The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (November 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Pit bull–type dog wearing a muzzle

Breed-specific legislation (BSL) is a type of law that prohibits or restricts particular breeds or types of dog.[1] Such laws range from outright bans on the possession of these dogs, to restrictions and conditions on ownership, and often establishes a legal presumption that such dogs are dangerous or vicious to prevent dog attacks. Some jurisdictions have enacted breed-specific legislation in response to a number of fatalities or maulings involving pit bull–type dogs or other dog breeds commonly used in dog fighting, and some government organizations such as the United States Army[2][3] and Marine Corps[4] have taken administrative action as well. Due to opposition to such laws, anti-BSL laws have been passed in 21 of the 50 state-level governments in the United States, prohibiting or restricting the ability of jurisdictions within those states to enact or enforce breed-specific legislation.[5]

Background

Pit bulls were often bred and trained to be aggressive for use in dog fighting
Pit bulls were often bred and trained to be aggressive for use in dog fighting

It is generally settled in case law that jurisdictions in the United States and Canada have the right to enact breed-specific legislation; however, the appropriateness and effectiveness of breed-specific legislation in preventing dog bite fatalities and injuries is disputed.[6] One point of view is that certain dog breeds are a public safety issue that merits actions such as banning ownership, mandatory spaying/neutering for all dogs of these breeds, mandatory microchip implants and liability insurance, or prohibiting people convicted of a felony from owning them.[7][8] Another point of view is that comprehensive "dog bite" legislation, coupled with better consumer education and legally mandating responsible pet keeping practices, is a better solution than breed-specific legislation to the problem of dangerous dogs.[9][10]

A third point of view is that breed-specific legislation should not ban breeds entirely, but should strictly regulate the conditions under which specific breeds could be owned, e.g., forbidding certain classes of individuals from owning them, specifying public areas in which they would be prohibited, and establishing conditions, such as requiring a dog to wear a muzzle, for taking dogs from specific breeds into public places.[11] Finally, some governments, such as that of Australia, have forbidden the import of specific breeds and require all existing dogs of these breeds to be spayed/neutered in an attempt to eliminate the population slowly through natural attrition.[12][13]

Originally bred as herding and working dogs, Rottweilers also became associated with dog fighting
Originally bred as herding and working dogs, Rottweilers also became associated with dog fighting

Approximately 550 jurisdictions in the United States have enacted breed-specific legislation in response to a number of well-publicized incidents involving pit bull–type dogs, and some government organizations such as the U.S. Army[14] and Marine Corps[15] have taken administrative action as well. These actions range from outright bans on the possession of pit bull–type dogs, to restrictions and conditions on pit bull ownership. They often establish a legal presumption that a pit bull–type dog is prima facie a legally "dangerous" or "vicious" dog.[16] In response, 16 states in the U.S. prohibited or restricted the ability of municipal governments within those states to enact BSL, though these restrictions do not affect military installations located within the states.[17]

Studies

In a 2014 literature review, the American Veterinary Medical Association stated that "controlled studies have not identified this breed group as disproportionately dangerous", and that "it has not been demonstrated that introducing a breed-specific ban will reduce the rate or severity of bite injuries occurring in the community".[18] In 2012, the American Bar Association passed a resolution urging the repeal of breed-specific legislation, stating that it is "ineffective at improving public safety".[19] In 2013, researchers in Canada found no difference in incidence of dog bites between municipalities with breed-specific legislation and those without it, and in 2008, the Dutch government repealed a 15 year ban on pit bulls, concluding the law was ineffective.[20]

A 2017 study examining dog-bite characteristics in Ireland has suggested that targetting specific dog breeds can have significant negative outcomes.[21] The study found that no significant difference existed between legislated and non-legislated dog breeds for the type of bite inflicted, and the medical treatment needed after the bite.[21] The authors found that non-legislated dog breeds were less likely to be reported to the authorities both before and after the bite compared to legislated dog breeds.[21] The publication suggests there is no scientifically valid basis for breed-specific legislation, and suggests significant negative consequences may result from its introduction.[21]

A study by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2000 concluded that fatal attacks on humans appeared to be a breed-specific problem (pit bull–type dogs and Rottweilers accounted for half of all fatal dog attacks on humans between 1979 and 1998). However, they also concluded that fatal attacks represent a small proportion of dog bite injuries to humans and suggested that there may be better alternatives for prevention of dog bites than breed-specific ordinances.[22] Given many media sources reported that this study suggested that pit bull–type dogs and Rottweilers are disproportionately more dangerous than other dog breeds, the American Veterinary Medical Association, whose journal published the original article, released a statement detailing that this study "cannot be used to infer any breed specific risk for dog bite fatalities" (for lack of sufficient data on total breed ownership).[23]

Legislation

Fifty-two countries have some form of breed-specific legislation, and 41 of those have BSL at the national level, as of December 2018.[24]

North America

Bermuda

In Bermuda, since, July 21, 2003, importing or breeding of any "breed of dog that may be perceived as dangerous" is prohibited. Prohibited breeds include: American Pit Bull Terrier, American Bulldog, American Staffordshire Terrier, Dogo Argentino, Boerboel, Fila Brasiliero, Cane Corso, Presa Canario, Neapolitan Mastiff, Tosa Inu, Wolf or Wolf hybrid, and crossbreeds thereof, as well as "any exotic or uncommon breed" at the government's discretion.[25][26]

Another category, restricted breeds, may be imported/kept once the conditions for keeping these dogs have been fulfilled, new acquisitions require pre-approval, and they may be bred only with a Breeder’s permit. Restricted breeds include: Akita, Australian Cattle Dog, Belgian Malinois, Bouvier Des Flandres, Bull Terrier, Bullmastiff, Chow Chow, Doberman Pinscher, Dogue De Bordeaux, German Shepherd, English Mastiff, Rhodesian Ridgeback, Rottweiler, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and any cross of these.

Canada

The Canadian federal government does not regulate pit bull–type dogs, but two provincial governments and some municipal governments in Canada have enacted breed-specific legislation banning or restricting pit bull–type dogs. The following table discusses a sampling of the restrictions in force.

