grade, it crosses the Yamuna River between the Kashmere Gate and Shastri Park stations.[74] The opening of the first stretch on 24 December 2002, between Shahdara and Tis Hazari, crashed the ticketing system due to demand.[75][76] Subsequent sections were opened from Tis Hazari – Trinagar (later renamed Inderlok) on 4 October 2003,[77] Inderlok – Rithala on 31 March 2004, and Shahdara – Dilshad Garden on 4 June 2008.[78] The Red Line has interchanges at Kashmere Gate with the Yellow and Violet Lines, at Inderlok with the Green Line, and at Netaji Subhash Place and Welcome with the Pink Line. An interchange with the Blue Line at Mohan Nagar is planned. Six-coach trains were commissioned on the line on 24 November 2013.[79] An extension from Dilshad Garden to Shaheed Sthal (New Bus Adda) opened on 8 March 2019. The metro introduced a set of two eight-coach trains on the Red Line, converted from the existing fleet of 39 six-coach trains, in November 2022.[80]

Yellow Line (Line 2)

Main article: Yellow Line (Delhi Metro)

Still-modern train at a station
Old Yellow Line Mitsubishi-Rotem trainset
See caption
Train arriving at a Yellow Line station

The Yellow Line, the metro's second line, was its first underground line.[81] Running 49 kilometres (30 mi) north to south, it connects Samaypur Badli with HUDA City Centre in Gurgaon. The northern and southern parts of the line are elevated, and the central section (which passes through some of the most congested parts of Delhi) is underground. The underground section between Vishwa Vidyalaya and Kashmere Gate opened on 20 December 2004; the Kashmere Gate – Central Secretariat section opened on 3 July 2005, and Vishwa Vidyalaya – Jahangirpuri on 4 February 2009.[78] The line has India's second-deepest metro station[82] at Chawri Bazar, 25 metres (82 ft) below ground level.[83]

An additional stretch from Qutab Minar to HUDA City Centre, initially operating separately from the mainline, opened on 21 June 2010; the Chhatarpur station on this stretch opened on 26 August of that year. Due to delays in acquiring land to construct the station, it was built with prefabricated structures in nine months and is the only Delhi Metro station made completely of steel.[84][85] The connecting link between Central Secretariat and Qutub Minar opened on 3 September 2010.[86]

On 10 November 2015, the line was further extended between Jahangirpuri and Samaypur Badli in Outer Delhi.[87] Interchanges are available with the Red Line and Kashmere Gate ISBT at Kashmere Gate, with the Blue Line at Rajiv Chowk, with the Violet Line at Kashmere Gate and Central Secretariat, with the Airport Express at New Delhi, with the Pink Line at Azadpur and Dilli Haat - INA, with the Magenta Line at Hauz Khas, with Rapid Metro Gurgaon at Sikanderpur, and with Indian Railways at Chandni Chowk and New Delhi.[88][89]

The Yellow Line is the metro's first line to replace four-coach trains with six- and eight-coach configurations. The Metro Museum at Patel Chowk metro station, South Asia's only rapid-transit museum, has a collection of display panels, historical photographs and exhibits tracing the genesis of the Delhi Metro.[90] The museum was opened on 1 January 2009.[82]

Blue Line (Lines 3 and 4)

Main article: Blue Line (Delhi Metro)

Modern train at a station
New Bombardier Blue Line trainset

The Blue Line, the third line of the metro open, was the first to connect areas outside Delhi.[91] Mainly elevated and partly underground,[92] it connects Dwarka Sub City in the west with the satellite city of Noida in the east for a distance of 56.61 kilometres (35.18 mi).[91] The line's first section, between Dwarka and Barakhamba Road, opened on 31 December 2005, and subsequent sections opened between Dwarka – Dwarka Sector 9 on 1 April 2006, Barakhamba Road – Indraprastha on 11 November 2006, Indraprastha – Yamuna Bank on 10 May 2009, Yamuna Bank – Noida City Centre on 12 November 2009, and Dwarka Sector 9 – Dwarka Sector 21 on 30 October 2010.[78] The line crosses the Yamuna River between the Indraprastha and Yamuna Bank stations,[74] and has India's second extradosed bridge across the Northern Railways mainlines near Pragati Maidan.[93]

