Ho Chi Minh City Metro
Thao Dien metro station under construction in 2023
Thao Dien metro station under construction in 2023
Overview
Native nameĐường sắt đô thị Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh
OwnerManagement Authority for Urban Railways
LocaleHo Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines2 (under construction)
Number of stations14 (under construction)
Websitemaur.hochiminhcity.gov.vn
Operation
Operation will start2024
Number of vehicles17 three-car Hitachi trains
Technical
System length19.7 km (12.2 mi) (Line 1)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge[1]
ElectrificationOverhead catenary
Top speed110 km/h (68 mph)[1]
System map

The Ho Chi Minh City Metro (HCMC Metro, Vietnamese: Đường sắt đô thị Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, lit.'urban railway of the city of Ho Chi Minh') is a planned rapid transit network that will serve Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam.

Its first metro line, Line 1, started construction in 2012 and is scheduled for completion in early 2024, after multiple delays, with operations starting the same year. As of 2021, most of the network is in the planning stages, with projects for different lines advancing as funds become available.[2] A second line, Line 2, began construction in 2024.[3]

History

Main article: History of the Ho Chi Minh City Metro

Earlier proposals (2001–2012)

The network was first proposed in 2001[1] as part of a comprehensive public transport network plan including Ho Chi Minh City and neighbouring provinces, with the aim of avoiding the severe traffic congestion problems that have affected other Asian cities (such as Hanoi).[4]

According to the original master plan submitted in February 2001, the metro system would comprise six lines. The plan was originally expected to cost US$1.5 billion over 10 years, as part of a US$3.35 billion program to build a rail network serving Ho Chi Minh City and surrounding provinces.[5]

The plan was revised in 2007 and proposed no less than six urban rail lines. The city’s transport development master plan to 2020 envisages developing three monorail or light rail lines with a total length of 37 kilometres (23 mi) and six underground metro routes with a total length of 107 kilometres (66 mi).[6] Bến Thành Market in District 1, already a major hub for bus traffic, will become a major hub connecting several lines.[citation needed]

Revised plan and construction (2013–present)

Construction of Bến Thành station (August 2017)

The latest plans for Ho Chi Minh City Metro, a revised version of the earlier proposal in 2007, was approved on 8 April 2013.[7][8] The network's first line, connecting Bến Thành Market and Suối Tiên Park in Thu Duc City, was originally scheduled for completion in 2014. A groundbreaking ceremony for Line 1 was held on 21 February 2008. However, due to funding issues, construction only began in 2012, pushing the project completion date to 2018.[9][10][11] Line 1 is mainly funded through official development assistance provided by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), with the remainder being financed by the city's government budget.[12][13]

In September 2013, an agreement was reached with the Asian Development Bank, the European Investment Bank, and the Spanish Government to provide €850 million to finance the construction of Line 5, with any additional cost funded by the Vietnamese Government. A revised construction start of 2015 was provided.[14]

On 13 September 2017, the authorities announced that Line 1 will be delayed for two years. Cost overrun, audits, and delayed payments to contractors contributed to the delay. The targeted completion date was set at 2020.[15] Planners expect the route to serve more than 160,000 passengers daily upon launch, increasing to 635,000 by 2030 and 800,000 by 2040. All stations along the route are expected to accommodate the disabled, with automatic ticket vending machines, telephone booths, restrooms, subway doors and information bulletins accessible to the handicapped and visually impaired.

On 28 January 2019, MAUR Director of Project Management Unit Duong Huu Hoa stated that as of December 2018, construction progress of Line 1 has reached 62%, below the target of 65%. The project has been criticised by the local press for its repeated delays.[16]

Japan’s Nippon Koei Group was the main designer and consultant for the line. The elevated sections were built by a joint venture between Japanese conglomerate Sumitomo and Vietnamese state-owned contractor Cienco 6. The underground section is being built by a joint venture between two other Japanese companies, Shimizu and Maeda.[17]

Construction of Line 2 was initially scheduled to begin in 2013, with operations beginning in 2018. However, on 13 September 2017, the local authorities have requested to the Prime Minister to push back the construction of the second line to 2020 with completion in 2024. In February 2020, the expected opening date for the first line was scheduled for the end of 2021.[18] No reason was given for the delay. The estimated cost of the line has also ballooned from $1.3 billion to more than $2.1 billion.[19]

In December 2020, it was reported that one of the Elastomeric Laminated Bearing pads, which hold up the concrete beams of the viaducts for Line 1, had fallen off, causing one of the beams to be displaced and crack. Research on the incident is still being done by the contractor.[20]

In February 2021, first metro line completion line was pushed back to 2022.[21]

On 8 September 2021, the Management Authority for Urban Railways (MAUR) announced that Line 1 will be further delayed. Construction was expected to be completed in late 2023, with commercial operations beginning in 2024.[22]

On 23 October 2023, MAUR announced that the project has been further delayed until early 2024.[23]

Construction for Line 2 broke ground in February 2024.[3]


