This page gives a list of domesticated animals,[1] also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation. This includes species which are semi-domesticated, undomesticated but captive-bred on a commercial scale, or commonly wild-caught, at least occasionally captive-bred, and tameable. In order to be considered fully domesticated, most species have undergone significant genetic, behavioural and morphological changes from their wild ancestors, while others have changed very little from their wild ancestors despite hundreds or thousands of years of potential selective breeding. A number of factors determine how quickly any changes may occur in a species, but there is not always a desire to improve a species from its wild form. Domestication is a gradual process, so there is no precise moment in the history of a given species when it can be considered to have become fully domesticated.

Zooarchaeology has identified three classes of animal domesticates:

  1. Pets (dogs, cats, ferrets, hamsters, etc.)
  2. Livestock (cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, etc.)
  3. Beasts of burden (horses, camels, donkeys, etc.)[2]

Domesticated animals

Species and subspecies Wild ancestor Date Location of origin Purposes Image Degree and type of domestication Extent in the wild vs. captivity Taxon group
Domestic dog (Canis familiaris)[3] Extinct Pleistocene population of the grey wolf (Canis lupus ssp.)[4] 13,000 BCE[5][6] China,[7][8][9]


meat, leather, fiber, hunting, herding, guarding, fighting, racing, working, rescuing, guiding, policing, draft, pack, sport, service, therapy, narcotics detection, truffle harvesting, pest control, research, education, show, pets
Pembroke Welsh Corgi 600.jpg
Tame (with exceptions),[10] significant physical changes, probably significant behavioral changes as well Domestic and feral dogs both very common,[10] ancestor or nearest wild relative less common, but not rare 1c Carnivora
Domestic goat (Capra hircus) Bezoar ibex (Capra aegagrus aegagrus) 10,000 BCE[11][12][13] Iran milk, meat, fiber, skin, horns, vellum, manure, guarding, fighting, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, clearing land, show, pets
Capra, Crete 4.jpg
Slight physical changes Common in captivity, threatened in the wild, feral populations common 1b Bovidae
Domestic pig (Sus domesticus) Anatolian boar (Sus scrofa libycus),[14] Northern Chinese boar (Sus scrofa moupinensis)[15] 9000 BCE[16][17][18][19] China, Western Asia meat, leather, tusks, manure, guarding, fighting, racing, truffle harvesting, weed control, research, show, pets
Sow with piglet.jpg
Some physical changes Common in the wild, much more common in captivity, feral populations common in some areas 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries)[3] Blackbelly sheep,[20] possibly the Armenian mouflon (Ovis gmelini gmelini) 9000 BCE to 8500 BCE[21][22] Anatolia, Iran meat, milk, fiber, leather, hides, pelts, horns, vellum, manure, guarding, fighting, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, research, ornamental, show, pets
Pair of Icelandic Sheep.jpg
Some physical changes Common in captivity, threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
European cattle or taurine cattle (Bos taurus)[3][23][24] Eurasian aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius)† 8000 BCE[25][26] China,[27] Western Asia meat, milk, leather, hides, fiber, horns, vellum, blood, dung, working, plowing, guarding, fighting, racing, draft, mount, soil fertilization, lawn mowing, weed control, worship, show, pets
Koe in weiland bij Gorssel.JPG
Some physical changes Very common in captivity, wild relatives extinct, feral populations fairly common 1b Bovidae
Zebu, Brahman cattle, indicine cattle or humped cattle (Bos indicus)[3] Indian aurochs (Bos primigenius namadicus)† 8000 BCE Indian Subcontinent meat, milk, leather, hides, horns, vellum, blood, dung, working, plowing, fighting, racing, draft, soil fertilization, lawn mowing, show, pets
Female zebu cattle.JPG
Considerable physical changes Common in captivity, wild relatives extinct 1b Bovidae
Domestic cat or house cat (Felis catus)[3] North African wildcat (Felis lybica lybica)[28] 8000–7500 BCE[28] the Near East meat, pelts, pest control, research, show, pets
Jammlich crop.jpg
Tame, some physical changes Very abundant in captivity; true wildcat species less abundant, though not rare, feral populations very common 1c Carnivora
Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Bangladesh red junglefowl (Gallus gallus murghi) with some contribution from the grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii) 6000 BCE[29] India and Southeast Asia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, manure, guarding, alarming, fighting, racing, pest control, weed control, ornamental, show, pets
Poltava chicken breed female.jpg
Some physical changes, considerable reproductive changes Very common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) Montane guinea pig (Cavia tschudii) 5000 BCE Peru meat, manure, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, research, show, pets
Tame, slight physical changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Domestic donkey, domestic ass or burro (Equus asinus) African wild ass (Equus africanus), including subspecies Nubian (E. a. africanus) and Somali wild ass (E. a. somaliensis)[30] 5000 BCE[31][32] Nubia meat, milk, manure, working, plowing, guarding, racing, draft, pack, mount, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets
Donkey in Clovelly, North Devon, England.jpg
Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity and as feral populations, wild relatives critically endangered 1e Other mammals
Gayal (Bos frontalis)[3] Gayal (Bos frontalis) with significant introgression from other Bos species[33] 5000 BCE[34] Southeast Asia, Northeast India meat, milk, horns, dung
Bos gaurus (Gayal) male.JPG
Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity, threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) Common mallard (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos) 4000 BCE China meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, pest control, weed control, ornamental, show, pets
Pekin Ducks cropped.jpg
Considerable physical changes Common in captivity, but more abundant in the wild 2a Anseriformes
Domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)[3] Wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) 4000 BCE India, China, the Philippines meat, milk, horns, dung, working, plowing, fighting, racing, draft, mount, lawn mowing, show
Water Buffalo, Phayao Lake.jpg
Mainly unchanged from the wild animal Common in captivity, endangered in the wild 1b Bovidae
Dromedary or Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius)[35] 4000 BCE Arabia, the Horn of Africa meat, milk, urine, racing, hunting, pack, mount, show, pets
Tame, few physical changes Moderately common in captivity, small feral population in original range, significant feral population in Australia, truly wild dromedaries may be extinct 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) including subspecies German (A. m. mellifera), Italian (A. m. ligustica), Carniolan (A. m. carnica), Caucasian (A. m. caucasia), Greek (A. m. cecropia), Saharan (A. m. sahariensis) and Egyptian honey bees (A. m. lamarckii) - 4000 BCE (the modern era for A. m. mellifera, the 1880s for A. m. ligustica, uncertain for A. m. carnica, A. m. caucasia, A. m. cecropia, A. m. sahariensis and A. m. lamarckii) Europe (including Germany, Italy, Greece, Slovenia and the United Kingdom), Georgia, North Africa honey, wax, propolis, bee brood, royal jelly, venom, pollen, pollination, research
Some physical and behavioral changes, actual domestication status is still a point of contention[36] Very common in captivity, feral populations common, extent of status in the wild unclear; see Western honey bee for details 6a Hymenoptera
Domestic horse (Equus caballus) Extinct unknown population of the wild horse (Equus ferus), possibly the tarpan or European wild horse (E. f. ferus)†[37] 3500 BCE[38] Kazakhstan milk, meat, hair, manure, working, plowing, fighting, racing, servicing, guiding, draft, pack, mount, execution, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets
Nokota Horses cropped.jpg
Tame, some physical changes, mainly in colouration Common in captivity, very rare in the wild, feral populations common 1e Other mammals
Bali cattle (Bos javanicus domesticus) Banteng (Bos javanicus) [39] 3500 BCE[39] Bali, Indonesia meat, milk, horns, dung, working, plowing, draft, show
Banteng Domesticated Bali Bull.PNG
Slight physical changes Common in captivity, endangered in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic silkmoth (Bombyx mori) Wild silkmoth (Bombyx mandarina) 3000 BCE China silk, animal feed, pets
Tame/held in captivity, some physical changes Fairly common in captivity, extent of status in the wild unclear 6b Other insects
Domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) Rock dove (Columba livia) 3000 BCE the Mediterranean Basin meat, manure, racing, messenger, ornamental, show, pets
Homing pigeon.jpg
Artificially selected and bred into many varieties including meat breeds, racing/messenger breeds and fancy plumage breeds Relatively common in captivity, very common in the wild, feral populations extremely abundant 2c Columbiformes
Domestic goose and domestic swan goose (Anser anser domesticus and Anser cygnoides domesticus) Greylag goose (Anser anser) and swan goose (A. cygnoides) 3000 BCE for A. anser, date uncertain for A. cygnoides[40] Egypt (A. anser), China (A. cygnoides) meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, alarming, pest control, weed control, show, pets
Neugierige Hausgans.JPG
Considerable physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Domestic yak (Bos grunniens)[3] Wild yak (Bos mutus) 2500 BCE Tibet, Nepal meat, milk, fiber, horns, dung, working, plowing, guarding, fighting, racing, pack, mount, show, pets
The Yak.jpg
Tame, slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity; threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel (Camelus ferus) 2500 BCE Central Asia (Afghanistan) meat, milk, hair, dung, pack, mount, show, pets
Tame, few physical changes Moderately common in captivity, critically endangered in the wild 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Llama (Lama glama)[3] Guanaco (Lama guanicoe cacsilensis)[41] 2400 BCE[42] Peru, Bolivia meat, fiber, manure, working, guarding, racing, draft, pack, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets
Pack llamas posing near Muir Trail.jpg
Slight physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Alpaca (Lama pacos)[3] Vicuña (Lama vicugna mensalis)[41] 2400 BCE[42] Peru, Bolivia meat, milk, fiber, manure, guarding, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets
Corazon Full.jpg
Considerable physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic guineafowl (Numida meleagris domesticus) West African helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris galeatus) 2400 BCE[43] West Africa meat, eggs, manure, guarding, alarming, pest control, show, pets
Domesticated Guineafowl - - 543901.jpg
Mainly unaltered from the wild population Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Fuegian dog or Yaghan dog†[44] Culpeo or Andean fox (Lycalopex culpaeus) date uncertain[45] Argentina, Chile hunting, guarding, warmth, pets
Fuegian dog (1863).jpg
Tame, slight physical changes Extinct in captivity, but common in the wild 1c Carnivora
Domestic ferret (Mustela furo) European polecat (Mustela putorius) 1500 BCE[46] North Africa hunting, racing, pest control, show, pets
Ferret 2008.png
Tame, slight physical changes Common in captivity, somewhat common in the wild, feral populations rare 1c Carnivora
Domestic Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata domestica) Wild Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata sylvestris) 700–600 BCE[42] South America meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, pest control, show, pets
Tame, some physical changes Common in captivity, feral populations rare 2a Anseriformes
Barbary dove or ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia risoria) African collared dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea) 500 BCE North Africa meat, show, pets
Feral Barbary Dove.jpg
Slight physical changes Common in both captivity and feral populations 2c Columbiformes
Domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) South Mexican wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo) 180 CE[42] Mexico meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, pest control, show, pets
White turkeys.jpg
Considerable physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) 300 CE to 400 CE China racing, pest control, ornamental, show, pets
Tame, significant physical changes Very common and abundant in captivity, extent of status in the wild unclear 5a Cyprinidae
Domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus) Iberian rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus)[47] 600 CE[48] Europe meat, fiber, pelts, manure, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, research, show, pets
Tame, significant physical changes Common in captivity, rare in native habitat, common in introduced range 1e Other mammals
Koi (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) Amur carp (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) the 11th century CE Japan ornamental, show, pets
Ojiya Nishikigoi no Sato ac (3).jpg
Tame, considerable physical changes Fairly common in captivity, threatened in the wild 5a Cyprinidae
Domestic canary (Serinus canaria domestica) Wild canary (Serinus canaria canaria) the 15th century CE the Canary Islands, Europe coal mining, fighting, research, show, pets
Zwei Kanarienvögel.JPG
Slight physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Society finch or Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) White-rumped munia or striated finch (Lonchura striata swinhoei) with some contribution from the Indian silverbill or white-throated munia (Euodice malabarica) unknown, may have been introduced to Japan sometime around the early 18th century CE[49] Japan pets, show, research
Slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity; common in the wild 2d Passeriformes
Fancy mouse a.k.a. laboratory mouse (Mus musculus domestica) Western European house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) 1100 BCE (China), then the 17th century CE (Europe)[50] China animal feed, racing, research, show, pets
Tame, significant physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Fancy rat a.k.a. laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus domestica) Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) the 19th century CE[51] the United Kingdom animal feed, research, show, pets
Tame, some physical and psychological changes Common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Domestic mink (Neogale vison domesticus)[52] American mink (Neogale vison) the 19th century CE North America fur, hunting, pest control, pets
American Mink - White.jpg
Some physical and psychological changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1c Carnivora
Domesticated silver fox (Vulpes vulpes amicus) American red fox (Vulpes vulpes fulva)[53][54][55] the 1800s and the 1950s Prince Edward Island; introduced to the Soviet Union (Russia) fur, pelts, research, pets
Silberfuchs 08.jpg
Tame, some physical changes Very small domestic population, wild relatives fairly common 1c Carnivora
Domesticated hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris, A. algirus, Hemiechinus auritus and H. collaris) Four-toed (Atelerix albiventris), Algerian (A. algirus), long-eared (Hemiechinus auritus), and Indian long-eared hedgehog (H. collaris) the 1980s Central and Eastern Africa pets
Baxter flower.jpg
Slight physical changes Common in the wild, somewhat rare in captivity 1e Other mammals

Tame and partially domesticated animals

Due to the somewhat unclear outlines of what precisely constitutes domestication, there are some species that may or may not be fully domesticated. There are also some species that are extensively used or kept as pets by humans, but are not significantly altered from wild-type animals. Most animals on this second table are at least somewhat altered from wild-type animals due to their extensive interactions with humans, albeit not to the point that they are regarded as distinct forms (therefore, no separate wild ancestors are noted). Many of them could not be released into the wild, or are in some way dependent on humans.