Province Locality Date Type Details
Manitoba Winnipeg July 17, 2013 (amended 2014) Ban Dogs having the appearance and physical characteristics predominantly conforming to the standards of the Canadian Kennel Club or the United Kennel Club of:
  1. American Pit Bull Terrier
  2. Staffordshire Bull Terrier
  3. American Staffordshire Terrier [27]
Ontario All August 29, 2005 Ban No person shall own, breed, transfer, abandon or import a pit bull, nor allow one to stray, nor train a pit bull for fighting.[28]

"Pit bull" includes a pit bull terrier, a Staffordshire bull terrier, an American Staffordshire terrier, an American pit bull terrier, or a dog that has an appearance and physical characteristics that are substantially similar to those.[28]

Pit bulls were grandfathered (called "restricted pit bulls") if they were owned by an Ontario resident on August 29, 2005, or born in Ontario within 90 days afterwards. Such dogs are subject to restrictions: they must be muzzled and kept on a leash no more than 1.8 meters long when in public or not on enclosed property, and they must be spayed or neutered unless a veterinarian certifies the dog is physically unfit to be anesthetized.[29]

If it is alleged in a proceeding that a dog is a pit bull, the onus of proving that the dog is not a pit bull lies on the owner of the dog. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, a veterinarian's certificate attesting that a dog is a pit bull is evidence of that fact.[28][29]

United States

As of 2018 there is some level of breed-specific legislation in 37 states and over 1,000 cities.[24] Though the Federal Government of the United States has not enacted breed-specific legislation, four of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces have restricted certain breeds at almost 300 installations (mostly with respect to on-base housing and privatized housing).[3][4][24] Over 20 American Indian Reservations have also enacted BSL.[30]

The following 17 states prohibit their municipalities from passing breed-specific laws: Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Maine, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia, Massachusetts, Nevada, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Utah and South Dakota. California prohibits most breed-specific laws, but allows breed-specific spay/neuter.[31]

There have been at least 60 municipality BSL repeals in the U.S. since 2018.[32]

Below are summaries of some of the breed-specific legislation enacted in the United States. This is not an all-inclusive list of BSL throughout the USA.

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.

State Locality Date Type Details
Colorado Denver July 31, 1989

suspended from April 21, 2004 to May 8, 2005

Restriction Previous ban repealed in 2020 by popular vote.[33] Pit bulls subject to "breed-restricted permit".[34]
Florida Miami-Dade County 1989 Ban "It is illegal in Miami-Dade County to own any dog which substantially conforms to a Pit Bull breed dog, unless it was specially registered with Miami-Dade County prior to 1989. Acquisition or keeping of a Pit Bull dog: $500.00 fine and County Court action to force the removal of the animal from Miami-Dade County."[35]
Iowa Council Bluffs 2004 Ban Pit bulls prohibited in city limits. "Any dog that is an American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, or any dog displaying the majority of physical traits of any one or more of the above breeds (more so than any other breed), or any dog exhibiting those distinguishing characteristics which substantially conform to the standards established by the American Kennel Club or United Kennel Club for any of the above breeds." Owners may keep pit bulls they had when the ordinance was passed, but they must be muzzled or in a secure temporary enclosure when off property.[36][37]
Kentucky Union County 2008 Restriction Pit bulls considered vicious and must be registered annually with the county for $50, listing identifying information, proof of rabies shots, and proof of neutered status.[38]
Maryland Prince George's County 1997 Ban Pit Bull Terriers are prohibited within the county. A Pit Bull Terrier may temporary be in the county for a contest or show, with permissions and assurances of protective measures to prevent escape or injuring the public, and must be transported in a secure temporary enclosure. Dogs employed by the county or licensed security services and trained to perform official police, correctional, security, fire and/or search and rescue service are permitted.[39] Pit Bull Terrier means Staffordshire Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, American Pit Bull Terrier, dogs having the appearance of being predominantly of the three breeds of dog, and dogs having been registered at any time as a Pit Bull Terrier. (Sec. 3-101(a)(62))
Michigan Melvindale 1990 Ban Bans possession of pit bulls (purebred or hybrid) which substantially conforms to the AKC breed standards for American Staffordshire Terriers or Staffordshire Bull Terriers or the UKC breed standards for American Pit Bull Terriers.[40]
Missouri Independence 2006 Ban Pit bulls are prohibited in the city except for those registered before the ordinance (2006). Owners of pit bulls in the city prior to the ordinance must license their dog(s) annually, show proof of neutering, rabies vaccination, and $300,000 liability insurance. The dog must be confined at all times and signage placed on the property. Dogs off property must be on a short leash handled by a competent adult and muzzled with a steel cage type muzzle, or in a secure temporary enclosure. Pit bulls may temporarily visit the city for competitions and exhibits with permissions and precautions. A pit bull is considered an American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, or any dog displaying the majority of physical traits of the three breeds, or any dog exhibiting those distinguishing characteristics which substantially conform to those breeds standards of the AKC or UKC.[41][42]
Missouri Kearney 2007 Ban Pit bull ownership is prohibited in the city. Dogs already residing in the city prior to the ordinance date in 2007 may remain but are restricted: confined, leashed, muzzled, signage on property, owner to carry public liability insurance of $300,000, and any offspring must be removed from city. A pit bull is considered "any dog which has the appearance and characteristics of being predominantly of the breeds of bull terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier; any other breed commonly known as pit bulls, pit bull dogs or pit bull terriers or a combination of any of these breeds."[43]
Missouri Springfield 2006 Restriction Previous ban repealed by popular vote since 2018.[44] Restrictions: Register your pit bull or pit mix annually. Keep pit bull or pit mix safe at all times. Post a sign on your property. Keep the dog in a secured, six-sided enclosure while on your property. Keep your pit bull or pit mix leashed and muzzled while not on your property. Notify Animal Control within 5 days if the pit bull is lost, stolen, dies or has puppies.[45]
Tennessee Sparta 2005 Ban Pit bulls prohibited in the city, meaning bull terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, dogs of mixed breed which includes these breeds, any dog known as a pit bull, pit bull dog or pit bull terrier, any dog having the appearance and characteristics of being predominantly of those breeds, any dog registered within the city as a pit bull dog. Exceptions: Dogs owned prior to the ordinance (August 2005) must be registered, leashed and muzzled, confined, signage posted, public liability insurance of $50,000, identifying photos, reporting requirements, offspring removed from city.[46]
Washington Enumclaw 1990 Restriction Pit Bull Terrier dogs prohibited, meaning any Bull Terrier, American Pit Bull Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier or American Staffordshire Terrier, or any mixed breed of dog which contains any of these breeds, or a dog identifiable as partially of these breeds. Exceptions: Dogs in town for a show or competition, with permission and safety precautions; a service or assistance animal that performs tasks for its handler; a dog that has passed the AKC Kennel Club Canine Good Citizen Test or a reasonable equivalent.[47]
Washington Royal City January 12, 2007 Ban Section 6.04.020: A "dangerous dog" also includes:
  1. Any dog known by the owner to be a Pit Bull Terrier, which shall be defined as any American Pit Bull Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, American Bulldog or American Staffordshire Terrier breed of dog or any mixed breed of dog which contains as an element of its breeding the breed of American Pit Bull Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, American Bulldog or American Staffordshire Terrier as to be identifiable as partially of such breeds (hereafter a "pit bull dog").
  2. Any dog known by the owner to be a Rottweiler breed of dog or any mixed breed of dog which contains as an element of its breeding the breed of Rottweiler as to be identifiable as partially of such breeds (hereafter a "Rottweiler dog").