Lines

Line Line name Length Stations Terminus Note
 1  S: Sài Gòn line 19.7 km 14 Bến ThànhNew Eastern Bus Station Under construction[24]
Option to extend to Biên Hoà or Bình Dương
 2  B: Bà Quẹo line 48 km 42 Củ ChiThủ Thiêm Under construction[3]
Phase 1: Bến Thành - Tham Lương with 11 stations. [25]
 3A  K: Tân Kiên line 19.8 km 17 Bến Thành ↔ Tân Kiên planned
Option to extend to Tân An
 3B  N: Thị Nghè line 12.2 km 10 Cộng Hoà Junction ↔ Hiệp Bình Phước (Thủ Đức City) planned
Option to extend to Thủ Dầu Một and connect with Bình Dương Metro
 4  G: Gò Vấp line 35.75 km 32 Thạnh Xuân ↔ Hiệp Phước planned
 4  T: Tân Sơn Nhất line 03.2 km 03 Gia Định Park (Line 4) ↔ Lăng Cha Cả Junction (Line 5) planned
Phase 1: Tân Sơn Nhất Airport - Lăng Cha Cả[26]
 5  C: Cần Giuộc line 23.39 km 22 New Cần Giuộc Bus Station ↔ Saigon Bridge planned
Phase 1: Bảy Hiền - Saigon Bridge[27]
 6  Đ: Đầm Sen line 06.8 km 07 Bà Quẹo Junction ↔ Phú Lâm Junction planned

The plan also includes 3 lines of tramway and monorail:

Line description Length Stations Route Note
Tramway 1 12.8 km 6 Ba Son (Line 1) - Võ Văn Kiệt - Lý Chiêu Hoàng - Current Western Bus Station (Bến xe Miền Tây) planned
Option to extend to Bình Quới
Monorail 2 27.2 km ? National Highway 50 - Xuân Thuỷ (District 2) - Bình Quới planned
Monorail 3 16.5 km ? Junction Nguyễn Oanh and Phan Văn Trị - Quang Trung Software City - Tân Chánh Hiệp Railway Station planned

Trains

Line 1 will have 17 trains supplied by Hitachi. Each train consists of 3 cars, holding up to 930 people in total (147 seated and 789 standing passengers). Each trainset is 61.3 m (201 ft) long, operates at 110 km/h (68 mph) on standard-gauge elevated rail track and 80 km/h (50 mph) on underground rail track. They are powered by a 1.5kV DC overhead line.[28][29]


See also

Footnotes

Notes and references

References
  1. ^ a b c Robert Schwandl (2007). "Ho Chi Minh City Metro". UrbanRail.net. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  2. ^ "Completion of first HCMC metro line delayed again". Vnexpress.net. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  3. ^ a b c "Vietnam business hub breaks ground on Metro Line 2". Nikkei Asia. Retrieved 2024-02-19.
  4. ^ "Ho Chi Minh City plans to build a metro network". International Railway Journal. 1 May 2002. Archived from the original on 1 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-27.
  5. ^ "Ho Chi Minh City Metro Plan". International Railway Journal. January 2001. Archived from the original on 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  6. ^ M.Vong (10 April 2007). "Vietnam to build first subway with Japanese aid". Thanh Nien. Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
  7. ^ "Decision 568/QĐ-TTg". Thu Vien Phap Luat. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  8. ^ "Master plan of urban railways system". MAUR. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  9. ^ "Ho Chi Minh City Metro, Vietnam - Railway Technology".
  10. ^ "The work begins: HCM City to have first subway in 2014". VietnamNet Bridge. 30 April 2010.[permanent dead link]
  11. ^ "Work starts on Ho Chi Minh City metro line". International Railway Journal. 24 August 2010. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
  12. ^ Minh, Gia (2021-08-07). "Disburse $82 mln more in ODA funds for first metro: HCMC". VnExpress International. Retrieved 2021-09-10.
  13. ^ "Metro Line No1 in HCM City likely to be completed after 2021". VietnamPlus. 2021-03-18. Retrieved 2021-09-10.
  14. ^ "City Metro Project receives Euro850 million funding". SGGP. 12 September 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-12.
  15. ^ "Ho Chi Minh City selects underground contractors". Railway Gazette International. 26 July 2014. Archived from the original on 2015-01-12. Retrieved 2015-04-25.
  16. ^ "Nguy cơ tạm dừng dự án Metro số 1 TP.HCM: Hậu quả khôn lường!". 14 October 2017.
  17. ^ "After a decade of work, Ho Chi Minh metro to be completed this year". 8 June 2022. Retrieved 6 Dec 2023.
  18. ^ Vietnam Insider, "First Metro Line in Ho Chi Minh to Launch Next Year", 19 February 2020.
  19. ^ TheLEADER.VN (2018-01-18). "HCM City calls for additional US$17.8 billion in eight urban railway routes". TheLEADER. Retrieved 2018-05-09.
  20. ^ VnExpress. "Unexplained HCMC metro line cracks raise serious concerns - VnExpress International". VnExpress International – Latest news, business, travel and analysis from Vietnam. Retrieved 2020-12-08.
  21. ^ "Saigon 1st metro line completion pushed back to 2022 - VnExpress International".
  22. ^ "Completion of first HCMC metro line delayed again".
  23. ^ "HCMC's Metro Line 1 not ready by year-end".
  24. ^ "TP HCM khởi công ga ngầm metro Bến Thành". Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  25. ^ "TPHCM khởi công tuyến tàu điện ngầm số 2". Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  26. ^ "5 tuyến metro của TP HCM đang triển khai đến đâu?". Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  27. ^ "TPHCM: Tuyến metro số 2 và 5 đủ vốn vẫn chưa thể khởi công". Archived from the original on 2 June 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  28. ^ "Thêm hai đoàn tàu Metro Số 1 về TP HCM". VNExpress. Retrieved 11 February 2024.
  29. ^ "Thi công lắp đặt hệ thống điện tiếp điện trên cao - Gói thầu số 3: "mua sắm thiết bị cơ điện, đầu máy toa xe, đường ray và bảo dưỡng " thuộc tuyến metro số 1 (Bến Thành – Suối Tiên)". MAUR. Retrieved 11 February 2024.
Bibliography