Species and subspecies Wild ancestor Date Location of origin Purpose Image Degree and type of domestication Extent in the wild vs. captivity Taxon group
Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) including subspecies Sri Lankan (E. m. maximus), Indian (E. m. indicus), Sumatran (E. m. sumatranus), Bornean (E. m. borneensis) and formerly Syrian elephants (E. m. asurus)†[56][57][58] - 2000 BCE (uncertain for E. m. maximus, E. m. sumatranus, E. m. borneensis and E. m. asurus)† India, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Nepal, Borneo, China, Indochina, formerly Iran dung, working, hunting, fighting, racing, transportation, mount, patrol, worship, show
Semi-domesticated (i.e., captured from the wild and tamed) Syrian subspecies extinct in the wild and in captivity; other subspecies somewhat common in captivity, but endangered in the wild[59][60] 1e Other mammals
Domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus domesticus) - 3000 BCE Fennoscandia, Western Russia (possibly Eastern Russia),[61]
China, Mongolia
meat, milk, leather, hides, antlers, transportation, mount, pets
Caribou using antlers.jpg
Semi-domesticated 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Arabian ostrich or Syrian ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus)†[62] - date uncertain Mesopotamia meat, eggs, feathers, sacrifices
Arabian Ostrich hunt.jpg
Extinct in the wild and in captivity 2f Palaeognathae
Scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) - 2320–2150 BCE Egypt meat, hides, horns, sacrifices
Scimitar oryx1.jpg
Small captive population, but nearly extinct in the wild 1b Bovidae
Caracal (Caracal caracal)[63] - date uncertain, possibly 200 BCE Egypt, India, Southern Africa hunting, pest control, pets
Caracl (01), Paris, décembre 2013.jpg
1c Carnivora
Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) including subspecies Southeast African (A. j. jubatus), Northeast African (A. j. soemmeringii) and Asiatic cheetahs (A. j. venaticus)[64][65] - 1500 BCE Egypt, India, the Middle East, South Africa hunting, tourism, pets
Gepard soemmeringii.jpg
1c Carnivora
Bubal hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus)† - date uncertain Egypt meat, hides, horns, sacrifices
Extinct in the wild and in captivity 1b Bovidae
Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) - pre-modern China (date uncertain) China pest control, ornamental, pets
Aix galericulata - Zürich - Hafen Riesbach 2011-01-14 15-58-32.JPG
2a Anseriformes
Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) - date uncertain Egypt meat, eggs, feathers, guarding, ornamental, pets
Common in the wild and in captivity, feral populations very common 2a Anseriformes
Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) - ancient Egypt (date uncertain) Egypt pest control, pets
Herpestes ichneumon Египетский мангуст, или фараонова крыса, или ихневмо́н.jpg
1c Carnivora
Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)[66] - 5000 BCE China pest control, pets
1c Carnivora
Common genet (Genetta genetta)[67] and Cape genets (G. tigrina) - date uncertain Africa pest control, pets
Genetta genetta felina (Wroclaw zoo).JPG
1c Carnivora
Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) including subspecies Chinese (A. c. cerana), Indian (A. c. indica) and Japanese honey bees (A. c. japonica) - date uncertain South Asia, Thailand, Japan, China honey, wax, pollination
Apis cerana, Asiatic honey bee - Khao Yai National Park.jpg
6a Hymenoptera
European fallow (Dama dama) and Persian fallow deer (D. mesopotamica)[68] - 1000 BCE the Mediterranean Basin, the Levant meat, hides, antlers, pets
Fallow deer in field.jpg
Semi-domesticated 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis)[69][70] - 800 BCE Europe, Asia bloodletting, surgery, therapy, research, saliva, pets
Svømmende blodigle.JPG
Captive-bred 7b Annelida
Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) - 700–500 BCE[42] Chile, Peru, Mexico dye
Dactylopius coccus (Barlovento) 04 ies.jpg
Very common in the wild 6b Other insects
Indian (Pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (P. muticus) - 500 BCE (uncertain for P. muticus) India, Java meat, feathers, ornamental, guarding, pest control, pets
Indian Peahens I IMG 9647.jpg
Fairly common in the wild 2b Galliformes
Common hill myna (Gracula religiosa) - kept in ancient Greece, date of captive breeding uncertain Greece pets, talking bird
2d Passeriformes
Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) including subspecies African (P. k. krameri) and Indian rose-ringed parakeets (P. k. manillensis) - classical antiquity (date uncertain) West Africa, India pets, talking bird
Rose-ringed Parakeet I IMG 9797.jpg
Captive-bred, plumage colour changes 2e Psittaciformes
Red deer (Cervus elaphus)[71][72] including subspecies Caspian (C. e. maral), Norwegian (C. e. atlanticus) and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus) - ~1 CE China, Russia, Europe (including the United Kingdom), Iran meat, milk, leather, hides, antlers, velvet, pets
Deer Stag AdF.jpg
Captive-bred 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Roman snail (Helix pomatia) - 100 CE Europe meat, eggs, shells, slime, pets
Helix pomatia 89a.jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Stingless bees (Melipona beecheii), (M. scutellaris), (M. bicolor), (M. quadrifasciata) and (M. subnitida) - 180 CE Mexico, the Amazon Basin honey, wax, propolis, pollination, pets
M. scutellaris Hive.jpg
Semi-domesticated 6a Hymenoptera
White cockatoo (Cacatua alba) - the Tang dynasty (618–907 CE) China, Indonesia pets, show
Cacatua alba -pet-8a.jpg
Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) including subspecies Triton (C. g. triton) and Eleonora cockatoos (C. g. eleonora) - date uncertain Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea pets, show
Cacatua galerita Tas 2.jpg
Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Great (Phalacrocorax carbo) and Japanese cormorants (P. capillatus) - 960 CE China, Japan fishing
Phalacrocorax carbo ja01.jpg
2g Other birds
Mute swan (Cygnus olor) - 1000-1500 CE Europe (including the United Kingdom) meat, feathers, ornamental, guarding, pets
Semi-domesticated 2a Anseriformes
House cricket (Acheta domesticus) - the 12th century CE Southwestern Asia, China, Japan meat, animal feed, fighting, pets
Acheta domesticus, adultes Weibchen.jpg
Somewhat common in captivity, very common in the wild 6b Other insects
Common (Coturnix coturnix) and Japanese quails (C. japonica) - 1100–1900 CE Eurasia, Japan meat, eggs, research, pets
Japanese Quail.jpg
2b Galliformes
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) - 1200–1500 CE Europe, Asia meat, eggs, pets
5a Cyprinidae
Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora) - the Ming dynasty (1368–1644 CE) China pets
Buberel Lonchura oryzivora 3.jpg
Non-wild coloration pied and fancy colored Java sparrows from long Asian captivity lines are hand tamable Threatened in the wild 2d Passeriformes
Siamese fighting fish or betta (Betta splendens); Spotted betta (B. picta) - the 19th century CE (uncertain for B. picta) Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo fighting, show, pets
HM Orange M Sarawut.jpg
Very significant physical and slight behavioral changes Common in captivity 5b Other fish
Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) including subspecies masked bobwhite (C. v. ridgwayi) - date uncertain the United States, Sonora meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Virginiawachtel 2007-06-16 065.jpg
Captive-bred, plumage changes 2b Galliformes
European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) - date uncertain Europe pets, singing
Carduelis carduelis close up.jpg
Captive-bred 2d Passeriformes
Indian grey mongoose (Urva edwardsii) - date uncertain India pest control, fighting, pets
Herpestes edwardsii at Hyderaba.jpg
1c Carnivora
Gambian pouched (Cricetomys gambianus) and Emin's pouched rats (C. emini) - at least 1997,[73] but possibly the early 1990s (uncertain for C. emini) Sub-Saharan Africa meat, landmine detection, tuberculosis detection, pest control, pets
Food Reward.JPG
1d Rodentia
Black (Francolinus francolinus) and grey francolins (F. pondicerianus) - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, fighting, pets
Black Francolin.jpg
2b Galliformes
Golden (Chrysolophus pictus) and Lady Amherst's pheasants (C. amherstiae) - date uncertain China ornamental, pest control, pets
Male Golden Pheasant DC.jpg
2b Galliformes
Common (Phasianus colchicus) and green pheasants (P. versicolor) - date uncertain Asia, Japan meat, eggs, ornamental, pest control, pets
2b Galliformes
Sika deer (Cervus nippon)[74] - date uncertain China, Taiwan, Japan meat, hides, antlers, tourism, pets
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Common eland (Taurotragus oryx) including subspecies East African (T. o. pattersonianus) and Livingstone's elands (T. o. livingstonii) - date uncertain Zimbabwe, South Africa, Kenya meat, milk, leather, hides, horns
Taurotragus oryx.jpg
1b Bovidae
American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)[75] - date uncertain the southeastern United States meat, hides, teeth, blood, pets
American Alligator.jpg
Captive-bred Once uncommon in the wild; captive breeding has led to the species both recovering across and repopulating much of its range. 3d Other reptiles
Eurasian elk or moose (Alces alces)[76] including subspecies Alaskan moose (A. a. gigas) - date uncertain Russia, Finland, Sweden, Alaska meat, milk, hides, antlers, working, draft, mount, transportation, research, pets
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Masai ostrich (Struthio camelus massaicus) - date uncertain North Africa, West Africa, East Africa meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, mount, racing, guarding, pets
Semi-domesticated 2f Palaeognathae
South African ostrich (Struthio camelus australis) - the 19th century CE Southern Africa meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, mount, racing, guarding, pets
Ostrich (Struthio camelus) male (13994461256).jpg
Semi-domesticated 2f Palaeognathae
Somali ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes) - date uncertain Kenya meat, eggs, feathers, mount, racing, guarding, pets
Somali ostrich.jpg
Semi-domesticated 2f Palaeognathae
Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) - the 1850s Australia pets, show, talking bird
Melopsittacus undulatus -Zoo Atlanta-8a.jpg
Captive-bred, plumage colour/pattern changes, some breeds are physically larger Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) - the 1870s Australia pets, show, talking bird
Nymphicus hollandicus -garden-8.jpg
Captive-bred, plumage colour/pattern changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Tian Shan wapiti (Cervus canadensis songaricus) - date uncertain Russia, China meat, leather, hides, antlers, velvet, pets
Rocky Mountain Bull Elk.jpg
Captive-bred 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
European mink (Mustela lutreola) - the 1800s Europe, Russia fur
1c Carnivora
Coypu or nutria (Myocastor coypus) - the late 19th to the early 20th century CE Argentina meat, fur, aquatic weed control, pets
Ratao do banhado 1 REFON.jpg
Captive-bred 1d Rodentia
Guppy (Poecilia reticulata);[77] Cauca (P. caucana), sailfin (P. latipinna), shortfin (P. mexicana), liberty (P. salvatoris), common (P. sphenops), and Yucatán mollies (P. velifera); Endler's livebearer (P. wingei) - date uncertain Barbados, Brazil, El Salvador, Guyana, Mexico, Venezuela bait, pest control, research, pets
Guppy coppia gialla.jpg
5b Other fish
Lesser fruit fly, vinegar fly or pomace fly (Drosophila melanogaster) - the 1910s Australia, South Africa research, animal feed
Drosophila melanogaster - side (aka).jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) - the 1920s China research, biotechnology, pets
1d Rodentia
Rosy-faced (Agapornis roseicollis), yellow-collared (A. personatus), Fischer's (A. fischeri), black-cheeked (A. nigrigenis), black-winged (A. taranta), and red-headed lovebirds (A. pullarius) - the 1920s (uncertain for A. personatus, A. fischeri, A. nigrigenis, A. taranta and A. pullarius) Africa, Madagascar pets
Agapornis fischeri -Ueno Zoo, Japan -three-8a-4c.jpg
Captive-bred, plumage colour/pattern changes in rosy-faced lovebird 2e Psittaciformes
Rainbowfishes (Melanotaeniidae; various species and subspecies) - the 1920s northern and eastern Australia, New Guinea, islands in Cenderawasih Bay and the Raja Ampat Islands in Indonesia pest control, pets
Red m boesemani.jpg
5b Other fish
Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) - the 1930s Syria, Turkey pets, research
Golden hamster front 1.jpg
Domesticated 1d Rodentia
Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) - the 20th century CE Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey pets, research
Хомяк брандта.jpg
Domesticated 1d Rodentia
Long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) - the 1930s the Andes fur, research, pets
Chinchilla lanigera1.jpg
1d Rodentia
Short-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla chinchilla) - the 1930s the Andes fur
Chinchilla brevicaudata.jpg
Raised in captivity Critically endangered in the wild 1d Rodentia
Water flea (Daphnia magna) - the 1930s North America, Eurasia, Africa research, animal feed
Daphnia magna-female adult.jpg
6c Other arthropods
African (Xenopus laevis) and western clawed frogs (X. tropicalis) - the 1950s (uncertain for X. tropicalis) Southern Africa, West Africa research, pets
Xenopus laevis 1.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Sea-monkey (Artemia nyos) - the 1950s the United States pets, research
