This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (August 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Assistance dog" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
An assistance dog pressing a button to open an automatic door
Hearing-assistance dog being patted on its head

An assistance dog, known as a service dog in the United States, is a dog trained to aid or assist an individual with a disability. Many receive training from an assistance dog organization, or by from their handler, often with the help of a professional trainer.


"Assistance dog" is the internationally established term for a dog that provides assistance to a disabled person and is task-trained to help mitigate the handler's disability. "Assistance dog" is the term adopted by organizations who train and provide assistance dogs, and some disabled people who partner with assistance dogs.[1]

Assistance or service dogs are to not be confused with Emotional Support Animals, as Emotional Support Animals are not protected under the ADA laws[2] or the Disability Act 2010 (UK)[citation needed] and typically have little to no training compared to an assistance or service dog.

Distinctive features

For a dog to be considered an assistance dog, they must meet the following criteria:

  1. The dog's handler must be disabled and meet the legal definition of disability in the specific country or region.
  2. The dog must be specifically trained to mitigate the partner's disability in some way, e.g. opening doors, detecting high blood sugar or allergens and notifying of such, alerting to a ringing phone, assisting those who are visually or mobility impaired.
  3. The dog must be trained to be safe with members of the public and well-behaved, as well as healthy and to not pose a hygiene threat.

Individual countries and regions will have specific laws and regulations, with these international criteria having broad recognition across the globe.[3][4]

Training process

Assistance dog in training in its vest
This section may contain information not important or relevant to the article's subject. Please help improve this section. (August 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Assistance dogs have traditionally been trained by charities and other organizations, who then partner a disabled person with a trained dog when the dog has completed its training program at approximately the age of 2. Increasingly, more disabled people are self-training their own assistance dogs,[5] whereby the disabled person selects their own dog (often referred to as a 'prospect'). There is great variability in their training that any future assistance dog receives, but all assistance dog candidates go through certain stages.

Dog selection

Assistance dog candidates are generally selected with care for appropriate health, temperament and characteristics. Large established organizations such as The Guide Dogs for the Blind select and maintain their own breeding stock to ensure healthy pups with desirable traits.[6] Some may carefully select prospect puppies from reputable breeders, or they may choose to commence training with a dog who was already part of the family.

The first period of a prospect's life as a puppy is normally spent in socialization rather than formal training. Some organizations often use puppy foster parents during the pups' first year, so the prospect grows up in a normal family environment surrounded by the sights, sounds and smells they will later work in to make them more effective.[7][8]

Task training

Once a puppy is old enough, they will commence their specialist training, which will include training in work and/or tasks. The tasks that an assistance dog prospect will learn all depend on the disabilities that their current or future handler has, and there is therefore almost no limit on the types of tasks a dog can be trained to. These may vary from picking up dropped items and taking laundry out of a washing machine to interrupting self-harming behaviors to providing deep pressure therapy for an autistic person.[9] In the US, the only two questions an assistance dog handler may be asked to confirm their dog is an assistance dog is whether they have a disability and whether the tasks the dog does mitigate that disability.[10]

"Assistance Dogs welcome" sign in Bolton Priory

At the same time as learning their unique tasks to support their handler, an assistance dog candidate needs to learn how to be well-behaved, polite and to present acceptably in public. Many owner-trainer support groups recommend following established dog obedience schemes such as the Kennel Club Bronze, Silver and Gold obedience training program to gain a high and dependable recognized standard of obedience and behavior followed by the Public Access Test, which evaluates a dog's ability to behave appropriately in public, and in places not normally deemed pet friendly where a person may enter with an assistance dog, such as a supermarket or restaurant.[11]


In the United States, assistance dogs fall into two broad categories: service dogs and facility dogs.[12] Service dogs are defined by the Americans with Disabilities Act as dogs that are individually trained to work or perform tasks for people with disabilities. State and local governments, businesses, and nonprofit organizations that serve the public generally must allow service animals to accompany people with disabilities in all areas of the facility where the public is normally allowed to go.[13] Facility dogs are used by working professionals to aid multiple people.[14] Therapy dogs, a subset of facility dogs, are specifically trained to provide emotional support, affection, and comfort to individuals in various settings, such as hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and disaster relief areas. These dogs play a crucial role in improving mental health, reducing stress, and creating a sense of well-being among the people they interact with.[15]

Mobility assistance dog helping his handler stand up

Common examples of assistance dogs include:

Common examples of facility dogs include:[14]

Similarities and differences between facility dogs and therapy dogs

Because both may aid people in similar settings such as healthcare environments, facility dogs are often mistakenly called therapy dogs; however, there are several important distinctions between them. Facility dogs are trained by accredited assistance dog organizations and therapy dogs are trained by their owners. Facility dogs may be handled by a wide variety of working professionals, while therapy dogs must be handled by their owners.

Facility dogs are trained by canine professionals or by their owner for a period of 18 to 24 months and must pass very rigorous tests before graduating from an assistance dog organization.[16] In contrast, registration for therapy dogs by a therapy dog organization does not require enrollment in obedience classes or therapy dog classes, meaning that therapy dogs often undergo a much less rigorous training process. Furthermore, the tests that therapy dogs must pass are less complicated and challenging than those taken by facility dogs.[17]

A person with either a therapy dog or a facility dog must have permission from the facilities they visit before they can enter with their animal. They do not have the right to demand access to places where pets are not generally permitted, or to have fees associated with their pets waived.[18]

See also


  1. ^ Assistance Dogs International. "A Guide to Assistance Dog Law" (PDF). Assistance Dogs International. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 11, 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  2. ^ "Americans with Disabilities Act". DOL. Retrieved 2023-10-29.
  3. ^ The Equality and Human Rights Commission. "Assistance Dogs. A Guide For All Businesses" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  4. ^ "Standards". Assistance Dogs Europe. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  5. ^ Yamamoto, Mariko; Hart, Lynette A. (2019-06-11). "Professionally- and Self-Trained Service Dogs: Benefits and Challenges for Partners With Disabilities". Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 6: 179. doi:10.3389/fvets.2019.00179. ISSN 2297-1769. PMC 6579932. PMID 31245394.
  6. ^ Guide Dogs. "Selection and monitoring of breeding stock". Guide Dogs. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  7. ^ "Become a Puppy Parent". Canine Partners. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  8. ^ "Can you help us Train a Puppy". Hearing Dogs for the Deaf.
  9. ^ Froling, Joan. "Assistance Dog Tasks". IAADP. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  10. ^ US Department of Justice. "Frequently Asked Questions About Service Animals and the ADA". Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  11. ^ "Public Access Test". IAADP. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  12. ^ "Canine Companions for Independence". Archived from the original on 2016-11-20. Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  13. ^ "ADA 2010 Revised Requirements: Service Animals". 28 March 2023.
  14. ^ a b "Facility Dogs - CCI". Archived from the original on 2015-07-25. Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  15. ^ "What is a Therapy Dog?". MyServiceAnimal. 6 September 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2023.
  16. ^ "Training Standards - Assistance Dogs International". Archived from the original on 2015-07-24. Retrieved 2015-07-24.
  17. ^ "Therapy Dogs International".
  18. ^ "Rights - Service Dog Central". Archived from the original on 2021-04-15. Retrieved 2015-07-24.