A branch of the Blue Line, inaugurated on 8 January 2010, runs for 6.25 kilometres (3.88 mi) from the Yamuna Bank station to Anand Vihar in East Delhi.[94] It was extended to Vaishali on 14 July 2011.[95] A 2.76-kilometre (1.71 mi) stretch from Dwarka Sector 9 to Dwarka Sector 21 opened on 30 October 2010.[96] On 9 March 2019, a 6.67 km (4.14 mi) extension from Noida City Centre to Noida Electronic City was opened by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.[97] Interchanges are available with the Aqua Line (Noida Metro) Noida Sector 51 station at Noida Sector 52, with the Yellow Line at Rajiv Chowk,[92] with the Green Line at Kirti Nagar, with the Violet Line at Mandi House, with the Airport Express at Dwarka Sector 21, with the Pink Line at Rajouri Garden, Mayur Vihar Phase-I, Karkarduma and Anand Vihar, with the Magenta Line at Janakpuri West and Botanical Garden, and with Indian Railways and the Interstate Bus Station (ISBT) at Anand Vihar station (which connects with Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Anand Vihar ISBT).[98] An interchange with the Red Line at Mohan Nagar is planned.

Green Line (Line 5)

Main article: Green Line (Delhi Metro)

A modern train pulling into a station
Mitsubishi-Rotem-BEML rolling stock on the Green Line

Opened in 2010, the Green Line (Line 5) is the metro's fifth and its first standard-gauge line; the others were broad gauge. It runs between Inderlok (a Red Line station) and Brigadier Hoshiyar Singh, with a branch line connecting its Ashok Park Main station with Kirti Nagar on the Blue Line. The elevated line, built as part of Phase II, runs primarily along the busy NH 10 route in West Delhi. It has 24 stations, including an interchange, and covers 29.64 km (18.42 mi). The line has India's first standard-gauge maintenance depot, at Mundka.[99]

It opened in two stages, with the 15.1-kilometre (9.4 mi) Inderlok–Mundka section opening on 3 April 2010 and the 3.5-kilometre (2.2 mi) Kirti Nagar–Ashok Park Main branch line opening on 27 August 2011. On 6 August 2012, to improve commuting in the National Capital Region, the government of India approved an extension from Mundka to Bahadurgarh in Haryana. The 11.18-kilometre (6.95 mi) stretch has seven stations (Mundka Industrial Area, Ghevra, Tikri Kalan, Tikri Border, Pandit Shree Ram Sharma, Bahadurgarh City and Brigadier Hoshiyar Singh) between Mundka and Bahadurgarh, and opened on 24 June 2018. Interchanges are available with the Red Line at Inderlok, the Blue Line at Kirti Nagar and the Pink Line at Punjabi Bagh West.

Violet Line (Line 6)

Main article: Violet Line (Delhi Metro)

Modern train with the number 6 in front
Mitsubishi-Rotem-BEML rolling stock on the Violet Line

The Violet Line is the sixth metro line opened and the second standard-gauge corridor, after the Green Line. The 47-kilometre-long (29 mi) line connects Raja Nahar Singh in Ballabgarh via Faridabad to Kashmere Gate in New Delhi, with 26 km (16 mi) overhead and the rest underground. The first section between Central Secretariat and Sarita Vihar opened on 3 October 2010, hours before the inaugural ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, and connects Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium (the venue for the games' opening and closing ceremonies).[100] Completed in 41 months, it includes a 100-metre-long (330 ft) bridge over the Indian Railways mainlines and a 167.5-metre-long (550 ft) cable-stayed bridge across a road flyover; it connects several hospitals, tourist attractions, and an industrial estate. Service is provided at five-minute intervals.[100][101] An interchange with the Yellow Line is available at Central Secretariat through an integrated concourse. On 14 January 2011, the remaining portion from Sarita Vihar to Badarpur was opened; this added three new stations to the network.[102]

The section between Mandi House and Central Secretariat was opened on 26 June 2014, and a 971-metre-long (3,186 ft) section between ITO and Mandi House was opened on 8 June 2015. A 14 km (8.7 mi) extension south to Escorts Mujesar in Faridabad was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 6 September 2015.[103] All nine stations on the Badarpur–Escorts Mujesar (Faridabad) section of the metro's Phase III received the highest rating (platinum) for adherence to green-building norms from the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC). The awards were given to DMRC Managing Director Mangu Singh by IGBC chair P. C. Jain on 10 September 2015.[104]

The line's Faridabad corridor is the longest corridor outside Delhi: 11 stations and 17 km (11 mi).[105] On 28 May 2017, the ITOKashmere Gate corridor was opened by Union Minister of Urban Development Venkaiah Naidu and Chief Minister of Delhi Arvind Kejriwal. The underground section is popularly known as the Heritage Line.[106][107]: 16  Interchanges are available with the Red Line at Kashmere Gate, with the Yellow Line at Kashmere Gate and Central Secretariat, with the Blue Line at Mandi House, with the Pink Line at Lajpat Nagar and with the Magenta Line at Kalkaji Mandir.