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Ball (Python regius), Borneo (P. breitensteini), Sumatran short-tailed (P. curtus) and Brongersma's short-tailed pythons (P. brongersmai) - the 1960s (uncertain for P. breitensteini, P. curtus and P. brongersmai) Africa, Sumatra, Borneo, Malaysia pets
Ball python lucy.JPG
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Burmese python (Python bivittatus) including subspecies dwarf Burmese python (P. b. progschai)[78][79] - date uncertain Myanmar, Thailand, Bali, Java, Sulawesi meat, skins, medicine, pets
Python bivittatus тигровый питон.jpg
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Campbell's dwarf (Phodopus campbelli), winter white dwarf (P. sungorus) and Roborovski dwarf hamsters (P. roborovskii) - the 1960s Mongolia, Russia, China pets, research
Phodopus roborovskii side.jpg
1d Rodentia
Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum); tiger (A. tigrinum) and barred tiger salamanders (A. mavortium) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for A. tigrinum and A. mavortium) Mexico, the United States research, pets
Ambystoma mexicanum at Vancouver Aquarium.jpg
Slight physical changes A. mexicanum Critically endangered in the wild; A. tigrinum and A. mavortium less threatened 4b Other amphibians
Common leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) including subspecies Afghan leopard gecko (E. m. afghanicus) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for E. m. afghanicus) Pakistan, Afghanistan pets
Male Leopard Gecko.JPG
Slight physical modification Somewhat common in captivity 3b Lacertilia
American bison (Bison bison) including subspecies wood bison (B. b. athabascae) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for B. b. athabascae) North America meat, leather, hides, fiber, horns, guarding, pets
Semi-domesticated 1b Bovidae
Companion parrots (Psittaciformes; various species and subspecies)[80][81] - the 1980s and 1990s Australia, Africa, Asia, North America, Central America, South America, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Fiji pets, show, talking bird, ornamental, guarding, education, therapy
Congo African Grey pet on a perch.JPG
Captive-bred, plumage colour changes in some species (e.g. grey parrot, turquoise-fronted amazon, green-cheeked parakeet and others) 2e Psittaciformes
Turqoise (Neophema pulchella), blue-winged (N. chrysostoma), and scarlet-chested parrots (N. splendida) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for N. chrysostoma and N. splendida) Australia pets, show
Neophema pulchella -Rainbow Jungle -Australia-8a.jpg
Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Green and black (Dendrobates auratus) and yellow-banded poison dart frogs (D. leucomelas) - the mid- to late 20th century CE Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, French Guiana, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela pets
Dendrobates tinctorius - Karlsruhe Zoo 05.jpg
Slight physical changes; loss of toxicity 4a Anura
Common kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula) including subspecies California (L. g. californiae), Florida (L. g. floridana), Mexican black (L. g. nigrita), and Brooks' kingsnakes (L. g. brooksi) - date uncertain Arizona, Florida, Mexico, California pets
Lampropeltis getula getula.jpg
3a Serpentes
Grey-banded kingsnake (Lampropeltis alterna) - date uncertain Mexico, Guatemala, Arizona, Texas, California pest control, pets
Serpent roi bandes grises 01.JPG
3a Serpentes
Thayer's kingsnake (Lampropeltis mexicana thayeri) - date uncertain Mexico pets
Lampropeltis mexicana mexicana 01.jpg
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum) including subspecies eastern (L. t. triangulum), Andean (L. t. andesiana), and Pueblan milk snakes

(L. t. campbelli)

- date uncertain Guatemala, Mexico, Colombia, Panama, the United States pets
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Corn (Pantherophis gutttatus) and western rat snakes (P. obsoletus) - the 1960s (uncertain for P. obsoletus) the United States pets
Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity, common in the wild 3a Serpentes
Madagascar hissing (Gromphadorhina portentosa) and wide-horned hissing cockroaches (G. oblongonota) - the 1960s (uncertain for G. oblongonota) Madagascar pets
Female Madagascar hissing cockroach.JPG
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) and related species - the 1970s Australia pets
Bartagame fcm.jpg
Slight physical changes 3b Lacertilia
Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)[82] - the 1970s China meat, algae control
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Hungary.jpg
5a Cyprinidae
Eclectus parrots - principally Moluccan eclectus (Eclectus roratus) and Papuan eclectus (Eclectus polychloros) - the 1980s Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands pets
Eclectus roratus-20030511.jpg
Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Salmon-crested (Cacatua moluccensis), blue-eyed (C. ophthalmica), and Red-vented cockatoos (C. haematuropygia); long-billed (C. tenuirostris), western (C. pastinator), little (C. sanguinea) and Tanimbar corellas (C. goffiniana) - the 1980s (uncertain for C. ophthalmica, C. haematuropygia, C. tenuirostris, C. pastinator, C. sanguinea and C. goffiniana) the Maluku Islands, Papua New Guinea, Australia, the Tanimbar Islands, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands pets, show, talking bird
Cacatua moluccensis - closeup of head.jpg
Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps)[83] - the 1980s Australia pest control, pets
Petaurus breviceps 1.jpg
1e Other mammals
Rankin's dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) - the 1980s Australia pets
Pogona henrylawsoni.jpg
3b Lacertilia
Buff-tailed (Bombus terrestris) and common eastern bumblebees (B. impatiens) - the 1980s (uncertain for B. impatiens) Europe (including the United Kingdom), North America wax, pollination
Bumblebee October 2007-3a.jpg
6a Hymenoptera
Greater (Rhea americana) and Darwin's rheas (R. pennata)[84] - the 1990s (uncertain for R. pennata) South America meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, pets
Rhea side profile.jpg
Semi-domesticated 2f Palaeognathae
Australian emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae novaehollandiae) - the 1990s Australia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, guarding, pets
Semi-domesticated 2f Palaeognathae
Giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus) - date uncertain West Africa meat, milk, leather, hides, horns
Houston Giant Eland.jpg
1b Bovidae
Fringe-eared oryx (Oryx beisa callotis) - date uncertain Kenya meat, leather, hides, horns
Beisa, Tsawo-Wes, Tanzanië.jpg
1b Bovidae
Common degu (Octodon degus) - the 1990s the Chilean Andes pets, research
Octodon degus -Heidelberg Zoo, Germany-8a.jpg
1d Rodentia
Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus); Persian (M. persicus), Libyan (M. libycus), Shaw's (M. shawi), Tristram's (M. tristrami) and Sundevall's jirds (M. crassus) - the 1990s (uncertain for M. persicus, M. libycus, M. shawi, M. tristrami and M. crassus) Mongolia, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Turkey, Egypt pets, research
Golden Agouti Male 4-1-05.jpg
1d Rodentia
Green (Iguana iguana) and Lesser Antillean iguanas (I. delicatissima) - the 1990s (uncertain for I. delicatissima) South America, the Lesser Antilles meat, leather, pets
St Thomas Marriott Iguana 9 cropped.jpg
Captive-bred 3b Lacertilia
Carpet python (Morelia spilota) including subspecies diamond python (M. s. spilota); eastern (M. s. mcdowelli), Murray Darling (M. s. metcalfei), Torresian (M. s. variegata) and jungle carpet pythons (M. s. cheynei) - date uncertain Indonesia, Australia, New Guinea pets
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Southern green tree (Morelia viridis), southwestern carpet (M. imbricata), rough-scaled (M. carinata) and Bredl's pythons (M. bredli) - the mid-1990s (uncertain for M. carinata and M. bredli) Indonesia, Australia, New Guinea pets
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Red-tailed black (Calyptorhynchus banksii), yellow-tailed black (C. funereus) and glossy black cockatoos (C. lathami) - the late 1990s (uncertain for C. funereus and C. lathami) Australia pets, education
Red tailed Black Cockatoo in flight.jpg
Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Pin-tailed (Erythrura prasina), tricolored (E. tricolor), tawny-breasted (E. hyperythra), blue-faced (E. trichroa), red-eared (E. coloria), red-throated (E. psittacea) and Fiji parrotfinches (E. pealii) - date uncertain Malaysia, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Timor, Australia, the Philippines, New Caledonia, Fiji and Thailand pets
Erythrura prasina 228.jpg
2d Passeriformes
Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae) - the late 1990s Australia pets, show
Male adult Gouldian Finch.jpg
2d Passeriformes
Australian green (Ranoidea caerulea), orange-eyed (R. chloris), leaf green (R. phyllochroa), mountain stream (R. barringtonensis), magnificent (R. splendida), Blue Mountains (R. citropa) and dainty green tree frogs (R. gracilenta); growling grass frog (R. raniformis) - the late 20th century CE (uncertain for R. chloris, R. phyllochroa, R. barringtonensis, R. splendida, R. citropa, R. gracilenta and R. raniformis) Australia research, pets
Litoria caerulea - Darwin NT.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Argentine (Ceratophrys ornata), Brazilian (C. aurita), Venezuelan (C. calcarata), Surinam (C. cornuta), Caatinga (C. joazeirensis), Pacific (C. stolzmanni) and Cranwell's horned frogs (C. cranwelli) - the late 20th century CE (uncertain for C. aurita, C. calcarata, C. cornuta, C. joazeirensis, C. stolzmanni and C. cranwelli) Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname, Ecuador pets
Argentine Horned Frog (Ceratophrys ornata)1.JPG
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Crucian (Carassius carassius), Japanese white crucian (C. cuvieri) and Prussian carp (C. gibelio); ginbuna (C. langdorfii)[85] - the 2000s (uncertain for C. cuvieri, C. gibelio and C. langdorfii) England, Russia, Japan meat, research, pets
Carassius carassius Prague Vltava 2.jpg
Domesticated 5a Cyprinidae
King quail (Synoicus chinensis) - date uncertain Asia, Australia pets
Excalfactoria chinensis (aka).jpg
2b Galliformes
Common (Corvus corax), white-necked (C. albicollis) and Australian ravens (C. coronoides); carrion (C. corone), hooded (C. cornix), American (C. brachyrhynchos), pied (C. albus) and house crows (C. splendens); rook (C. frugilegus)[86][87][88][89][90][91][92] - date uncertain Europe, Africa, India, Australia, North America pest control, research, show, pets
Corvus albus -Etosha National Park, Namibia-8.jpg
2d Passeriformes
Oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster)[93] - date uncertain India fishing
Oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster) 21-Mar-2007 6-10-09 AM.JPG
2g Other birds
Southern (Chauna torquata) and northern screamers (C. chavaria) - date uncertain South America guarding
Southern screamer (Chauna torquata).JPG
2a Anseriformes
Horned screamer (Anhima cornuta)[94] - date uncertain South America guarding
Anhima cornuta -near Manu Wildlife Center, Manu National Park, Peru -three-8.jpg
2a Anseriformes
Red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) - date uncertain South America guarding
Red-legged Seriema RWD1.jpg
2g Other birds
Black-legged seriema (Chunga burmeisteri) - date uncertain South America guarding
2g Other birds
Golden (Aquila chrysaetos),[95]eastern imperial (A. heliaca), Spanish imperial (A. adalberti), wedge-tailed (A. audax), steppe (A. nipalensis), tawny (A. rapax), Bonelli's (A. fasciata) and Verreaux's eagles (A. verreauxii); African hawk-eagle (A. spilogaster) - date uncertain Europe, North America, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Africa, Australia falconry, intercepting, pest control, show, pets
Aquila chrysaetos Flickr.jpg
2g Other birds
Bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)[96][97] and white-tailed eagles (H. albicilla); African fish eagle (H. vocifer); white-bellied sea (H. leucogaster) and Steller's sea eagles (H. pelagicus) - date uncertain North America, Europe, Russia, Africa, Australia falconry, intercepting, pest control, show, pets
Weisskopf Seeadler haliaeetus leucocephalus 2 amk.jpg
2g Other birds
Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi)[98] - date uncertain the United States falconry, pest control, show, pets
Harris Hawk 1b (5087160692).jpg
2g Other birds
Northern (Accipiter gentilis),[99] crested (A. trivirgatus) and African goshawks (A. tachiro); Cooper's (A. cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus); Eurasian (A. nisus), Ovambo (A. ovampensis), collared (A. cirrocephalus), Japanese (A. gularis) and black sparrowhawks (A. melanoleucus); besra (A. virgatus); shikra (A. badius) - date uncertain Europe, Asia, Africa, North America falconry, pest control, show, pets
Accipiter gentilis -owned by a falconer in Scotland -upper body-8a.jpg
2g Other birds
Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo)[100] including subspecies Western Siberian (B. b. sibiricus), Eastern Siberian (B. b. yenisseensis) and Turkmenian eagle-owls (B. b. omissus) - date uncertain Europe, Russia, Turkmenistan pest control, show, pets
2g Other birds
Tawny owl (Strix aluco)[101] - date uncertain Europe (including the United Kingdom) pest control, show, pets
Tawny Owl.jpg
2g Other birds
Puna ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi) - date uncertain Peru meat, eggs, pest control
Plegadis ridgwayi -Huacarpay Lakes, near Cusco, Peru-8.jpg
2g Other birds