No one shall keep, possess or harbor a dangerous dog, as defined by Section 6.04.020 within the city.[48][failed verification]

West Virginia Wheeling 2006 Restriction Three types of dog are designated as vicious: American Bulldog or old country bulldog, canary dog or Perro de Presa Canario, and Pit Bull Terrier (Staffordshire bull terrier, American pit bull terrier, or American Staffordshire terrier). This includes mix breeds of any of these. Proof of pedigree excluding these breeds will exempt a dog. Vicious-designated dogs must be neutered, confined, leashed and muzzled off property, be permitted annually, and wear a tag. Owners must place signage and obtain liability insurance of $100,000.[49]

Central and South America

Nation Locality Date Type Details
Brazil State of Rio de Janeiro April 9, 1999 Banned for importation, commercialization, breeding and unauthorized creation Pit bulls in general and breeds derived from them.
  • Article 1 – It is prohibited throughout the State of Rio de Janeiro the import, the marketing and the breeding of dogs of the pitt-bull [sic] breed as well as breeds resulting from the crossbreeding with the pitt-bull, in kennels or in isolation.
  • Article 2 – It is mandatory from 06 (six) months of age, the sterilization of all pitbull dogs, or derived therefrom, in the State of Rio de Janeiro.
  • Article 3 – It will only be allowed to keep animals of the pitt-bull breed, or derived therefrom, upon proof of sterilization and updated vaccination.[50]
Ecuador March 2009 Banned Private ownership of pit bull–type dogs and Rottweilers is prohibited.[51]
Trinidad and Tobago Banned
Venezuela 2014 Banned It will be illegal to import, breed, adopt, raise, or sell pit bull–type dogs starting December 31, 2014.[52]

Europe

Republic of Ireland

"Restricted or Listed Breeds of Dog" sign in a Ballincollig park
"Restricted or Listed Breeds of Dog" sign in a Ballincollig park

The Control of Dogs Regulations, 1998 [53][54] place controls on 11 breeds of dogs: American Pit Bull Terrier, English Bull Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, Bull Mastiff, Doberman Pinscher, German Shepherd (Alsatian), Rhodesian Ridgeback, Rottweiler, Japanese Akita, Japanese Tosa, and Bandog. These dogs, or strains and crosses thereof, must be kept on a strong, short lead (less than 2 metres / 6′ 7″) by a person over 16 years of age who is capable of controlling them. The dogs must be securely muzzled and wear a collar with the name and address of the owner.[55]

United Kingdom

Main article: Dangerous Dogs Act 1991

In the United Kingdom the main piece of breed-specific legislation is the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991, which makes it illegal to own any 'Specially Controlled Dogs' without specific exemption from a court. The dogs have to be muzzled and kept on a lead in public, they must be registered and insured, neutered, tattooed and receive microchip implants. The Act also bans the breeding, sale and exchange of these dogs, even if they are on the 'Index of Exempted Dogs'.[56]

Two types of dogs are specifically identified by the Act:

In addition, the Dangerous Dogs (Designated Types) Order 1991, a statutory instrument made under this Act, designated two more types as "appearing to be bred for fighting or to have the characteristics of types bred for that purpose":

The Act also covers cross-breeds of the above four types of dog. Dangerous dogs are classified by "type", not by breed label. This means that whether a dog is prohibited under the Act will depend on a judgement about its physical characteristics, and whether they match the description of a prohibited "type". This assessment of the physical characteristics is made by a court.

The Act applies in England, Wales and Scotland,[57] with the Dangerous Dogs (Northern Ireland) Order 1991 having a similar effect in Northern Ireland.[58]

Other European countries

Nation Locality Date Type Details
Cyprus Banned The entry of dogs of the following breeds is prohibited regardless of the country of origin:[59]
  • Pit Bull Terrier or American Pit Bull
  • Japanese Tosa or Tosa Inu
  • Dogo Argentino or Argentinian Mastiff
  • Fila Brasileiro or Brazilian Mastiff
Denmark July 1, 2010 Banned As of July 1, 2010, breeding, selling and importing of the following breeds is banned: American Pit Bull Terrier, Japanese Tosa, American Staffordshire Terrier, American Bulldog, Central Asian Shepherd Dog, Boerboel, Dogo Argentino, Kangal, Caucasian Shepherd Dog, Tornjak, Šarplaninac, Fila Brasileiro, South Russian Shepherd Dog and crossbreeds thereof. Currently existing dogs must be muzzled and leashed at all times in public. Same restrictions against mutts if the owner cannot prove that his/her dog is not a crossbreed.[60]

It is also a "positive list", listing breeds that are looking pretty similar to them that are banned: Polski Owczarek Podhalanski, Cão Fila de São Miguel, Dogue de Bordeaux, Bullmastiff, English Mastiff, Neapolitan Mastiff, Cane Corso, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, Dogo Canario, Anatolian Shepherd Dog, Iberian Dogge. Owners of these breeds must have documentation for the breeds or types, but dogs on the positive list are not banned by law.