Airport Express Line

Main article: Airport Express Line (Delhi Metro)

The outside of an Airport Express train, outdoors
The Airport Express Line
Roomy, comfortable-looking train interior
Interior of an Airport Express train

The Airport Express line runs 22.7 km (14.1 mi) from New Delhi Railway Station to Dwarka Sector 21, linking the Indira Gandhi International Airport. The line was operated by Delhi Airport Metro Express Pvt. Limited (DAMEL), a subsidiary of Reliance Infrastructure (the line's concessionaire until 30 June 2013). It is now operated by DMRC.[108] The line was built at a cost of 57 billion (US$710 million), of which Reliance Infrastructure invested 28.85 billion (US$360 million) and will pay fees in a revenue-share model.[109] It has six stations (Dhaula Kuan and Delhi Aerocity became operational on 15 August 2011), and some have check-in facilities, parking, and eateries.[110] Rolling stock consists of six-coach trains, operating at ten-minute intervals, with a maximum speed of 135 km/h (84 mph).[110]

Originally scheduled to open before the 2010 Commonwealth Games, the line failed to obtain the mandatory safety clearance and was opened on 24 February 2011 after a delay of about five months. Sixteen months after beginning operations, it was shut down for viaduct repairs on 8 July 2012.[111][112] The line reopened on 22 January 2013.[113] On 27 June 2013, Reliance Infrastructure told DMRC that they were unable to operate the line beyond 30 June of that year. DMRC took over the line on 1 July 2013 with a 100-person operations and maintenance team.[114] In January 2015, DMRC reported that the line's ridership had increased about 30 percent after a fare reduction of up to 40 percent the previous July.[115] DMRC announced a further fare reduction on 14 September 2015, with a maximum fare of ₹60 and minimum of ₹10 instead of ₹100 and ₹20.[116] DMRC said that this was done to reduce crowding on the Blue Line, diverting some Dwarka-bound passengers to the Airport Express Line (which is underutilised and faster than the Blue Line. The line's speed was increased from 100 km/h to 110 km/h on 24 June 2023, enabling a 16-minute ride from New Delhi to IGI Airport.

Interchanges are available with the Yellow Line at New Delhi, with the Blue Line at Dwarka Sector 21, with the Durgabai Deshmukh South Campus metro station of the Pink Line at Dhaula Kuan, and with Indian Railways at New Delhi. An expansion of Dwarka Sector 25 was inaugurated on 17 September 2023 with the opening of the adjacent India International Convention Centre.[117]

Pink Line (Line 7)

Main article: Pink Line (Delhi Metro)

Head-on photo of a train at an outdoor station
A Hyundai Rotem coach on the Pink Line at the Mayur Vihar-I station

The Pink Line is the second new line of the Delhi Metro's third phase. It was opened on 14 March 2018, with an extension opening on 6 August. The Trilokpuri Sanjay Lake-to-Shiv Vihar section was opened on 31 October, and the Lajpat Nagar-to-Mayur Vihar Pocket I section opened on 31 December of that year. The final section, between Mayur Vihar Pocket I and Trilokpuri Sanjay Lake, was opened on 6 August 2021 after delays due to land-acquisition and rehabilitation issues.[118]

The Pink Line has 38 stations from Majlis Park to Shiv Vihar, both in North Delhi. With a length of 58.43 kilometres (36.31 mi), it is the Delhi Metro's longest line. The mostly-elevated line covers Delhi in a U-shaped pattern. It is also known as the Ring Road Line, since it runs along the busy Ring Road.[107]: 86 

The line has interchanges with most of the metro's other lines, including with the Red Line at Netaji Subhash Place and Welcome, with the Yellow Line at Azadpur and Dilli Haat – INA, with the Blue Line at Rajouri Garden, Mayur Vihar Phase-I, Anand Vihar and Karkarduma, with the Green Line at Punjabi Bagh West, with Dhaula Kuan of the Airport Express at Durgabai Deshmukh South Campus, with the Violet Line at Lajpat Nagar, with Indian Railways at Hazrat Nizamuddin and Anand Vihar Terminal, and the ISBTs at Anand Vihar and Sarai Kale Khan. The Pink Line reaches the Delhi Metro's highest point at Dhaula Kuan – 23.6 metres (77 ft 5 in), passing over the Dhaula Kuan grade-separator flyovers and the Airport Express Line.[119][107]: 87 

Magenta Line (Line 8)

Main article: Magenta Line (Delhi Metro)

See caption
A Magenta Line train at a station
A train seen across a broad platform
A Magenta Line Hyundai Rotem train at the Botanical Garden metro station

The Magenta Line is the Delhi Metro's first new line of its third phase. The Botanical Garden-to-Kalkaji Mandir section opened on 25 December 2017, and the remainder of the line opened on 28 May 2018.