Celebes warty pig (Sus celebensis) - date uncertain Sulawesi meat, tusks, pets
Sus celebensis.png
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Red-necked (Notamacropus rufogriseus),[102] tammar (N. eugenii) and parma wallabies (N. parma) - the 2000s (uncertain for N. eugenii and N. parma) Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales lawn mowing, research, tourism, pets
Red-necked wallaby.gk.jpg
1e Other mammals
Red kangaroo (Osphranter rufus)[103] - date uncertain Australia meat, leather, tourism, pets
Red kangaroo - melbourne zoo.jpg
1e Other animals
Tiger (Dasyurus maculatus), eastern (D. viverrinus), western (D. geoffroii) and northern quolls (D. hallucatus)[104][105][106][107] - date uncertain Australia pest control, pets
Dasyurus maculatus.jpg
1e Other mammals
Smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata)[108] - date uncertain Bangladesh fishing, pets
1c Carnivora
Beech (Martes foina)[109][110] and yellow-throated martens (M. flavigula); sable (M. zibellina) - date uncertain Europe, Russia, India fur, pest control, pets
Steinmarder (cropped).jpg
1c Carnivora
Fisher or Pennant's marten (Pekania pennanti) - date uncertain North America fur, pest control, research, pets
Fisher-face-snow - West Virginia - ForestWander.jpg
1c Carnivora
Least (Mustela nivalis), Siberian (M. sibirica)[111] and yellow-bellied weasels (M. kathiah); European polecat (M. putorius)[112][113] - date uncertain Europe, Russia, India pest control, pets
Mustela sibirica dd winter 2002.jpg
1c Carnivora
Greater (Galictis vittata) and lesser grisons (G. cuja) - date uncertain South America hunting, pest control, pets
Greater grison.jpg
1c Carnivora
Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon patagonicus) - date uncertain Argentina, Chile pest control, pets
Lyncodon patagonicus1.jpg
1c Carnivora
Common raccoon (Procyon lotor)[114] - date uncertain North America pest control, show, pets
Procyon lotor 7 - am Wasser.jpg
1c Carnivora
South American (Nasua nasua)[115] and white-nosed coati (N. narica) - date uncertain South America, Costa Rica pest control, show, pets
Nasua nasua.jpg
1c Carnivora
Ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) and cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)[116] - date uncertain North America, Central America pest control, pets
1c Carnivora
Southern (Tamandua tetradactyla) and northern tamanduas (T. mexicana)[117][118] - date uncertain South America, Central America pest control, pets
Southern Tamandua and Young - Sunshine international aquarium, Tokyo, Japan.jpg
1e Other mammals
Mountain paca (Cuniculus taczanowskii) - date uncertain Mexico, Argentina, Ecuador meat, pets
Cuniculus paca.jpg
1d Rodentia
Malayan (Hystrix brachyura),[119]Sunda (H. javanica), Indian crested (H. indica), African crested (H. cristata), Cape (H. africaeaustralis) and Philippine porcupines (H. pumila) - date uncertain Vietnam, China, Indonesia, the Philippines, India, Africa meat, quills, pets
Hystrix brachyura, Malayan porcupine.jpg
1d Rodentia
Chinese bamboo (Rhizomys sinensis) and large bamboo rats (R. sumatrensis) - date uncertain China meat, pets
Rhizomys sinensis - Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology - DSC02460.JPG
1d Rodentia
Lesser bamboo rat (Cannomys badius)[120] - date uncertain China, Laos meat, pets
Lesser bamboo rat.jpg
1d Rodentia
Steppe lemming (Lagurus lagurus) - date uncertain the Eurasian steppe pets
Lagurus lagurus.jpg
1d Rodentia
Lesser Egyptian (Gerbillus gerbillus), greater Egyptian (G. pyramidum), pale (G. perpallidus) and pleasant gerbils (G. amoenus) - date uncertain Egypt, Libya pets
1d Rodentia
Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus)[121] - date uncertain Europe pest control, pets
1d Rodentia
Northeastern (Ctenosaura acanthura), black (C. similis), and Mexican spiny-tailed iguana (C. pectinata) - date uncertain Mexico, Central America meat, pets
Captive-bred 3b Lacertilia
Chinese cobra (Naja atra)[122] - date uncertain China venom, skins, pets
Naja atra juvenile.jpg
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans) including subspecies Adelaide (P. e. adelaidae) and yellow rosellas (P. e. flaveolus) - date uncertain Australia pets
Platycercus elegans Wilsons Prom.jpg
Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Western (Platycercus icterotis), green (P. caledonicus), pale-headed (P. adscitus) and northern rosellas (P. venustus) - date uncertain Australia pets
Platycercus icterotis1.jpg
Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Eastern rosella (Platycercus eximius) including subspecies golden-mantled rosella (P. e. elecica) - date uncertain Australia pets
Eastern Rosella (36884763426).jpg
Captive-bred 2e Psittaciformes
Hispaniolan (Trachemys decorata), Colombian (T. callirostris), Cuban (T. decussata), D'Orbigny's (T. dorbigni), Nicaraguan (T. emolli), ornate (T. ornata), Jamaican (T. terrapen) and Meso-American sliders (T. venusta) - date uncertain Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, Uruguay, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Mexico, Jamaica pets
Trachemys decorata.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Pond slider (Trachemys scripta) including subspecies yellow-bellied (T. s. scripta), red-eared (T. s. elegans) and Cumberland sliders (T. s. troostii) - date uncertain the south-central and southeastern United States meat, pets
Easy to tame Fairly common in captivity, common in the wild 3c Testudines
Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis)[123] - date uncertain China meat, pets
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Chinese pond (Mauremys reevesii) and yellow pond turtles (M. mutica)[124] - date uncertain China meat, pets
Chinemys reevesii 02.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina)[125] - date uncertain Florida meat, pets
Common Snapping Turtle.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Golden coin turtle (Cuora trifasciata) - date uncertain China meat, pets
Cuora trifasciata.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Wattle-necked softshell turtle (Palea steindachneri) - date uncertain China meat, pets
Palea steindachneri.jpeg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Keeled box turtle (Cuora mouhotii)[126] - date uncertain China meat, medicine, pets
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa)[127] - date uncertain Brazil meat, pets
Podocnemis expansa INPA.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Saltwater (Crocodylus porosus), Nile (C. niloticus), West African (C. suchus), mugger (C. palustris), American (C. acutus), Cuban (C. rhombifer), Morelet's (C. moreletii), Orinoco (C. intermedius), freshwater (C. johnsoni), Siamese (C. siamensis), Philippine (C. mindorensis) and New Guinea crocodiles (C. novaeguineae)[128][129][130][131][132][133] - date uncertain Florida, Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Africa, Iran, India, Thailand, Myanmar, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines, Australia, Papua New Guinea meat, hides, teeth, blood, fat, guarding, tourism, show, pets
Captive-bred 3d Other reptiles
Crimson (Neochmia phaeton) and red-browed finches (N. temporalis) - date uncertain New Guinea, Australia pets, show
Neochmia phaeton -Middle Point, Northern Territory, Australia-8.jpg
2d Passeriformes
Star finch (Bathilda ruficauda) - date uncertain Australia pets, show
Neochmia ruficauda.jpg
2d Passeriformes
Plum-headed finch (Aidemosyne modesta) - date uncertain Australia pets, show
Plum-headed Finch-Neochmia modesta.jpg
2d Passeriformes
Grey partridge (Perdix perdix) - date uncertain Hungary, the United Kingdom meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Perdix perdix (Marek Szczepanek).jpg
2b Galliformes
Red-legged (Alectoris rufa), chukar (A. chukar), Philby's (A. philbyi), Arabian (A. melanocephala) and Barbary partridges (A. barbara) - date uncertain France, Afghanistan, North Africa, Yemen, Oman meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Perdrix rouge.jpg
2b Galliformes
Chinese bamboo (Bambusicola thoracicus) and mountain bamboo partridges (B. fytchii) - date uncertain China, India meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Bambusicola thoracicus1.jpg
2b Galliformes
Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) - date uncertain Nepal meat, eggs, feathers, ornamental, pets
Lophophorus impejanus Zoo DU 2.jpg
2b Galliformes
Kalij (Lophura leucomelanos), Swinhoe's (L. swinhoii), Salvadori's (L. inornata), silver (L. nycthemera) and Edwards's pheasants (L. edwardsi); Siamese fireback (L. diardi) - date uncertain Nepal, Taiwan, Vietnam, Sumatra, China, Thailand meat, eggs, feathers, ornamental, pets
2b Galliformes
Red (Gallus gallus), green (G. varius), grey (G. sonneratii) and Sri Lankan junglefowl (G. lafayettii) - date uncertain India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Java meat, eggs, feathers, ornamental, pets
Red Junglefowl - Thailand.jpg
2b Galliformes
Scaled (Callipepla squamata), elegant (C. douglasii), Gambel's (C. gambelii) and California quails (C. californica) - date uncertain Mexico, Utah, California meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata) (20164244389).jpg
2b Galliformes
Mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) - date uncertain California meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Oreortyx pictus.jpg
2b Galliformes
Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) - date uncertain Mexico meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Montezuma Quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae).jpg
2b Galliformes
Vulturine guineafowl (Acryllium vulturinum) - date uncertain Ethiopia meat, pest control, pets
Acryllium vulturinum -Tsavo East National Park, Kenya-8.jpg
2b Galliformes
Harlequin (Coturnix delegorguei), rain (C. coromandelica) and stubble quails (C. pectoralis) - date uncertain Africa, India, Australia meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Harlequin Quail (Coturnix delegorguei) (6035291347).jpg
2b Galliformes
Edible-nest swiftlet (Aerodramus fuciphagus)[134] - date uncertain Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore nests
2g Other birds
Tarantulas (Theraphosidae, various species and subspecies)[135] - date uncertain North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, Papua New Guinea research, venom, pets
Brachypelma smithi 2009 G09.jpg
Captive-bred Common in captivity, becoming rare in the wild 6c Other arthropods
Crested (Correlophus ciliatus) and suras geckos (C. sarasinorum) - date uncertain New Caledonia pets
Gekkoninae Rhacodactylus ciliatus tete.png
Captive-bred Somewhat common in captivity, nearly extinct in the wild 3b Lacertilia
Roan (Hippotragus equinus)[136] and sable antelopes (H. niger)[137] - date uncertain South Africa meat, horns
Sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) adult male.jpg
1b Bovidae
Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros),[138] nyala (T. angasii),[139] and Cape bushbuck (T. sylvaticus) - date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns, pets
Male greater kudu.jpg
1b Bovidae
Blue (Connochaetes taurinus)[140] and black wildebeest (C. gnou)[141] - date uncertain South Africa, Kenya meat, leather, hides, horns, pets
Blue Wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus) (6451904975).jpg
1b Bovidae
Bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus) including subspecies blesbok (D. p. phillipsi)[142] - date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns
Blesbok at NC zoo.jpg
1b Bovidae
Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus)[143] - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, hides, horns, pets
Nilgauantilope Boselaphus tragocamelus Tierpark Hellabrunn-10.jpg
1b Bovidae
Scaly-breasted munia (Lonchura punctulata) - date uncertain Southeast Asia pets, research
Lonchura punctulata (Nagarhole, 2004).jpg
Slight physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, hides, horns, pets
Blackbuck male female.jpg
1b Bovidae
Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis)[144] - date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns, pets
Springbok etosha.jpg
1b Bovidae
Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia)[145] - date uncertain North Africa meat, horns
1b Bovidae
African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)[146][147] - date uncertain South Africa meat, leather, horns
African Buffalo.JPG
1b Bovidae
Collared peccary (Dicotyles tajacu)[148] - date uncertain Brazil meat, pets
Collared peccary02 - melbourne zoo.jpg
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris)[149] - date uncertain China meat, antlers
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
White-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus)[150] and mule deer (O. hemionus) - date uncertain Virginia, West Virginia, Florida, Montana, Canada, Colombia meat, hides, antlers, pets
White-tailed deer.jpg
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Chital or axis deer (Axis axis) - date uncertain India meat, hides, antlers, pets
Chital Stag.jpg
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Water deer (Hydropotes inermis) - date uncertain China meat, tusks, pets
Hydropotes inermis male.JPG
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Dwarf (Moschus berezovskii), alpine (M. chrysogaster), white-bellied (M. leucogaster) and Siberian musk deer (M. moschiferus)[151][152][153] - date uncertain China, India, Russia meat, hides, tusks, musk
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Guanaco (Lama guanicoe)[154] - date uncertain Peru fiber, guarding, pets
Crazy Guanaco (5464058504).jpg
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)[155] - date uncertain Peru fiber, pets