France April 30, 1999 Restricted Non-pure-breed animals resembling pit bulls are to be spay/neutered[61][62]
Germany February 2001 Restricted

Importation of the Pitbull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, Bull Terrier, and their crossbreeds, is prohibited.[63][64]

Eighteen (18) other dog breeds are regulated by individual federal states,[65] including: Alano, American Bulldog, Bandog, Bullmastiff, Cane Corso, Caucasian Shepherd Dog, Dobermann, Dogo Argentino, Dogue de Bordeaux, Fila Brasiliero, Kangal Shepherd Dog (Karabash), Mastiff, Neapolitan Mastiff, Perro de Presa Canario (Dogo Canario), Perro de Presa Mallorquin, Rottweiler, Spanish Mastiff, and Tosa Inu.

Iceland Banned from importation Some dangerous dog breeds and their crosses are prohibited from entering Iceland. They include: American Pit Bull Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, Tosa Inu, Dogo Argentino (Argentine Mastiff) and Fila Brasileiro (Brazilian Mastiff),[66] and English Bull Terriers.[67] Wolf mixes are not permitted. Other dogs which display aggressive or dangerous behavior may not be permitted entry.
Malta February 17, 1998 Restricted The following breeds may not be imported into Malta: American Pitbull Terrier, Argentine Dogo, Fila Brasileiro, or Japanese Tosa[68]
Norway July 4, 1991,
amended August 20, 2004
Banned The following breeds are forbidden to give, sell, breed or import, including those in embryonic form, but dogs bred before the law came into effect are legal to possess:

Dogs of these breeds that are kept legal, also have to be microchipped.[69]

Poland 1997 Restricted Special act[70] defines what is called "list of aggressive dog breeds", including:
  • American Pit Bull Terrier
  • Perro de Presa Mallorquin
  • American Bulldog
  • Dogo Argentino
  • Perro de Presa Canario
  • Tosa Inu
  • Rottweiler
  • Akbash
  • Anatolian Karbash
  • Moscow Watchdog
  • Caucasian Shepherd Dog

Breeding or owning of these breeds requires a permit from local authorities. Permit is requested by breeder or owner. Permit can be withdrawn whenever the dog is kept in a way that it creates danger for people or other animals.

Portugal Restricted

Owners can have these breeds but they have to have them muzzled when outdoors, registered and sterilized. They also have to submit your own criminal record when they register the dog.

The restriction affects the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, Rottweiler, American Staffordshire Terrier, Fila Brasileiro, Dogo Argentino, Tosa Inu and Pit bull.[71][irrelevant citation]
Romania April 26, 2002 Restricted The following restrictions apply:
Spain 2002 Restricted A royal decree restricts several breeds, including the American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Argentine Dogo, Bull Terrier and Staffordshire Bull Terrier.[71][73]
Switzerland 2012
Breed-specific legislation in Switzerland, May 2012. Red: Breed-specific legislation enacted, breeds on the list are banned. Yellow: BSL enacted, breeds on the list are subject to authorization. Red/yellow: BSL enacted, some of the breeds on the list are banned.  Green: no BSL
Breed-specific legislation in Switzerland, May 2012. Red: Breed-specific legislation enacted, breeds on the list are banned. Yellow: BSL enacted, breeds on the list are subject to authorization. Red/yellow: BSL enacted, some of the breeds on the list are banned. Green: no BSL
Varies by canton; some cantons have adopted extensive BSL, others have no such legislation whatsoever. Several decisions of the Supreme Court have found that cantonal BSL is constitutional. There is no BSL on the federal level; federal bills that would have enacted it died in 2006 and 2010.[citation needed]
Ukraine Restricted There is "dangerous breed list" in Ukraine since 2002, which listed 88 breeds. On November 10, 2021, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine updated the list of dangerous dog breeds, which included 52 breeds now.[74][75] 23 January 2020 Lviv City Council has removed legislative reference to "dangerous breeds" [76] that earlier listed over 80 breeds,[77] including several varieties of Bull Terriers, Bulldogs, Livestock Guardian dogs, Boxer, Briard, Labrador Retriever, Welsh Terrier, German Shepherd and their mixes. Previous compliance requirements included mandatory insurance and micro chipping, walking on a short leash and muzzle in public places, other restrictions.

In Ukraine capital, Kyiv, as per law adapted at 1998, the list of breeds forbidden for breeding and requiring mandatory sterilization, includes Akbash, APBT, Presa Canario, Kangal, Romanian Shepherd, Greek Shepherd, Alek Roshhin Doberman, Superdog and Superdog Mainkong mixes and 18 other recognized and unrecognized breeds. Besides mandatory spay, law requests muzzle, insurance, short leash, very high license fees and other measures.