It has 25 stations, from Janakpuri West to Botanical Garden. The line directly connects to Terminal 1D of Indira Gandhi International Airport. The Hauz Khas station on this line and the Yellow Line is the deepest metro station, at a depth of 29 metres (95 ft).[120] The Magenta Line has interchanges with the Yellow Line at Hauz Khas, with the Blue Line at Janakpuri West and Botanical Garden, and with the Violet Line at Kalkaji Mandir. India's first driverless train service began on the Magenta Line in December 2020.[121]

Grey Line (Line 9)

Main article: Grey Line (Delhi Metro)

A train at a station
A Hyundai Rotem train on the Grey Line

The Grey Line (also known as Line 9), the metro's shortest, runs from Dwarka to Dhansa Bus Stand in western Delhi. The 4.295 km (2.669 mi) line has four stations (Dhansa Bus Stand, Najafgarh, Nangli and Dwarka), and has an interchange with the Blue Line at Dwarka. The Najafgarh-to-Dwarka section was opened on 4 October 2019. The extension to Dhansa Bus Stand was scheduled to open in December 2020, but construction was delayed by the COVID-19 pandemic; it opened on 18 September 2021.[122]

Integration with RapidX

The RapidX is a semi-high-speed regional rapid transit system (RRTS) which aims to connect Delhi with its neighboring cities via eight lines of semi-high-speed trains with a maximum speed of 160 km/h. Phase I of the project consists of three corridors: Delhi–Ghaziabad–Meerut, Delhi–Gurugram–SNB–Alwar, and Delhi–Panipat corridor. The Delhi–Ghaziabad–Meerut corridor, also known as the Delhi–Meerut RRTS, is under construction by the National Capital Region Transport Corporation (NCRTC).[123][124][125]

The Delhi–Meerut RRTS is 82.15 km (51.05 mi) long and costs 30,274 crore (US$3.8 billion). It will have 14 stations (with nine additional stations for the Meerut Metro) and two depots. Three of the 14 stations (Sarai Kale Khan, New Ashok Nagar, and Anand Vihar) will be in Delhi, and are planned for seamless integration with the Delhi Metro.[126][127]

Expansion

Phase IV

The Delhi Metro was planned to be built in phases spread over about 20 years, with each phase lasting five years and the end of one phase marking the beginning of the next. Phase I (65 km or 40 mi) and Phase II (125 km or 78 mi) were completed in 2006 and 2011, respectively. Phase III, totaling 160.07 km (99.46 mi),[64] was completed on 5 April 2019 except for a short section of the Pink Line between the Mayur Vihar Pocket 1 and Trilokpuri Sanjay Lake stations[68] and the Grey Line extension from Najafgarh to Dhansa Bus Stand;[69] they opened on 6 August and 18 September 2021, respectively.

Phase IV, with a length of 103 km (64 mi) and six lines, was finalized by the government of Delhi in December 2018.[128] Approval from the government of India was received for three priority corridors in March 2019.[129] Construction of the corridors 65.1 km (40.5 mi) began on 30 December 2019, with an expected completion date of 2025.[130] The metro's total length will exceed 450 kilometres (280 mi) at the end of Phase IV,[131][49] not including other independently-operated systems in the National Capital Region such as the 29.7-kilometre-long (18.5 mi) Aqua Line of the Noida-Greater Noida Metro[132] and the 11.7-kilometre (7.3 mi) Rapid Metro Gurgaon which connect to the Delhi Metro.[133][134]