1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Fishing (Prionailurus viverrinus) and rusty-spotted cats (P. rubiginosus)[156][157] - date uncertain India pest control, pets
Rostkatze Zoo Berlin.JPG
1c Carnivora
Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta)[158][159][160][161] - date uncertain South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria hunting, guarding, waste management, tourism, show, pets
Spotted Hyena, Ngorongoro.jpg
1c Carnivora
Red (Vulpes vulpes), Arctic (V. lagopus), swift (V. velox), kit (V. macrotis), fennec (V. zerda),[162] corsac (V. corsac) and pale foxes (V. pallida) - date uncertain Europe, North America, North Africa, Sudan, Central Asia fur, pest control, pets
Polarfuchs 1 2004-11-17.jpg
1c Carnivora
Grey (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and island foxes (U. littoralis)[163] - date uncertain the eastern United States, the Channel Islands, California pelts, pest control, pets
Urocyon littoralis pair.jpg
1c Carnivora
Bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) - date uncertain Africa pest control, show, pets
Otocyon megalotis - Etosha 2014.jpg
1c Carnivora
Meerkat or suricate (Suricata suricatta)[164][165] - date uncertain South Africa pest control, research, education, therapy, tourism, show, pets
Meerkat feb 09.jpg
1c Carnivora
Common kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus) - date uncertain West Africa pets, pest control
Captive-bred 1c Carnivora
Ruddy (Urva smithii)[166] and Javan mongoose (U. javanicus)[167] - date uncertain India, Southeast Asia pest control, pets
1c Carnivora
Kissing gourami (Helostoma temminckii) - date uncertain Thailand, Indonesia meat, pets
Domesticated 5b Other fish
Giant (Osphronemus goramy),[168][169] giant red tail (O. laticlavius) and elephant ear gouramis (O. exodon) - date uncertain Southeast Asia meat, weed control, pets
Osphronemus Gourami (better).png
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Red-bellied (Pygocentrus nattereri), piraya (P. piraya) and black spot piranha (P. cariba) - date uncertain South America meat, teeth, research, pets
Gregory Moine - Red bellied Piranha (by).jpg
Semi-domesticated Fairly common in captivity, common in the wild 5b Other fish
Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus), Pacific bluefin (T. orientalis), southern bluefin (T. maccoyii), yellowfin (T. albacares) and bigeye tunas (T. obesus); albacore or longfin tuna (T. alalunga)[170][171] - date uncertain Europe, East Asia, Australia, Hawaii, North America meat, eggs
Pacific bluefin tuna.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European sea (Acipenser sturio), white (A. transmontanus), shortnose (A. brevirostrum), Persian (A. persicus), Siberian (A. baerii), Adriatic (A. naccarii) and starry sturgeons (A. stellatus)[172][173][174][175] - date uncertain Europe, Alaska, California, Canada, Iran, Russia, Albania, the Aegean Sea meat, eggs, pets
4803 white sturgeon swart odfw (4455050144).jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Malabar (Epinephelus malabaricus), giant (E. lanceolatus), greasy (E. tauvina), areolate (E. areolatus), dusky (E. marginatus), wavy-lined (E. undulosus), six-bar (E. sexfasciatus) and orange-spotted groupers (E. coioides)[176][177][178] - date uncertain Asia, Australia, Fiji, South Africa, Italy, the Indo-Pacific meat
Epinephelus malabaricus in UShaka Sea World 1098.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) - date uncertain Europe, Asia, North America meat, eggs
Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (cropped).jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) including subspecies amago (O. m. macrostomus) - date uncertain Russia, Japan, Korea meat
Oncorhynchus masou in Aquarium 2011-09-11.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) - date uncertain Europe (including the United Kingdom), Alaska, Canada, Chile, Russia, Australia, Tasmania meat, eggs
Salmo trutta Trout Aquarium Atlanterhavsparken Norway.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Barramundi (Lates calcarifer),[179] Japanese lates (L. japonicus) and Nile perch (L. niloticus)[180] - date uncertain the United Kingdom, Poland, the United States, India, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Japan, Africa meat, pets
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) - date uncertain the United States, Asia, Panama, Mexico meat
Cobia fingerlings.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) - date uncertain Europe meat
Dicentrarchus labrax01.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Milkfish (Chanos chanos)[181] - date uncertain the Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia meat
Chanidae - Chanos chanos.JPG
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Northern pike (Esox lucius)[182] - date uncertain Europe meat, eggs, research, pets
Esox lucius ZOO 1.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Alligator (Atractosteus spatula), Cuban (A. tristoechus) and tropical gars (A. tropicus)[183][184][185] - date uncertain North America, Cuba, Costa Rica meat, pets
Alligator Gar 10.JPG
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) - date uncertain China meat, weed control
Ctenopharyngodon idella 01 Pengo.jpg
5a Cyprinidae
Black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) - date uncertain China meat, pest control, medicine
Mylopharyngodon piceus.jpg
5a Cyprinidae
Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) - date uncertain China meat
5a Cyprinidae
Giant barb (Catlocarpio siamensis)[186] - date uncertain Vietnam meat, pets
Giant Barb.jpg
5a Cyprinidae
Arapaima (Arapaima gigas)[187][188] - date uncertain the Amazon Basin meat, pets
Arapaima gigas at Beijing aquarium.JPG
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Wels catfish (Silurus glanis)[189] - date uncertain Europe meat
European Catfish (Silurus glanis) (13532570755).jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Iridescent shark (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and Mekong giant catfish (P. gigas)[190] - date uncertain Southeast Asia meat, pets
Iridescent shark.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus)[191] - date uncertain California, Colorado meat
Mugil cephalus Minorca.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Green (Etroplus suratensis)[192] and orange chromides (E. maculatus); Canara pearlspot (E. canarensis) - date uncertain India meat, pets
Etroplus suratensis.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus) - date uncertain the Caribbean Sea meat, tourism
2006-10-06 18 - Yellowtail Snapper.JPG
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus)[193] - date uncertain the Gulf of Mexico meat, research
Red snapper 2.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Greater (Seriola dumerili), Japanese (S. quinqueradiata) and yellowtail amberjacks (S. lalandi); longfin yellowtail (S. rivoliana)[194][195] - date uncertain the Mediterranean Sea, Japan, Chile, Hawaii meat
Seriola dumerili by NPS.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Southern (Paralichthys lethostigma) and olive flounders (P. olivaceus)[196] - the 1980s (uncertain for P. lethostigma) the United States, Japan, China, Korea meat
Paralichthys lethostigma.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European (Anguilla anguilla), Japanese (A. japonica), American (A. rostrata), short-finned (A. australis) and New Zealand longfin eels (A. dieffenbachii[197][198][199][200] - date uncertain Europe, Asia, North America, Australia, New Zealand meat, research, medicine, pets
Anguilla anguilla.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Sugarbag bee (Tetragonula carbonaria) and Indian stingless bee (T. iridipennis) - date uncertain Australia, India honey, wax, propolis, pollination
Sugarbag bee.jpg
6a Hymenoptera
Dubia roach (Blaptica dubia) - date uncertain Central America, South America animal feed, pets
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Mealworm (Tenebrio molitar) and superworm (Zophobas morio) - date uncertain Europe meat, animal feed, research
Zophobas morio larva - top (aka).jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) - date uncertain the United States research
Tribolium castaneum.jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)[201] - date uncertain the United States meat, animal feed, pollination, decomposing
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Waxworms (Achroia grisella and Galleria mellonella) - date uncertain Europe? meat, bait, animal feed, research
Achroia grisella caterpillars kleine wasmot rupsen (1).jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Mopane moth (Gonimbrasia belina)[202] - date uncertain Southern Africa meat, silk
Mopane Worm by Arne Larsen.jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)[203] - date uncertain North America meat, medicine, pets
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Flame jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum)[204] - date uncertain China meat, medicine, pets
Rhopilema esculentum at Monterey Bay Aquarium.jpg
Captive-bred 7c Other animals
Giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini)[205] - date uncertain Japan, Korea meat, research, pets
Enteroctopus dolfeini.jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Common (Octopus vulgaris), common Sydney (O. tetricus), big blue (O. cyanea), Mexican four-eyed (O. maya), California two-spot (O. bimaculoides), Gould's (O. mimus), long arm (O. minor), Caribbean reef (O. briareus), Caribbean dwarf (O. mercatoris) and East Pacific red octopuses (O. rubescens)[206][207][208][209][210][211] - date uncertain Europe, Asia, North America, Western Australia, Hawaii, the Caribbean Sea meat, ink, research, pets
Octopus vulgaris 2.jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) - date uncertain Europe meat, shells
Littorina littorea 001.jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Garden snail (Cornu aspersum) - date uncertain Europe meat, eggs, shells, slime, pets
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Giant Ghana African snail (Achatina achatina)[212] - date uncertain Ghana, Kenya meat, eggs, shells, slime, pets
Giant tiger land snail (Achatina achatina).jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Giant East African (Lissachatina fulica)[213] and African land snails (L. albopicta) - date uncertain East Africa meat, shells, slime, education, pets
Snail in Ubud, Bali, 2010 (1).jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Pacific (Eptatretus stoutii) and inshore hagfishes (E. burgeri)[214][215] - date uncertain the United States, South Korea, Japan meat, skins, slime
Eptatretus stoutii 1.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) - date uncertain North America meat, blood, research, pets
Limulus polyphemus (aq.).jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus) - date uncertain Japan, China, India meat, blood, pets
Tachypleus tridentatus.jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Mud crab (Scylla serrata) - date uncertain Asia meat, pets
Scylla serrata Mud Crab.jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Flower crab (Portunus armatus)[216][217] - date uncertain Australia meat
Portunus pelagicus male.jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
European (Homarus gammarus) and American lobsters (H. americanus)[218][219][220] - date uncertain Europe, the United States meat
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), northern leopard frog (L. pipiens) and wood frog (L. sylvaticus) - date uncertain North America meat, education, research, pets
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Northern green frog (Lithobates clamitans melanota) - date uncertain North America pets
Male Green Frog - Hunterdon County, NJ.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Pig frog (Lithobates grylio) - date uncertain North America meat, pets
Rana grylio.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Pool (Pelophylax lessonae) and marsh frogs (P. ridibundus)[221] - date uncertain Europe meat, pets
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Crab-eating frog (Fejervarya cancrivora) - date uncertain Java meat
Fejer cancri 050403 002 tdp.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Chinese edible frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) and Indus Valley bullfrog (H. tigerinus) - date uncertain China, Thailand meat, pets
Hoplobatrachus rugulosus 2.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Chinese spiny frog (Quasipaa spinosa) - date uncertain China meat
Quasipaa spinosa.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) - the 14th century CE Europe meat
Blue mussel Mytilus edulis.jpg
Captured in the wild or captive-bred Extended in the wild and in captivity 7a Mollusca
New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) - the 1970s New Zealand meat
Green Lipped Mussel (314300764).jpg
Captured in the wild and captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Purple dye murex (Bolinus brandaris) - classical antiquity (date uncertain) the central and western Mediterranean Sea Tyrian purple, meat
Brandhorn Bolinus brandaris 2.jpg
Captive-bred No longer bred 7a Mollusca
Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) - the 19th century CE[citation needed] North America pelts, pest control, pets
Zoo des 3 vallées - Mouffette rayée - 2015-01-02 - i3441.jpg
Tame when captive-bred, significant physical changes[citation needed] Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1c Carnivora

Taxonomical groupings

The categories used in the Taxon group column are:

See also


  1. ^ "How did we ever manage to domesticate so many animals?".