As per Ukrainian Kennel Club KSU, dangerous breeds list includes over 20 breeds, such as American Bulldog, American Staffordshire Terrier, English Mastiff, Dogo Argentino, Dogue De Bordeaux.[78]

Asia

Nation Locality Date Type Details
Hong Kong June 2000 Banned The importation, breeding of fighting dogs, which are Pit Bull Terrier, Japanese Tosa, Dogo Argentino, Fila Braziliero and any crossbreds involving fighting dogs mentioned before is prohibited. Keeping any fighting dogs that are not neutered are also prohibited.[79]
Israel 2004 Banned for importation Dogo Argentino, Pitbull Terriers, Bull Terriers, American Staffordshire Terriers, Staffordshire Bull Terriers, Rottweilers, Fila Brasileiro (Brazilian Mastiff) and Tosa Inu are banned for importation.[80]
Malaysia 2002 Banned The following breeds are banned in Malaysia: Akita, American Bulldog, American Pit Bull Terrier, Dogo Argentino, Fila Brasileiro, Japanese Tosa, Kai Ken, Ovcharka, Perro de Presa Mallorquin, Perro de Presa Canario, Russo-European Laika, or Tibetan Mastiff[81]

The following breeds are restricted in Malaysia: Alaskan Malamute, American Staffordshire Terrier, Belgian Shepherd, Dogue de Bordeaux, East-European Shepherd, Estrela Mountain Dog, German Shepherd, Miniature Bull Terrier, Neapolitan Mastiff, Rafeiro do Alentejo, Rottweiler, Staffordshire Bull Terrier[81]

Singapore June 4, 1991 Restricted The following breeds of dogs and their crosses are not allowed to be imported into Singapore – Pit Bull (which includes the American Pit Bull Terrier also known as the American Pit Bull and Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, the American Bulldog, and crosses between them and with other breeds); Neapolitan Mastiff, Tosa, Akita, Dogo Argentino, Boerboel, Fila Brasileiro and their crosses.[82]

Owners of these breeds of dogs already in Singapore must comply with the following requirements:

  • the dog shall be implanted with a microchip;
  • the dog, if over 6 months of age, shall be sterilised;
  • the licensee shall have in force a policy of insurance approved by the Director-General for an amount of not less than $100,000 to cover any injury to persons or animals or damage to property that might be caused by the dog; and
  • the licensee shall furnish to the Director-General security in the form of a banker's guarantee for $5,000, which shall be forfeited if —
Taiwan Restrictions and import bans The Council of Agriculture lists six types of dogs as aggressive breeds: pit bull terriers (includes American Pit Bull Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, and their mixes), Japanese Tosas, Neapolitan Mastiffs, Dogo Argentinos, Fila Brasileiro, and mastiffs. Such dogs must be registered, and when in public must be accompanied by an adult, muzzled, and kept on a short leash. In 2021, the Bureau of Foreign Trade added American Pit Bull Terriers and American Staffordshire Terriers to the list of animals prohibited from importation.[84][85]
Turkey 2021 Banned The breeding, owning, sheltering, feeding, exchanging, displaying, gifting, importing, selling and advertising of American Bully, American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Dogo Argentino, Fila Brasileiro, and Japanese Tosa dogs is banned.[86] Owners must register and sterilize their dogs.[87]
United Arab Emirates Banned The following breeds are banned from importation into the country: American Bully, American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Dogo Argentino, Doberman Pinscher, Fila Brasileiro, Rottweiler, Presa Canario, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, Tosa Inu and Wolfdogs of any breed. https://www.petraveller.com.au/blog/banned-dog-breeds-in-the-united-arab-emirates

Oceania

Nation Locality Date Type Details
Australia 2010-09-02 Banned for importation, breeding, sale, transfer of ownership. Dogo Argentino; Fila Brasileiro; Japanese Tosa; American Pit Bull Terrier or Pit Bull Terrier; Perro de Presa Canario or Presa Canario; and advertising matter for these breeds.[88] Breeding is restricted by State Laws. In New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria, restricted dogs must not be bred, sold or ownership transferred. they must also be desexed, wear a distinctive collar, reside in a certified enclosure and must be leashed and muzzled at all times when outside of its registered enclosure. Public signage declaring the dog resides on the property must be located at each entrance.[89][90][91] Wolfdogs and associated breeds such as the Czechoslovakian wolfdog and Saarloos wolfdog, alongside wild x domestic cat breeds such as the Savannah and the Bengal (if below the G5 rank) are also banned from importation.
Australia New South Wales January 28, 2006 Restriction The following dogs are restricted dogs...:
(a) American pit bull terrier or pit bull terrier,
(b) Japanese tosa,
(c) dogo Argentino,
(d) fila Brasileiro,
(d1) any other dog of a breed, kind or description whose importation into Australia is prohibited by or under the Customs Act 1901 of the Commonwealth,
(e) any dog declared by an authorised officer of a council...to be a restricted dog,
(f) any other dog of a breed, kind or description prescribed by the regulations for the purposes of this section.[92]

Restricted dogs may not be sold, given away, or acquired, and must be spay/neutered. They must be muzzled when in public, wear a special red-and-yellow collar, and may only be handled by a competent adult over the age of 18. The dog must live in a secure enclosure when at home, and the owner must post "Warning: Dangerous Dog" signs on their property. The owner must also register the dog with the local government and notify the government if the dog attacks a person or animal, cannot be found, dies, has moved out of the area, or is now living at a different location within the local government's jurisdiction.[93]

Australia Queensland July 1, 2009 Restriction A dog of a breed prohibited from importation into Australia under the Australian Customs Act of 1901 is considered "restricted". Breeds currently prohibited under Commonwealth legislation are the dogo Argentino; fila Brasileiro; Japanese tosa; American pit bull terrier (or pit bull terrier); and Perro de Presa Canario (or Presa Canario).