Phase IV network
Line No. Name Stations Length (km) Terminals Via Status Expected completion date
8 Magenta Line 22 29.26 Janakpuri West RK Ashram Marg Janakpuri West, Krishna Park Extension, Keshopur, Paschim Vihar, Peeragarhi, Mangolpuri, West Enclave, Pushpanjali, Deepali Chowk, Madhuban Chowk, Pitampura, Prashant Vihar, North Pitampura, Haiderpur Badli Mor, Bhalswa, Majlis Park, Azadpur, Ashok Vihar, Derawal Nagar, Ghanta Ghar, Pulbangash, Sadar Bazar, Nabi Karim, RK Ashram Marg Under construction[135] 2026[136]
10 Golden Line 15 23.62 Tughlakabad Terminal 1-IGI Airport Tughlakabad, Tughlakabad Railway Colony, Anandmayee Marg, Sangam Vihar - Tigri, Khanpur, Ambedkar Nagar, Saket G-Block, Neb Sarai, IGNOU, Chhatarpur Mandir, Chhatarpur, Kishangarh, Vasant Kunj Sector-D, Mahipalpur, Delhi Aerocity,Terminal 1-IGI Airport
7 Pink Line 8 12.32 Majlis Park Maujpur - Babarpur Majlis Park, Burari, Jharoda Majra, Jagatpur Village, Soorghat, Sonia Vihar, Khajuri Khas, Bhajanpura, Yamuna Vihar, Maujpur - Babarpur 2025[136]
1 Red Line 21[137][138] 27.32 Rithala Nathupur Rohini Sector 25, Rohini Sector 26, Rohini Sector 31, Rohini Sector 32, Rohini Sector 36, Barwala, Rohini Sector 35, Rohini Sector 34, Bawana Industrial Area – 1 Sector 3,4, Bawana Industrial Area – 1 Sector 1,2, Bawana JJ Colony, Sanoth, New Sanoth, Depot Station, Bhorgarh Village, Anaj Mandi Narela, Narela DDA Sports Complex, Narela, Narela Sector 5, Kundli and Nathupur Pending approval
11 Indigo Line 10 12.57 Inderlok Indraprastha Inderlok, Daya Basti, Sarai Rohilla, Ajmal Khan Park, Nabi Karim, New Delhi, LNJP Hospital, Delhi Gate, Indira Gandhi Stadium, Indraprastha
12 Brown Line 7 7.96 Lajpat Nagar Saket G-Block Lajpat Nagar, Andrews Ganj, Greater Kailash-1, Chirag Delhi, Pushpa Bhawan, Saket District Centre, Pushp Vihar, Saket G-Block
3 Blue Line 5[139][140] 5.2 Noida Electronic City Sahibabad Vaibhav Khand, DPS Indirapuram, Shakti Khand, Vasundhara Sector 5, Sahibabad Proposed
M1 Delhi Metrolite 21 19.09 Kirti Nagar Bamnoli Village Kirti Nagar, Saraswati Garden, Mayapuri Bus Depot, Mayapuri, Hari Nagar Block BE, Mayapuri Industrial Area, Mayapuri Industrial Area-II, Tihar Jail, Shivpuri, Dabri Village, Sitapuri Extension, Mahavir Enclave, Dwarka Sector 2, Dwarka Sector 7, Dwarka Sector 6, Dwarka Court, Dwarka Sector 20, Dwarka Sector 23, Dhul Siras Village, ECC Dwarka, Bamnoli Village
Total 115 141.21

Proposed Phase V

Former DMRC managing director E. Sreedharan said that by the time Phase IV is completed, the city will need Phase V to cope with increased population and transport needs.[45] Planning for this phase has not begun, but the following corridor has been suggested for the near future:

Haryana and UP connectivity

Haryana projects

Uttar Pradesh (UP) projects

Operations

Exterior of a modern building
Millenium City Centre metro station
See caption
Platform screen doors at the New Delhi metro station

Trains operate at a frequency of one to two minutes to five to ten minutes between 05:00 and 00:00, depending upon peak and off-peak hours. They typically travel up to 75 km/h (47 mph), and stop for about 20 seconds at each station. Automated station announcements are in Hindi and English. Many stations have ATMs, food outlets, cafés, convenience stores and mobile recharge. Eating, drinking, smoking, and chewing gum are prohibited. The metro has a sophisticated fire alarm system for advance warning in emergencies, and fire retardant material is used in trains and stations.[153] Navigation information is available on Google Maps.[154] Since October 2010, the first coach of every train is reserved for women; the last coach is also reserved when the train changes tracks at the terminal stations on the Red, Green and Violet Lines.[155][156] The mobile Delhi Metro Rail app has been introduced for iPhone and Android users with information such as the location of the nearest metro station,[157] fares, parking availability, nearby tourist attractions, security and emergency helpline numbers.[158]

Security

Security has been provided by the CISF Unit DMRC since 2007.[159] Closed-circuit cameras monitor trains and stations, and their feeds are monitored by the CISF and Delhi Metro authorities.[160] Over 7,000 CISF personnel have been deployed for security in addition to metal detectors, X-ray baggage-inspection systems, and detection dogs. Eighteen Delhi Metro Rail Police stations have been established, and about 5,200 CCTV cameras have been installed. Each underground station has 45 to 50 cameras, and each elevated station has 16 to 20 cameras. The cameras are monitored by the CISF and the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation.[161] Intercoms are provided in each train car for emergency communication between passengers and the train operator.[162] Periodic security drills are carried out at stations and on trains.[163] The DMRC is considering raising station walls and railings for passenger safety.[164]

Ticketing

A token with a picture of a train
A Delhi Metro token

The metro's fares were last revised on 10 October 2017, based on the recommendation of the 4th Fare Fixation Committee in May 2016.[165][166] Metro commuters have five choices for ticket purchases:[167]