  2. ^ Price, T. Douglas; Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2011). "The Origins of Agriculture: New Data, New Ideas". Current Anthropology. 52: S163–S174. doi:10.1086/659964. S2CID 128906192.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gentry, A.; Clutton-Brock, J.; Groves, C. P. (2004). "The naming of wild animal species and their domestic derivatives" (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Science. 31 (5): 645–651. Bibcode:2004JArSc..31..645G. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2003.10.006.
  4. ^ Fan, Zhenxin; Silva, Pedro; Gronau, Ilan; Wang, Shuoguo; Armero, Aitor Serres; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ramirez, Oscar; Pollinger, John; Galaverni, Marco; Ortega Del-Vecchyo, Diego; Du, Lianming; Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xing, Jinchuan; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Godinho, Raquel; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K. (2016). "Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves". Genome Research. 26 (2): 163–173. doi:10.1101/gr.197517.115. PMC 4728369. PMID 26680994.
  5. ^ Sablin, Mikhail V.; Khlopachev, Gennady A. (2002). "The Earliest Ice Age Dogs: Evidence from Eliseevichi 11". Current Anthropology. 43 (5): 795–799. doi:10.1086/344372. S2CID 144574445.
  6. ^ a b Thalmann, O.; Shapiro, B.; Cui, P.; Schuenemann, V. J.; Sawyer, S. K.; Greenfield, D. L.; Germonpré, M. B.; Sablin, M. V.; López-Giráldez, F.; Domingo-Roura, X.; Napierala, H.; Uerpmann, H. -P.; Loponte, D. M.; Acosta, A. A.; Giemsch, L.; Schmitz, R. W.; Worthington, B.; Buikstra, J. E.; Druzhkova, A.; Graphodatsky, A. S.; Ovodov, N. D.; Wahlberg, N.; Freedman, A. H.; Schweizer, R. M.; Koepfli, K. -P.; Leonard, J. A.; Meyer, M.; Krause, J.; Pääbo, S.; et al. (2013). "Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Ancient Canids Suggest a European Origin of Domestic Dogs". Science. 342 (6160): 871–4. Bibcode:2013Sci...342..871T. doi:10.1126/science.1243650. hdl:10261/88173. PMID 24233726. S2CID 1526260.
  7. ^ Ding, Z.-L.; Oskarsson, M.; Ardalan, A.; Angleby, H.; Dahlgren, L.-G.; Tepeli, C.; Kirkness, E.; Savolainen, P.; Zhang, Y.-P. (May 2012). "Origins of domestic dog in Southern East Asia is supported by analysis of Y-chromosome DNA". Heredity. 108 (5): 507–514. doi:10.1038/hdy.2011.114. ISSN 1365-2540. PMC 3330686. PMID 22108628.
  8. ^ Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D.; Irwin, David M. (January 2016). "Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world". Cell Research. 26 (1): 21–33. doi:10.1038/cr.2015.147. ISSN 1748-7838. PMC 4816135. PMID 26667385.
  9. ^ Crapon de Caprona, Marie-Dominique; Savolainen, Peter (2013). "Extensive Phenotypic Diversity among South Chinese Dogs". ISRN Evolutionary Biology. 2013: 1–8. doi:10.5402/2013/621836. S2CID 56914841. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  10. ^ a b Coppinger, Ray (2001). Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-85530-1.[page needed]
  11. ^ Zeder, Melinda A. (2011). "The Origins of Agriculture in the Near East". Current Anthropology. 52: S221–S235. doi:10.1086/659307. S2CID 8202907.
  12. ^ Vigne, Jean-Denis (2011). "The origins of animal domestication and husbandry: A major change in the history of humanity and the biosphere". Comptes Rendus Biologies. 334 (3): 171–181. doi:10.1016/j.crvi.2010.12.009. PMID 21377611.
  13. ^ "Guard Goat". Archived from the original on 2018-01-23. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  14. ^ "The Domestication of Pigs - Sus scrofa's Two Distinct Histories". ThoughtCo. April 29, 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  15. ^ "Pig Domestication in Ancient China". September 12, 2005. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  16. ^ Giuffra, E.; Kijas, J. M.; Amarger, V.; Carlborg, O.; Jeon, J. T.; Andersson, L. (2000). "The origin of the domestic pig: Independent domestication and subsequent introgression". Genetics. 154 (4): 1785–91. doi:10.1093/genetics/154.4.1785. PMC 1461048. PMID 10747069.
  17. ^ Larson, Greger; Dobney, Keith; Albarella, Umberto; Fang, Meiying; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Robins, Judith; Lowden, Stewart; Finlayson, Heather; Brand, Tina; Willerslev, Eske; Rowley-Conwy, Peter; Andersson, Leif; Cooper, Alan (2005). "Worldwide Phylogeography of Wild Boar Reveals Multiple Centers of Pig Domestication". Science. 307 (5715): 1618–21. Bibcode:2005Sci...307.1618L. doi:10.1126/science.1106927. PMID 15761152. S2CID 39923483.
  18. ^ Frantz, Laurent A F.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Madsen, Ole; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Cagan, Alex; Bosse, Mirte; Paudel, Yogesh; Crooijmans, Richard P M A.; Larson, Greger; Groenen, Martien A M. (2015). "Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes". Nature Genetics. 47 (10): 1141–1148. doi:10.1038/ng.3394. PMID 26323058. S2CID 205350534.
  19. ^ "The Pig Pet Idea Project: Plausible or Unimaginable?". Radio Pet Lady Network. October 14, 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  20. ^ "What species is the ancestor of the domestic sheep?". Retrieverman. February 24, 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
  21. ^ Zeder, Melinda A. (2008). "Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion, and impact". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (33): 11597–11604. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10511597Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801317105. PMC 2575338. PMID 18697943.
  22. ^ Holt, Ben (13 April 2017). Animal Heroes: True Stories of Extraordinary Creatures. ISBN 9781786851369.
  23. ^ Cailey Rizzo. "Junkyard Owner Replaces Guard Dogs With Two Fighting Bulls Because It's Spain".
  24. ^ Govan, Fiona (26 October 2016). "Bulls replace guard dogs at scrap yard in Valencia".
  25. ^ Wendorf, Fred; Schild, Romuald (1998). "Nabta Playa and its Role in Northeastern African Prehistory". Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 17 (2): 97–123. doi:10.1006/jaar.1998.0319.
  26. ^ Source : Laboratoire de Préhistoire et Protohistoire de l'Ouest de la France "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-06-26. Retrieved 2009-04-17.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), (in French).
  27. ^ "Origins of cattle farming in China uncovered". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  28. ^ a b Driscoll, C. A.; Menotti-Raymond, M.; Roca, A. L.; Hupe, K.; Johnson, W. E.; Geffen, E.; Harley, E. H.; Delibes, M.; Pontier, D.; Kitchener, A. C.; Yamaguchi, N.; O'Brien, S. J.; Macdonald, D. W. (2007). "The Near Eastern Origin of Cat Domestication". Science. 317 (5837): 519–523. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..519D. doi:10.1126/science.1139518. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 5612713. PMID 17600185.
  29. ^ West, Barbara; Zhou, Ben-Xiong (1989). "Did chickens go north? New evidence for domestication". World's Poultry Science Journal. 45 (3): 205–218. doi:10.1079/WPS19890012.
  30. ^ "Identity of Pompeii's mystery horse revealed". University of Cambridge. December 17, 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  31. ^ Beja-Pereira, Albano; et al. (18 June 2004). "African Origins of the Domestic Donkey". Science. 304 (1781): 1781. doi:10.1126/science.1096008. PMID 15205528. S2CID 12783335.
  32. ^ Roger Blench, "The history and spread of donkeys in Africa" (PDF). (235 KB)
  33. ^ Wu1, Dong-Dong; Ding, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Sheng; Wójcik, Jan M.; Zhang, Yi; Tokarska, Małgorzata; Li, Yan; Wang, Ming-Shan; Faruque, Omar; Nielsen, Rasmus; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Ya-Ping (July 2018). "Pervasive introgression facilitated domestication and adaptation in the Bos species complex" (PDF). Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2 (7): 1139–1145. doi:10.1038/s41559-018-0562-y. PMID 29784979. S2CID 29154258. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  34. ^ Mondal, Mohan; Baruah, K K; Rajkhowa, C (1 January 2014). "Mithun: An Animal of Indian Pride". Livestock Research for Rural Development. 26 (1): 6. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  35. ^ "This is why people drink camel urine". Metro. June 11, 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  36. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
  37. ^ "The Genetic History of Horses". Genes to Genomes. November 7, 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  38. ^ Outram, Alan K.; Stear, Natalie A.; Bendrey, Robin; Olsen, Sandra; Kasparov, Alexei; Zaibert, Victor; Thorpe, Nick; Evershed, Richard P. (2009). "The Earliest Horse Harnessing and Milking". Science. 323 (5919): 1332–5. Bibcode:2009Sci...323.1332O. doi:10.1126/science.1168594. PMID 19265018. S2CID 5126719. see also Domestication of the horse
  39. ^ a b Mohamad, Kusdiantoro; Olsson, Mia; van Tol, Helena T. A.; Mikko, Sofia; Vlamings, Bart H.; Andersson, Göran; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto; Purwantara, Bambang; Paling, Robert W. (2009-05-13). "On the Origin of Indonesian Cattle". PLOS ONE. 4 (5): e5490. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.5490M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005490. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 2677627. PMID 19436739.