A person who owns a "restricted" dog must:

  • keep the dog within a child-proof enclosure
  • display warning signs at the entrance to the property where the dog is located
  • muzzle the dog in public and have it under effective control at all times
  • ensure the dog is spay/neutered, wearing a collar and a prescribed tag, and is microchipped.[94][95]|-
Australia South Australia July 1, 2004 Restriction The dogo Argentino; fila Brasileiro; Japanese tosa; American pit bull terrier (or pit bull terrier); and Perro de Presa Canario (or Presa Canario) are considered "prescribed breeds". Owners of prescribed breeds:
  • must muzzle their dogs and ensure they are under effective control by means of physical restraint
  • must spay/neuter their dogs
  • may not sell or give away their dog, or advertise to sell or give away their dog[96]
Australia Victoria November 2, 2005 Restriction "Restricted breed" dogs are defined as those dogs prohibited from being imported by the Commonwealth Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations 1956, including the Dogo Argentino, the Japanese Tosa, the Fila Brasileiro, the Perro de Presa Canario (or Presa Canario) and the American Pit Bull Terrier (or Pit Bull Terrier). Of these, the Pit Bull Terrier and the Perro de Presa Canario are the only breeds currently known to exist in Australia.[97] Restrictions on these breeds include:
  • a permit is required for a person to have more than two of a restricted breed;
  • escape-proof and child-proof enclosures;
  • permanent identification using microchip technology;
  • owners must notify their council if the dog escapes, dies or there is a change of ownership;
  • in the case of a change of ownership, owners must advise prospective owners that the dog is a restricted breed;
  • dogs must be leashed and muzzled when in public places;
  • conspicuous "Beware: Restricted Dog" signs must be displayed on property access points; and
  • minors are not to own a restricted breed or be in charge of a restricted breed in public places.[98]
Australia Western Australia March 2006 Restriction The following dog breeds are restricted:
  • Dogo Argentino (Argentinean mastiff)
  • Fila Brasileiro (Brazilian mastiff)
  • Japanese Tosa
  • American Pit Bull Terrier and Pit Bull Terrier breeds
  • Perro de Presa Canario or Presa Canario
  • and any dog of a mixed breed that visibly contains any of these breeds.

All restricted breed dogs must be muzzled, leashed and controlled by an adult who is physically capable of handling the dog, in any environment except prescribed enclosures. Restricted breed dogs are also required to be sterilised unless there are extenuating circumstances relating to the animal's physical condition or medical treatment. Owners of these breeds are required to display warning signs where these dogs are kept, meet stringent fencing requirements, notify the local government of changes in the dogs status (moved, died, etc..), and ensure their dogs wear dangerous dog collars.[99]

Fiji Banned
New Zealand November 17, 2003 Restricted The following restrictions apply to dogs of these breeds: American Pit Bull Terrier, Dogo Argentino, Fila Brasileiro, or Japanese Tosa
  • It is illegal to import them alive or as semen, ova, or embryos
  • They are automatically considered "menacing dogs", which must be muzzled and on leash in public
  • Regional councils may order them spay/neutered
  • They must be microchipped[100]

Opposition

Legal challenges, Ontario 2007-2009

Rally in front of the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto supporting repeal of breed-specific legislation in Ontario
Rally in front of the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto supporting repeal of breed-specific legislation in Ontario

In Cochrane v. Ontario (Attorney General), 2007 CanLII 9231 (ON S.C.), Ms. Catherine Cochrane sued the Province of Ontario to prevent it from enforcing the Dog Owner's Liability Act (DOLA) ban on pit bull–type dogs, arguing that the law was unconstitutionally broad because the ban was grossly disproportionate to the risk pit bulls pose to public safety, and that the law was unconstitutionally vague because it failed to provide an intelligible definition of pit bulls. She also argued that a provision allowing the Crown to introduce as evidence a veterinarian's certificate certifying that the dog is a pit bull violates the right to a fair trial and the presumption of innocence.

The presiding judge ruled that the DOLA was not overbroad because,

"The evidence with respect to the dangerousness of pit bulls, although conflicting and inconclusive, is sufficient, in my opinion, to constitute a 'reasoned apprehension of harm'. In the face of conflicting evidence as to the feasibility of less restrictive means to protect the public, it was open to the legislature to decide to restrict the ownership of all pit bulls."[101]

The presiding judge found the term "a pit bull terrier" was unconstitutionally vague since it could include an undefined number of dogs similar to the American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, and Staffordshire Bull Terrier.[101] The judge also ruled that the government's ability to introduce a veterinarian's certificate certifying that the dog is a pit bull created a mandatory presumption that the dog was a pit bull, and that this placed an unconstitutional burden of proof upon the defendant.[101]

In 2008, both Ms. Cochrane and the Attorney General of Ontario appealed different aspects of the decision to the Court of Appeal for Ontario.[102] In Cochrane v. Ontario (2008 ONCA 718), the Court of Appeal reversed the lower court's ruling:

On June 11, 2009 the Supreme Court of Canada declined to hear further appeal of the case, thereby upholding the Ontario ban on pit bulls.[102]

Legal challenges, USA

Court challenges to breed-specific legislation on constitutional grounds have been largely unsuccessful. Dana M. Campbell summarized the legal challenges and the general court findings as of July 2009:

Court cases challenging BSL have focused on constitutional concerns such as substantive due process, equal protection, and vagueness. Most BSL will survive the minimum scrutiny analysis allowed by the due process clauses of the Constitution's Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments because there is no fundamental right at issue. This analysis requires that the law being challenged must be rationally related to a legitimate government goal or purpose. Because state and local jurisdictions enjoy broad police powers, including protecting the public's safety and welfare, courts have not had trouble finding that BSL is rationally related to the goal of protecting the public from allegedly dangerous breeds.

This has caused big problems for many who use them as police, guide or other service dogs, as they are not always excluded, and in some cases are confiscated and put down.

Challenges based on equal protection arguments are similarly difficult to sustain. Here courts are looking at whether there is a rational purpose for treating pit bull breeds differently from other dog breeds. Dog owners have attacked the rational purpose requirement by arguing either that BSL is over-inclusive, because it bans all dogs of a breed when only certain individuals within the breed have proven to be vicious, or under-inclusive, because many types of dogs have injured people and the BSL fails to include those other breeds. However, again under minimum scrutiny review, BSL will survive as long as the government can establish that the BSL is rationally related to its purpose, even if the law is found to be over-inclusive or under-inclusive.