Problems

An urban landscape
The Yellow Line near the IFFCO Chowk metro station in Gurgaon. After complaints from nearby residents, the Delhi Metro installed barriers in 2011 to reduce noise pollution from metro trains.[185]
Exterior of a large station
The Jasola Apollo metro station

As the metro has expanded, high ridership on new trains has led to increasing overcrowding and delays.[186][187] To alleviate the problem, eight-coach trains have been introduced on the Yellow and Blue Lines and more-frequent trains have been proposed.[186] Infrequent, overcrowded and erratic feeder bus services connecting stations to nearby localities have also been a concern.[188][189] Although the quality and cleanliness of the Delhi Metro have been praised, rising fares have been criticized; fares are higher than those of the bus services the metro replaced.[23] According to a recent study, Delhi Metro fares are some of the world's least affordable among metros charging over US$0.5 per ride.[190] Another study finds that Delhi Metro may also have a low ridership problem compared to its size and may not be generating the amount of traffic a metro system generates.[191]

Feeder buses

Front view of a bus
A DMRC electric feeder bus at the Anand Vihar metro station

DMRC began its feeder bus service in 2007 with a fleet of 117 minibuses on 16 routes.[192][193] In January 2024, it had a fleet of 47 electric feeder buses on five routes to nine metro stations: Kashmere Gate, Gokulpuri, Shastri Park, Laxmi Nagar, East Vinod Nagar - Mayur Vihar-II, Anand Vihar, Dilshad Garden, Vishwavidyalaya, and GTB Nagar. The routes are:[194][195][196]

Ridership

The Delhi Metro had a year-over-year increase in ridership until FY 2016–17; when metro services were introduced in 2002, the average ridership was 80,000 per day.[197] In FY 2016–17, average daily ridership rose to 28 lakh (2.8 million).[40] Ridership declined in 2017-18 and marginally increased in 2018–19, after fare increases.[40] The highest number of passengers in a single day was on 30 July 2019, with 51.6 lakh (5.16 million) trips.[b][198] In FY 2019–20, the average daily ridership was 27.8 lakhs (2.78 million).[199]

Metro service was suspended on 25 March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[200] Operations resumed on 12 September 2020,[201] and the average daily ridership fell to 8.78 lakh (0.88 million) in FY 2020–21.[40]

Average daily ridership[202][203][204][40][2]
Year Ridership
2004–05
124,000
2005–06
268,000
2006–07
484,000
2007–08
625,000
2008–09
722,000
2009–10
919,000
2010–11
1,259,000
2011–12
1,660,000
2012–13
1,926,000
2013–14
2,205,000
2014–15
2,403,000
2015–16
2,615,000
2016–17
2,800,000
2017–18
2,587,000
2018–19
2,593,000
2019–20*
2,780,000
2020–21*
878,000
2021–22
2,516,000

* Includes Rapid Metro Gurgaon.

Finances

Summary financials

Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.

Source:[205][206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213]
[214][215][216][217][218][219][220][221][222]

The Delhi Metro has been operating with a loss in EBT (earnings before taxes) since 2010, although the loss has shrunk since 2015–16. Its EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization) declined from 73 percent in FY 2007 to 27 percent in FY 2016–17 before improving to 30 percent in 2017–18. The metro began a naming policy for stations in 2014, awarded by an open e-tendering process, to generate non-fare revenue.[223][224][225]

Funding and capitalisation

DMRC is owned by the government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the government of India. Total debt was 291.5 billion (US$3.7 billion) in March 2016, and equity capital was 239.9 billion (US$3.0 billion). The cost of the debt is zero percent for Union Government and Delhi Government loans, and from 0.01 and 2.3 percent for Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) loans. On 31 March 2016, 193.1 billion (US$2.4 billion) was paid-up capital; the rest is reserves and surplus.[214]

Depots

The Delhi Metro has 15 depots.

Delhi Metro depots
Line Line name Number of depots Location Opening date
1 Red Line 1 Shastri Park 25 December 2002
Narela depot 2024
2 Yellow Line 3 Siraspur depot 28 May 2020
Khyber Pass 20 December 2004
Sultanpur 21 June 2010
3 / 4 Blue Line 2 Yamuna Bank 10 May 2009
Najafgarh 21 December 2005
5 Green Line 2 Mundka (India's first standard-gauge depot) 2 April 2010
Modern Industrial Estate (MIE) 24 June 2018
6 Violet Line 2 Sarita Vihar 3 October 2010
Neelam Chowk Ajronda 6 September 2015
Airport Express 1 Dwarka Sector 21 23 February 2011
7 Pink Line 2 Mukundpur 14 March 2018
Vinod Nagar - Ghazipur 31 October 2018
8 Magenta Line 2 Kalindi Kunj - Jasola Vihar Shaheen Bagh 25 December 2017
Mangolpuri 2024
9 Grey Line 1 Najafgarh 4 October 2019