  40. ^ Buckland, R., & Guy, G. (2002). Goose Production. Chapter 1: Origins and Breeds of Domestic Geese. FAO Agriculture Department.
  41. ^ a b A. Rosati, C. Mosoni and A. Tewolde. [1]
  42. ^ a b c d e D.L Johnson and B.K. Swartz, Jr. Evidence for Pre-Columbian Animal Domestication in the New World
  43. ^ " Is For Sale". Archived from the original on 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
  44. ^ Petrigh, Romina S.; Fugassa, Martín H. (13 December 2013). "Molecular identification of a Fuegian dog belonging to the Fagnano Regional Museum ethnographic collection, Tierra del Fuego" (PDF). Quaternary International. 317: 14–18. Bibcode:2013QuInt.317...14P. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2013.07.030. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-12-20. Retrieved 12 December 2022.
  45. ^ Martial, L., (2005). Mision al Cabo de Hornos, la expedición científica francesa en la Romanche Julio de 1882 a setiembre de 1883. Ushuaia: Zaguier & Urruty Publications . pp. 225
  46. ^ Glover, James. "The Ancestry Of The Domestic Ferret". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
  47. ^ "New study reveals how wild rabbits were genetically transformed into tame rabbits". Phys. August 28, 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  48. ^ "American Livestock Breeds Conservancy News".
  49. ^ Svanberg, Ingvar (2008). "Towards a cultural history of the Bengalese Finch (Lonchura domestica)". Der Zoologische Garten. 77 (5–6): 334–344. doi:10.1016/j.zoolgart.2008.05.003.
  50. ^ Royer, Nichole. "The History of Fancy Mice". American Fancy Rat and Mouse Association. Retrieved on 2015-12-25.
  51. ^ Royer, Nichole. "The History of Fancy Rats". American Fancy Rat & Mouse Association.
  52. ^ Decuypere. "Is the Mink Domesticated?" (PDF).
  53. ^ "Century-old photos from P.E.I. debunk famous study on how foxes were tamed, says scientist". CBC News. December 13, 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  54. ^ "Famous Fox Domestication Experiment Challenged". The Scientist. December 4, 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  55. ^ "A discovery at a small P.E.I. museum is challenging decades-old scientific research about domesticated foxes". SaltWire Network. January 31, 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  56. ^ Bist, S. S.; Cheeran, J. V.; Choudhury, S.; Barua, P.; Misra, M. K. (2002). "The domesticated Asian elephant in India". In I. Baker; M. Kashio (eds.). In Giants on our hands. Proc. Int. Workshop on the domesticated Asian elephant (PDF). pp. 129–148.
  57. ^ Crawley, Jennie AH; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; et al. (2019). "Investigating changes within the handling system of the largest semi-captive population of Asian elephants". PLOS ONE. 14 (1): e0209701. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1409701C. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209701. PMC 6354975. PMID 30703121.
  58. ^ Locke, Piers (2011). "The ethnography of captive elephant management in Nepal: a synopsis" (PDF). Gajah. 34 (1): 32–40.
  59. ^ "Asian Elephant | National Geographic". National Geographic Society. 7 May 2019.
  60. ^ "What should we do about the 15,000 Asian elephants still in captivity?".
  61. ^ Roed, K. H.; Flagstad, O.; Nieminen, M.; Holand, O.; Dwyer, M. J.; Rov, N.; Vila, C. (2008). "Genetic analyses reveal independent domestication origins of Eurasian reindeer". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1645): 1849–1855. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.0332. PMC 2593925. PMID 18460427.
  62. ^ "Article". Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  63. ^, Programmierung: Netboot Internet Solutions. "CatSG: Caracal".
  64. ^ "Ancient people in India and the Middle East tamed cheetahs and trained them to ride horses". The Vintage News. March 10, 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  65. ^ "Cheetah cub petting is simply a selfie opportunity". Independent Online (South Africa). July 25, 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2020.
  66. ^ Vigne, J.D.; Evin, A.; Cucchi, T.; Dai, L.; Yu, C.; Hu, S.; Soulages, N.; Wang, W.; Sun, Z.; Gao, J.; Dobney, K.; Yuan, J. (2016). "Earliest "Domestic" Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)". PLOS ONE. 11 (1): e0147295. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1147295V. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147295. PMC 4723238. PMID 26799955.
  67. ^ "Search for the Common Genet (Genetta genetta) and other species in Southern France". Rewilding Foundation. August 31, 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  68. ^ "The Story of the Fallow Deer: An Exotic Aspect of British Globalisation". Environmental History. November 13, 2014. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
  69. ^ "People Are Keeping Parasitic Leeches as Pets, And Letting Them Drink Their Blood". Science Alert. July 21, 2019. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
  70. ^ "Leech saliva drug could cut heart attacks by a third". The Daily Telegraph. September 3, 2001. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  71. ^ "Milking the potential of deer". Deer Industry New Zealand. October 23, 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  72. ^ "Deer Milk Is Apparently a Real Thing (in New Zealand)". Modern Farmer. June 27, 2018. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
  73. ^ "We train rats to save lives". APOPO - we train rats to save lives. Archived from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2017-07-21.
  74. ^ "How to (safely) enjoy Japan's famed deer park". CNN. March 29, 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  75. ^ "Alligator Blood May Lead to Powerful New Antibiotics". National Geographic. April 7, 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  76. ^ "Once Upon A Time We Farmed Moose". On Pasture. December 2, 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  77. ^ Khoo, Gideon; Lim, Kok Fang; Gan, Damien K.Y.; Chen, Fan; Chan, Woon-Khiong; Lim, Tit Meng; Phang, Violet P.E. (2002). "Genetic Diversity Within and Among Feral Populations and Domesticated Strains of the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Singapore". Marine Biotechnology. 4 (4): 367–378. doi:10.1007/s10126-002-0007-z. PMID 14961248. S2CID 8358855.
  78. ^ "Gucci owner gets teeth into snakeskin market with python farm". The Guardian. January 25, 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  79. ^ "Kering and IUCN Boa & Python Specialist Group announce first report on captive breeding". IUCN. March 31, 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  80. ^ Engebretson, M. (2006). "The welfare and suitability of parrots as companion animals: a review" (PDF). Animal Welfare. 15 (#3): 263–276. doi:10.1017/S0962728600030475. S2CID 38251688.
  81. ^ "Therapy Birds: Emotional Support Animal? Or Merely A Pet?". Pet Central. July 17, 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  82. ^ "USGS NAS silver carp fact sheet". Archived from the original on 2009-05-10. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  83. ^ "Cute native sugar gliders offer pest control solution for southern NSW farmers". ABC News. August 20, 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  84. ^ "Lesser Rheas on a farm in Argentina. | Download Scientific Diagram". Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  85. ^ Nanjo, A.; Shibata, T.; Saito, M.; Yoshii, K.; Tanaka, M.; Nakanishi, T.; Fukuda, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Kato, G.; Sano, M. (2017). "Susceptibility of isogeneic ginbuna Carassius auratus langsdorfii Temminck et Schlegel to cyprinid herpesvirus‐2 (CyHV‐2) as a model species". Journal of Fish Diseases. 40 (2): 157–168. doi:10.1111/jfd.12500. PMID 27150547.
  86. ^ "Hooded Crows as Pets: Keeping the World's Most Intelligent Bird". 12 May 2015.
  87. ^ Woolfson, Esther (22 April 2013). "Crazy for crows". Archived from the original on 2022-01-12 – via
  88. ^ "Crows as Pets: The African Pied Crow, a Most Intelligent Bird". 6 May 2013.
  89. ^ "CA Fish and Game seek to euthanize pet raven". CNN iReport. Archived from the original on 2018-03-16. Retrieved 2018-02-03.
  90. ^ "Corvus brachyrhynchos (American crow)". Animal Diversity Web.
  91. ^ "Corvus frugilegus (rook)". Animal Diversity Web.
  92. ^ "I never knew a crow could be so attached to human beings". The Times of India. April 26, 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  93. ^ Stonor, CR (1948). "Fishing with the Indian Darter (Anhinga melanogaster) in Assam". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 47 (4): 746–747.
  94. ^ "Anhima cornuta (horned screamer)". Animal Diversity Web.
  95. ^ "Eagles vs drones: French army trains birds of prey for combat". The Irish Times. November 18, 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  96. ^ "Eagles Trained To Take Down Drones". GearJunkie. February 2, 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  97. ^ "Bald eagles deployed to defend beachgoers from 'scary' seagull attacks". The Daily Telegraph. April 18, 2019. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  98. ^ "Couple's falconry business takes off". Darlington & Stockton Times. February 18, 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  99. ^ "Couple's falconry business takes off". Darlington and Stockton Times.
  100. ^ Association, Press (29 July 2015). "Overdue recognition: owl issued library card after solving university's gull woes". The Guardian.
  101. ^ "Strix aluco (tawny owl)". Animal Diversity Web.
  102. ^ "Gardeners buy wallabies as lawnmowers". The Daily Telegraph. May 11, 2009. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  103. ^ "Forget cattle, kangaroos are the future of farming". Stuff. November 8, 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  104. ^ "Senator wants to kick start discussion about allowing certain native animals as pets". March 19, 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  105. ^ "Dasyurus viverrinus (eastern quoll)". Animal Diversity Web. Archived from the original on 2016-05-16. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
  106. ^ "Dasyurus geoffroii (western quoll)". Animal Diversity Web.
  107. ^ "Dasyurus hallucatus (northern quoll)". Animal Diversity Web.
  108. ^ Feeroz, M. M., Begum, S. and Hasan, M. K. (2011). "Fishing with Otters: a Traditional Conservation Practice in Bangladesh". Proceedings of XIth International Otter Colloquium. IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin (28A): 14–21.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  109. ^ Parsons, Eleanor. "The 1830s seamstress who solved Aristotle's octopus mystery". New Scientist.
  110. ^ "Martes foina (beech marten)". Animal Diversity Web.
  111. ^ "Posts Tagged 'Kolonok'". Retrieverman. May 15, 2010. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  112. ^ "The Weasel in Antiquity: Pet or Pest?". Found In Antiquity. October 28, 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  113. ^ "Mustela kathiah (yellow-bellied weasel)". Animal Diversity Web.
  114. ^ "Are Raccoons Good to Have Around the Yard?".
  115. ^ "Nasua nasua (South American coati)". Animal Diversity Web.
  116. ^ "Why This Critter Was The Must-Have Pet For Gold Miners". io9. July 22, 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  117. ^ "Tamandua tetradactyla (southern tamandua)". Animal Diversity Web.
  118. ^ "Tamandua mexicana (northern tamandua)". Animal Diversity Web.
  119. ^ "Porcupines Expose Pitfalls of Wildlife Farming". ScienceLine. December 16, 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  120. ^ "Weekend trip to Dong Nai porcupine, bamboo rat farm". Bridge. January 16, 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  121. ^ "Micromys minutus (Eurasian harvest mouse)". Animal Diversity Web.
  122. ^ Aust, P. W.; Van Tri, N.; Natusch, D. J.; Alexander, G. J. (2017). "Asian snake farms: conservation curse or sustainable enterprise?". Oryx. 51 (3): 498–505. doi:10.1017/S003060531600034X.
  123. ^ Dharmananda, Subhuti, Endangered species issues affecting turtles and tortoises in Chinese medicine, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon, retrieved 5 September 2016
  124. ^ Haitao, Shi; Parham, James F.; Zhiyong, Fan; Meiling, Hong; Feng, Yin (2008). "Evidence for the massive scale of turtle farming in China". Oryx. 42. doi:10.1017/S0030605308000562.
  125. ^ ""小庭院"养殖龟鳖大有赚头". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  126. ^ "Accounts" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  127. ^ Aguiar, Julio C.; Adriano, Edson A.; Mathews, Patrick D. (2017). "Morphology and molecular phylogeny of a new Myxidium species (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) infecting the farmed turtle Podocnemis expansa (Testudines: Podocnemididae) in the Brazilian Amazon". Parasitology International. 66 (1): 825–830. doi:10.1016/j.parint.2016.09.013. PMID 27693559.