Claims that BSL is unconstitutionally vague have brought dog owners mixed success. Procedural due process requires that laws provide the public with sufficient notice of the activity or conduct being regulated or banned. Here owners of pit bulls or other banned breeds argue that the breed ban laws do not adequately define just what is a "pit bull" (or other banned breed) for purposes of the ban. Another argument is that the laws are too vague to help the dog-owning public or the BSL enforcement agency—such as animal control or police—to be able to identify whether a dog falls under the BSL if the dog was adopted with an unknown origin or is a mixed breed.[6]

Federal courts

Sentell v. New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad Company
An adult Newfoundland dog
An adult Newfoundland dog

In Sentell v. New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad Company, 166 U.S. 698 (1897), Mr. Sentell sued the New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad Company to recover the value of his female Newfoundland dog that he alleged to have been negligently killed by the railroad company. The company claimed that Louisiana law held that only people who licensed their dogs were entitled to sue for compensation if the dog were killed, and that Mr. Sentell was not entitled to damages since he had not licensed his dog. The trial court in Orleans Parish found for Mr. Sentell and awarded him $250 US, so the railroad company appealed to the Louisiana Court of Appeal, which reversed the decision of the trial court. The Louisiana Supreme Court declined to hear the case, so Mr. Sentell then appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States, which agreed to hear the case.

The Supreme Court ruled against Mr. Sentell and established the precedent in U.S. jurisprudence that the regulation of dogs was within the police power of the state, and that the dogs were not as valuable as horses, cattle, sheep, or other domesticated animals:

It is true that under the Fourteenth Amendment, no state can deprive a person of his life, liberty, or property without due process of law, but in determining what is due process of law, we are bound to consider the nature of the property, the necessity for its sacrifice, and the extent to which it has heretofore been regarded as within the police power. So far as property is inoffensive or harmless, it can only be condemned or destroyed by legal proceedings, with due notice to the owner; but, so far as it is dangerous to the safety or health of the community, due process of law may authorize its summary destruction.... Although dogs are ordinarily harmless, they preserve some of their hereditary wolfish instincts, which occasionally break forth in the destruction of sheep and other helpless animals. Others, too small to attack these animals, are simply vicious, noisy, and pestilent. As their depredations are often committed at night, it is usually impossible to identify the dog or to fix the liability upon the owner, who, moreover, is likely to be pecuniarily irresponsible [not responsible for financial compensation]. In short, the damages are usually such as are beyond the reach of judicial process, and legislation of a drastic nature is necessary to protect persons and property from destruction and annoyance. Such legislation is clearly within the police power of the state. It ordinarily takes the form of a license tax, and the identification of the dog by a collar and tag, upon which the name of the owner is sometimes required to be engraved, but other remedies are not uncommon.[104]

Vanater v. Village of South Point
A selection of "pit bull-type" dogs, American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, American Bulldog.
A selection of "pit bull-type" dogs, American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, Staffordshire Bull Terrier, American Bulldog.

In Vanater v. Village of South Point, 717 F. Supp. 1236 (D. Ohio 1989), the Ohio federal district court held that the criminal ordinance of South Point, Ohio, prohibiting the owning or harboring of pit bull terriers within the village limits was not overly broad, concluding:

The Court concludes that the definitions of a Pit Bull Terrier in this Ordinance are not unconstitutionally vague. An ordinary person could easily refer to a dictionary, a dog buyer's guide or any dog book for guidance and instruction; also, the American Kennel Club and United Kennel Club have set forth standards for Staffordshire Bull Terriers and American Staffordshire Terriers to help determine whether a dog is described by any one of them. While it may be true that some definitions contain descriptions which lack "mathematical certainty," such precision and definiteness is not essential to constitutionality.

The court made the following findings of fact when it determined the village showed that pit bull terriers are uniquely dangerous and therefore, are proper subjects of the village's police power for the protection of the public's health and welfare:

American Dog Owners Ass'n, Inc. v. Dade County, Fla.

In American Dog Owners Ass'n, Inc. v. Dade County, Fla., 728 F.Supp. 1533 (S.D.Fla.,1989), dog owners sued in the federal district court of Florida to prevent Dade County from enforcing a pit bull ban, claiming that there is no such thing as a pit bull dog but rather three separate breeds; however, their own expert witnesses repeatedly identified dogs from the three separate breeds as "pit bull dogs" during the trial. The court upheld the Dade County ordinance, concluding:

Based upon the substantial evidence presented at trial, this court finds that Dade County Ordinance No. 89-022 provides sufficient guidance to dog owners, both in its explicit reference to pit bull dogs, and in its definitional section, to enable pit bull owners to determine whether their dogs fall within the proscriptions of the ordinance....Certainly there are some applications of the ordinance which pass constitutional muster. As long as the enactment is not impermissibly vague in all its applications, this court must uphold its constitutionality. Upon consideration of the evidence presented at trial, the pleadings, memoranda, exhibits and arguments of counsel and upon application of the controlling authority, this court finds that plaintiffs have failed to meet their burden of proof and that the Court is required to uphold the constitutionality of Dade County Ordinance No. 089-22.[106]

American Canine Federation, v. City of Aurora, CO

In American Canine Federation and Florence Vianzon v. City of Aurora, Colorado, 618 F.Supp.2d 1271 (2009), the plaintiffs sued in the United States District Court for the District of Colorado to prevent Aurora, Colorado, from enforcing a pit bull ban on the grounds that the law was unconstitutionally vague, that the law was an abuse of the city's police power, and that the ban represented an unconstitutional taking of property. The court rejected each of these claims based on existing legal precedents and upheld the city's ordinance.[107]

State courts

Arkansas

In Holt v. City of Maumelle, 817 S.W.2d 208 (AR., 1991), Mr. Steele Holt sued the city of Maumelle, Arkansas, in 1988 in an attempt to have its prohibition against pit bulls overturned on the grounds that the ordinance was impermissibly vague, that it was unreasonable to ban pit bull–type dogs, and that the city's Board of Directors committed a breach of contract by passing a pit bull ordinance that it had previously agreed to forego; Mr. Holt also asked that the city pay compensatory damages, punitive damages, and his attorney's fees. The Pulaski County circuit court made a summary judgment dismissing the suit, and Mr. Holt appealed. In 1991, the Arkansas Supreme Court affirmed the circuit court's decision, finding that the pit bull ordinance was not impermissibly vague, that the restrictions were reasonable, and that any agreement made by the city to limit its own legislative powers was null and void since the city's first duty was to protect the public interest.[108]