Some depots, such as Shastri Park and Yamuna Bank, are near their respective at-grade station complexes; others, such as Sarita Vihar and Mundka, are joined indirectly to the main line. The Najafgarh depot is unique in housing trains from the Blue and Grey Lines; the Sarita Vihar depot will house Violet and Golden Line trains in the future. The Phase III Kalindi Kunj and Vinod Nagar depots were built differently due to land-acquisition issues; the former has an extra elevated stabling yard adjacent to the Jasola Vihar - Shaheen Bagh station, and the latter has two sub-depots (one with two floors). An elevated stabling yard was also built adjacent to the Noida Electronic City station, but it is not considered a depot. As part of Phase IV, the Mukundpur depot will be expanded to accommodate the Pink and Magenta Lines[226][227] without land-acquisition issues.[228]

Rolling stock

See caption
A Phase I broad-gauge Mitsubishi CorporationBEML train[229]
See caption
A Phase II broad-gauge Bombardier train

The metro has two rail gauges. Phase I lines have 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) broad gauge rolling stock, and three Phase II lines have 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) rolling stock.[230] Trains are maintained at seven depots at Khyber Pass and Sultanpur for the Yellow Line, Mundka for the Green Line, Najafgarh and Yamuna Bank for the Blue Line, Shastri Park for the Red Line, and Sarita Vihar for the Violet Line.[231][232] Maglev trains were considered for some Phase III lines, but DMRC decided to continue with conventional rail in August 2012.[233]

By 31 March 2015, the company had a total of 1,306 coaches (220 trains). In addition to line extensions, two new lines (7 and 8) were proposed in Phase III. Unattended train operation (UTO) will be in 486 coaches (81 six-car trains). An additional 258 broad-gauge (BG) coaches for Lines 1 to 4 and 138 standard-gauge (SG) coaches for Lines 5 and 6 were proposed. At the end of Phase III, there would be 2,188 coaches (333 trains). Except for a few four-car trains on Line 5, 93 percent of the trains would have a six- or eight-car configuration at the end of Phase III.[213]

Broad gauge

Rolling stock is provided by two major suppliers. Phase I rolling stock was supplied by a consortium of companies (Hyundai Rotem, Mitsubishi Corporation, and MELCO). The coaches look similar to the MTR Rotem EMU, but have only four doors; sliding doors, instead of plug doors, are used. The coaches were initially built in South Korea by Rotem,[232] then in Bangalore by BEML through a technology transfer arrangement.[234] The trains consist of four lightweight 3.2-metre-wide (10 ft 6 in) stainless-steel coaches with vestibules (permitting movement throughout them) and can carry up to 1,500 passengers,[235] with 50 seated and 330 standing passengers per coach.[236] The coaches are air-conditioned, equipped with automatic doors, microprocessor-controlled brakes and secondary air suspension,[237] and can maintain an average speed of 32 km/h (20 mph) over a distance of 1.1 km (0.68 mi).[236] The system is extendable to eight coaches, and platforms have been designed accordingly.[235]

Phase II rolling stock is supplied by Bombardier Transportation, which received an order for 614 cars at a cost of about US$1.1 billion.[238] Although the initial trains were made in Görlitz, Germany and Sweden, the remainder will be built at Bombardier's factory in Savli (near Vadodara).[239] The four- and six-car trains have a capacity of 1,178 and 1,792 commuters each, respectively. Coaches have closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras with eight-hour backup, chargers for cell phones and laptops, and improved climate control.[240]

Standard gauge

Standard-gauge rolling stock is manufactured by BEML at its factory in Bangalore, and most of these trains are supplied to BEML by Hyundai Rotem. The four-car trains have a capacity of 1,506 passengers,[241] accommodating 50 seated and 292 standing passengers in each coach.[236] The trains, with CCTV cameras in and outside the coaches, chargers for mobile phones and laptops, improved climate control and microprocessor-controlled disc brakes,[242] will be capable of maintaining an average speed of 34 km/h (21 mph) over a distance of 1.1 km (0.68 mi).[236]

Airport Express

Eight six-car trains supplied by CAF Beasain were imported from Spain.[243] CAF held five-percent equity in the DAME project, and Reliance Infrastructure held the remaining 95 percent[244] before DMRC took over operations. Trains on this line have noise reduction and padded fabric seats. Coaches are equipped with LCD screens for entertainment and flight information. Trains have an event recorder which can withstand high levels of temperature and impact, and wheels have a flange-lubrication system for reduced noise and improved comfort.[155]