  128. ^ "Crocodile farming in Africa – An Interesting Niche Business Many People Don't Know About, and a Success Story from Kenya - Smallstarter Africa". 2015-10-19.
  129. ^ "Buwama Crocodile Farm Uganda, Crocodile Tourism in Uganda". Speedway Safaris.
  130. ^ "Crocodile Farm:: trade technology  Project Information".
  131. ^ "Crocodile farming in Australia". 30 June 2017. Archived from the original on 2022-12-10 – via
  132. ^ Crocodile Farming in Papua New Guinea - Crocodiles as a Resource for the Tropics - The National Academies Press. 1983. doi:10.17226/18531. ISBN 978-0-309-29386-0.
  133. ^ "Crocodile Blood: Could be the New Source for Antibiotics and HIV Cure". The Science Times. April 21, 2019. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  134. ^ "Bird's nest boom". Inside Indonesia. April 18, 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  135. ^ "Spider venom key to pain relief without side-effects". ScienceDaily. April 14, 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  136. ^ "The many rewards of game farming in the Karoo". Farmers Weekly. May 27, 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  137. ^ "Big bucks for game ranchers". Mail & Guardian. January 6, 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  138. ^ "Optimizing game production in a new era: The road to financial success". Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (South Africa). November 17, 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  139. ^ "Breeding high-value game species in North West". Farmers Weekly. November 19, 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  140. ^ "The York family & Breeding Golden Wildebeest". Farmer's Weekly. July 29, 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  141. ^ "Transforming game farming". ANN7. March 13, 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  142. ^ "Eastern Cape farmer earns big with blesbok variants". Farmers Weekly. April 1, 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  143. ^ "Farmer bridles blue bull to plough fields in Ujjain district". The Times of India. February 7, 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  144. ^ "How to start farming high-value game species". Farmer's Weekly. July 10, 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  145. ^ "Barbary sheep: farming potential?". Farmer's Weekly. July 22, 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  146. ^ "Black gold: disease-free buffalo farming". Farmers Weekly. October 11, 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  147. ^ "Commercial buffalo breeding: 'It's not just for the rich'". Farmers Weekly. July 6, 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  148. ^ "Pigtrop - about pig production in developing countries - Commercial farming of collared peccary / Genetic and Biodiversity / Subjects".
  149. ^ "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: White-lipped Deer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. November 17, 2014.
  150. ^ "Deer Farming Bill Hits a Snag". MetroNews. February 17, 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  151. ^ "Musk Deer farming as a conservation tool in China (Scanned PDF, 3.7 MB)" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  152. ^ Xiuxiang, Meng; Caiquan, Zhou; Jinchu, Hu; Cao, Li; Zhibin, Meng; Jinchao, Feng; Yijun, Zhou; Yinjiu, Zhu (2006). "Musk deer farming in China". Animal Science. 82: 1–6. doi:10.1079/ASC200516.
  153. ^ "Musk deer farm in Pithoragarh dying slow death?". Hindustan Times. October 15, 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  154. ^ "Faculty of Tropical AgriScience".
  155. ^ "The golden fleece". The Guardian. October 1, 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  156. ^ "Know Your Cat - Rusty-Spotted Cats".
  157. ^ "Russian family keeps pet fishing cat". Retrieverman. April 12, 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  158. ^ "In Pics: Ethiopia's Harar city uses hyenas for waste management". Hindustan Times. July 18, 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  159. ^ "Taming Ethiopia's hyenas". BBC News. April 12, 2004. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  160. ^ "The hyena men of Nigeria: Nomads tame baboons and snakes to make them perform". The Independent. March 2, 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  161. ^ Brottman, Mikita (15 February 2013). Hyena. Reaktion Books. ISBN 9781861899415 – via Google Books.
  162. ^ "When Fennec Foxes Make Good Pets". The Spruce Pets.
  163. ^ Coonan, Timothy J.; Schwemm, Catherin A.; Garcelon, David K. (22 July 2010). Decline and Recovery of the Island Fox: A Case Study for Population Recovery. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139491563 – via Google Books.
  164. ^ "Suricata suricatta (meerkat)". Animal Diversity Web.
  165. ^ "Yorkshire meerkats used for therapy in care homes". BBC News. February 21, 2017. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  166. ^ "Ruddy mongoose".
  167. ^ "Pet mongoose in Hawaii". Retrieverman. July 28, 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  168. ^ "Osphronemus goramy summary page".
  169. ^ Budi, Darmawan Setia; Alimuddin; Suprayudi, Muhammad Agus (2015). "Growth Response and Feed Utilization of Giant Gourami ( Osphronemus goramy ) Juvenile Feeding Different Protein Levels of the Diets Supplemented with Recombinant Growth Hormone". HAYATI Journal of Biosciences. 22: 12–19. doi:10.4308/hjb.22.1.12.
  170. ^ "US entrepreneurs out to prove yellowfin tuna can be farmed". Undercurrent news. July 8, 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  171. ^ "Hawaii Approves First Bigeye Tuna Farm". 26 October 2009.
  172. ^ "Caviar Dreams: Why A Florida Startup Is Farming Siberian Sturgeon Amid The Spanish Moss". Forbes. November 30, 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  173. ^ Jarvis, Peter L.; Ballantyne, James S. (2 April 2003). "Metabolic responses to salinity acclimation in juvenile shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum". Aquaculture. 219 (1–4): 891–909. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00063-2.
  174. ^ Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Cosson, Jacky (2005). "Sperm motility and fertilizing ability in the Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus". Aquaculture Research. 36 (9): 841–850. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2005.01292.x.
  175. ^ "As sturgeon farming grows, demand concerns emerge". Global Aquaculture Alliance. November 7, 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  176. ^ "Greener alternatives for giant grouper". World Wide Fund for Nature. November 6, 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  177. ^ "FAO: FIGIS query for Greasy Grouper total production". FAO - Fisheries and Aquaculture Information and Statistics Branch. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  178. ^ Cunha, Maria Emília; Quental, Hugo; Barradas, Ana; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Cabrita, Elsa; Engrola, Sofia (2009). "Rearing larvae of dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), (Pisces: Serranidae) in a semi-extensive mesocosm". Scientia Marina. 73: 201–212. doi:10.3989/scimar.2009.73s1201.
  179. ^ "Barramundi aquaculture". Government of Queensland. June 27, 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
  180. ^ "Nile Perch Farming in Iganga". Fit Insights. May 22, 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2020.[permanent dead link]
  181. ^ "Aquaculture".
  182. ^ "Data" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  183. ^ Mendoza Alfaro, Roberto; González, Carlos Aguilera; Ferrara, Allyse M. (2008). "Gar biology and culture: Status and prospects". Aquaculture Research. 39 (7): 748–763. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01927.x.
  184. ^ Clay, Tim A.; Suchy, Mark D.; Ferrara, Allyse M.; Fontenot, Quenton C.; Lorio, Wendell (2011). "Early Growth and Survival of Larval Alligator Gar, Atractosteus spatula, Reared on Artificial Floating Feed with or without a Live Artemia spp. Supplement". Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 42 (3): 412–416. doi:10.1111/j.1749-7345.2011.00481.x.
  185. ^ "The 7 Wonderful Gar of the World". 2016-09-06.
  186. ^ tuoitrenews (2014-11-22). "Cultivating giant carps creates giant profits in Vietnam". Vietnam Breaking News. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  187. ^ "Saving an Endangered Fish by Eating More of It - BusinessWeek Education Resource Center". Archived from the original on 2017-01-06. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  188. ^ ศิริสัมพันธ์, ธาวิดา (2018-04-07). ศิริวรรณ อะราไพม่า ฟาร์มนครปฐม เพาะเลี้ยงปลาช่อนอะเมซอนส่งขายทั่วโลก ได้เพียงที่เดียวในประเทศ. Technology Chaoban Magazine (in Thai).
  189. ^ "Silurus glanis (wels catfish)".
  190. ^ Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Rajabiesterabadi, Hamid; Tarkhani, Reza (2015). "Anaesthetic efficacy of eugenol on iridescent shark, Pangasius hypophthalmus(Sauvage, 1878) in different size classes". Aquaculture Research. 46 (2): 405–412. doi:10.1111/are.12188.
  191. ^ "FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Aquatic species". 5 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 November 2015.
  192. ^ Anoop, Aabha (November 1, 2016). "Reaping gold from Karimeen farming". The Hindu. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  193. ^ "Gulf Coast Research Laboratory".
  194. ^ "FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture Seriola dumerili".
  195. ^ "Amberjack culture" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  196. ^ Alam, M.S.; Watanabe, W.O.; Carroll, P.M.; Gabel, J.E.; Corum, M.A.; Seaton, P.; Wedegaertner, T.C.; Rathore, K.S.; Dowd, M.K. (2018). "Evaluation of genetically-improved (glandless) and genetically-modified low-gossypol cottonseed meal as alternative protein sources in the diet of juvenile southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma reared in a recirculating aquaculture system". Aquaculture. 489: 36–45. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.02.006.
  197. ^ "The world's most responsible eel farm is located in Denmark - Royal Danish Fish".
  198. ^ "A guide to eel farming". 23 March 2015.
  199. ^ "When an Endangered Species Endangers a Culture". The Atlantic. January 12, 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  200. ^ "Eel Farms in Maine? Idea is Gaining Traction". Maine Public Broadcasting Network. January 15, 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  201. ^ "Intensive Black Soldier Fly Farming". SymTon. July 30, 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  202. ^ "Mopane Worms – BIZ". 8 May 2016.
  203. ^ "Cockroach farms multiplying in China". Los Angeles Times. October 15, 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  204. ^ Dong, Jing; Jiang, Lian-xin; Tan, Ke-fei; Liu, Hai-Ying; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Li, Pei-jun; Ye, Chang-Chen (2009). "Stock enhancement of the edible jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye) in Liaodong Bay, China: A review". Hydrobiologia. 616: 113–118. doi:10.1007/s10750-008-9592-9. S2CID 25418081.
  205. ^ "Fully-farmed octopus from Nissui to reach market as soon as 2020". SeafoodSource. June 22, 2017. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
  206. ^ "Tantalising tentacles: octopus could be the next big thing in aquaculture". The Conservation. August 29, 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  207. ^ Rosas, Carlos; Cuzon, Gerard; Pascual, Cristina; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Chay, Darwin; López, Nelda; Maldonado, Teresita; Domingues, Pedro M. (2007). "Energy balance of Octopus maya fed crab or an artificial diet". Marine Biology. 152 (2): 371–381. doi:10.1007/s00227-007-0692-2. S2CID 88668944.
  208. ^ Solorzano, Yesika; Viana, María Teresa; López, Lus M.; Correa, Juan Gabriel; True, Conal C.; Rosas, Carlos (2009). "Response of newly hatched Octopus bimaculoides fed enriched Artemia salina: Growth performance, ontogeny of the digestive enzyme and tissue amino acid content". Aquaculture. 289 (1–2): 84–90. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.12.036.
  209. ^ Baltazar, Paul; Rodríguez, Pilar; Rivera, William; Valdivieso, Violeta (2014). "Cultivo Experimental de Octopus Mimus, Gould 1852 en el Perú". Revista Peruana de Biología. 7 (2): 151–160. doi:10.15381/rpb.v7i2.6818.
  210. ^ "Octopus Aquaculture A tour Of The Kanaloa Octopus Farm". Reefbuilders. July 10, 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  211. ^ "Octopus briareus (Caribbean reef octopus)". Animal Diversity Web.
  212. ^ "Starting your snail farm in Ghana". GhanaCulturePolitics. August 13, 2017. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  213. ^ "Snail Farming - How to farm these slow creatures for fast profits in Africa - Smallstarter Africa". 2013-02-23.
  214. ^ "Slimy hagfish farms growing". The Herald. April 14, 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  215. ^ "Hagfish Slime: Biomaterial Of The Future?". IFLScience. 29 September 2014.
  216. ^ "commercial blue swimmer crab farming in Queensland". Prezi. June 24, 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  217. ^ "Crab and mud crab farm" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  218. ^ "Could lobster farming become a new industry for Coastal areas?". 2014-07-10.
  219. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-02-05. Retrieved 2018-02-04.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  220. ^ "Info" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-03-29.
  221. ^ "Intensive frog farming takes giant leap forward". New Scientist. September 1, 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2018.