Signalling and telecommunication

Interior of a metro car, with limited seating
Interior of a Mitsubishi Corporation coach
Elevated-train signal, with high-rise buildings in the background
Metro signal

The metro uses cab signalling with a centralised automatic train control system consisting of automatic operation, protection and signalling modules.[245] A 380 MHz digital trunked TETRA radio communication system from Motorola Solutions is used on all lines to carry voice and data information.[246] For the Blue Line, Siemens supplied the electronic interlocking Sicas, the Vicos OC 500 operation-control system and the LZB 700 M automation-control system.[247] An integrated system with optical fibre cable, on-train radio, CCTV, and a centralised clock and public address system is used for telecommunication during normal operations and emergencies.[248] Alstom supplied the signalling system for the Red and Yellow Lines, and Bombardier Transportation supplied its CITYFLO 350 signalling system for the Green and Violet Lines.

The Airport Express line introduced WiFi service at all its stations on 13 January 2012.[249] Connectivity in trains is expected in the future. WiFi service is provided by YOU Broadband and Cable India.[250] In August 2017, Wifi service began at all the 50 stations of the Blue Line.[251] A fully-automated, operator-less train system was offered to the metro by the French technology firm Thales.[252]

Environment and aesthetics

See caption
A rooftop solar-power system at the Anand Vihar metro station

The metro has received awards for environmentally-friendly practices from organisations including the United Nations,[253] RINA,[254] and the International Organization for Standardization;[254] it is the second metro in the world, after the New York City Subway, to be ISO 14001 certified for environmentally-friendly construction.[255] By March 2023, 64 metro stations, four sections on the central verge between piers, and 12 other Phase I and II locations on the network have rainwater harvesting for environmental protection;[256][257] all 27 Phase-IV elevated stations will also harvest rainwater, and 52 recharge pits are being constructed for this purpose.[258] It is the world's first railway project to earn carbon credits after being registered with the United Nations under the UN's Clean Development Mechanism,[259] and has earned 400,000 carbon credits with the regenerative braking systems on its trains.[260]

DMRC installed the metro's first rooftop solar power plant at the Dwarka Sector-21 station in 2014. The network received 35 percent of its energy from renewable sources by April 2023, which it intends to increase to 50 percent by 2031. Of this, 30 percent comes from the Rewa Ultra Mega Solar park in Madhya Pradesh;[261] four percent (50 MWp) comes from rooftop solar panels, and one percent comes from a waste-to-energy plant in Ghazipur.[262][263] DMRC has installed solar panels at 142 locations: 15 depots, 93 stations, and 34 other buildings.[262][264]

The metro has been promoted as an integral part of community infrastructure, and artwork depicting the local way of life has been displayed at stations.[23]: 284  Students at local art colleges have designed murals at metro stations,[265] and the viaduct pillars of some elevated sections have been decorated with mosaic murals created by local schoolchildren.[266] The metro station at INA Colony has a gallery of artwork and handicrafts from across India,[267] and all stations on the Central Secretariat – Qutub Minar section of the Yellow Line have panels depicting Delhi's architectural heritage.[268] The Nobel Memorial Wall at Rajiv Chowk has portraits of the seven Indian Nobel laureates: Rabindranath Tagore, CV Raman, Hargobind Khorana, Mother Teresa, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Amartya Sen and Venkatraman Ramakrishnan.

In popular culture

A number of films have been shot in the Delhi Metro;[269][270] the first was Bewafaa in November 2003.[271] Delhi-6, Love Aaj Kal, PK, and Paa also have scenes filmed inside Delhi Metro trains and stations.[272][273] Bang Bang! was filmed near the Mayur Vihar Extension metro station in March 2014,[274][275] and the 2019 film War was filmed in the metro.[276]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Transfer stations are counted more than once. There are 24 transfer stations. If transfer stations are counted once, the result is 231 stations. Ashok Park Main station, where the two branches of the Green Line share tracks and platforms, is counted as one station. Noida Metro and Gurgaon Metro stations are not counted; if they were, the result would be 288 stations.[11][1][6]
  2. ^ a b c Based on line utilisation, which counts transit lines used for a single journey.
  3. ^ a b The metro's total length is 350.42 km. The Gurgaon Metro and Noida Metro are operated and maintained by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, and the total length operated by the DMRC is 392.44 kilometres (243.85 mi).[11][6]
  4. ^ Does not include the Dwarka Sector 21IICC - Dwarka Sector 25 corridor

References

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Further reading

Metro map