Colorado

In Colorado Dog Fanciers, Inc. v. City and County of Denver, 820 P.2d 644, Colo., 1991, the Colorado Supreme Court upheld a Denver city ordinance that dog owners had complained was unconstitutional, along the following lines:

In City & County of Denver v. State of Colorado, 04CV3756, Denver challenged a 2004 law passed by the Colorado General Assembly that prohibited breed specific laws on the grounds that the state law violated the city's home rule authority in regard to animal control legislation. The Denver District Court Judge ruled in favor of Denver, finding that:

Florida

In State of Florida v. Peters, 534 So.2d 760 (Fla.App. 3 Dist. 1988), the Florida Third District Court of Appeal reviewed the city of North Miami ordinance regulating the ownership of pit bull dogs within the city limits, and held: (1) the ordinance did not violate the equal protection clause of the United States Constitution since the city's action in light of the evidence was neither arbitrary or irrational; (2) the ordinance's requirement to obtain liability insurance did not violate due process since the city had the right to regulate dogs under its police powers; (3) the definition of "pit bull" was not unconstitutionally vague, citing substantial precedent that laws requiring "substantial conformance" with a standard are not considered vague; and that mathematical certainty of a dog's identity as a pit bull was not required for a legal determination that a dog was in fact a pit bull.[111]

Kansas

In Hearn v. City of Overland Park, 772 P.2d 758 (Kan. 1989), the Supreme Court of Kansas reviewed the ruling of a county court that overturned an ordinance of the city of Overland Park regulating the ownership of pit bull dogs within the city limits, and held: (1) The ordinance is not unconstitutionally vague or overbroad; (2) the ordinance does not violate the due process rights of plaintiffs under the United States and Kansas Constitutions; (3) the ordinance does not violate the equal protection clauses of the United States and Kansas Constitutions; and (4) the district court did not err in dismissing the plaintiffs' claim for damages pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1983 (1982).[112]

Kentucky

In Bess v. Bracken County Fiscal Court, 210 S.W.3d 177 (Ky.App.,2006), the Kentucky Court of Appeals reviewed a Bracken County ordinance that banned pit bull terriers. The appellants (Mr. Bess and Mr. Poe) had sought a temporary injunction against the ordinance in the Bracken County Circuit Court. The court dismissed the motion on the grounds that the police power of the Fiscal Court allowed it to ban pit bull terriers and seize them without compensation. The appellants appealed on the grounds that:

  1. that the ordinance is inconsistent with KRS (Kentucky Revised Statutes) Chapter 258 and specifically with the definition of "vicious dog" contained in KRS 258.095;
  2. that it impermissibly allows the forfeiture of property without compensation;
  3. that it denies dog owners procedural due process; and
  4. that it impedes the right of nonresident owners of pit bull terriers to travel through Bracken County.

The Appeals court upheld the Bracken County ordinance, finding that:

  1. the breed-specific ordinance supplemented, rather than replaced or superseded, the definition of a "vicious dog" in the state statute;
  2. the banning of pit bull terriers was permissible under the police power, and that property seized under the police power was not subject to compensation;
  3. dog owners had the right of appeal to the Circuit Court under the ordinance, so the right of due process was preserved; and
  4. the ordinance did not discriminate against non-resident pit bull owners, and that the appellants had not provided any evidence that traveling with a pet "occupies a position fundamental to the concept of a federal union."[113]
Massachusetts

In American Dog Owners Ass'n, Inc. v. City of Lynn, 404 Mass. 73, 533 N.E.2d 642 (Mass.,1989), the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court reviewed a series of ordinances enacted by Lynn, Massachusetts, targeting dogs variously referred to as "American Staffordshire Terrier[s], a/k/a American Pit Bull Terrier[s] or Bull Terrier[s]" (July 1985); "American Staffordshire, Staffordshire Pit Bull Terrier or Bull Terrier, hereinafter referred to as 'Pit Bulls'" (June 1986); and ""American Staffordshire, Staffordshire Pit Bull Terrier, Bull Terrier or any mixture thereof" (September 1986).

The Supreme Judicial Court determined that the issue was technically moot since each of the ordinances in question had been repealed by passage of a subsequent "pit bull" ordinance in June 1987; however, the court specifically observed (but did not rule) that the 1987 ordinance relied on the "common understanding and usage" of the names of the breeds in question, and warned that

the Lynn Pit Bull ban ordinance depends for enforcement on the subjective understanding of dog officers of the appearance of an ill-defined "breed," leaves dog owners to guess at what conduct or dog "look" is prohibited, and requires "proof" of a dog's "type" which, unless the dog is registered, may be impossible to furnish. Such a law gives unleashed discretion to the dog officers charged with its enforcement, and clearly relies on their subjective speculation whether a dog's physical characteristics make it what is "commonly understood" to be a "Pit Bull."[114]

As a result of this case, breed-specific legislation in the United States often relies on the published standards of the American Kennel Club and United Kennel Club to clearly identify the characteristics of dogs subject to regulation as "pit bulls."

New Mexico

In Garcia v. Village of Tijeras, 767 P.2d 355 (1988), the New Mexico Court of Appeals reviewed an ordinance of the Village of Tijeras that banned the ownership or possession of a breed of dog "known as American Pit Bull Terrier"; any dog found in violation of the ordinance after a court hearing would be euthanized. The court held against each of the defendants' claims and upheld the ordinance on the following grounds:

  1. The defendants claimed the ordinance violated their due process rights because it was vague in how it defined "pit bull"; however, the ordinance was not vague because vagueness applies in the sense of "to whom does the law apply." The law was therefore not vague since the defendants knew the ordinance applied to them.
  2. The defendants claimed the ordinance was not rationally related to the purpose of preventing pit bull attacks because environment and training are more important than genetics in determining how a dog acts; however, the court held there was substantial, credible evidence of breed-specific issues that the Village's actions were warranted.
  3. The defendants claimed that the ordinance violated equal protection rights because it singled out the owners of pit bulls; however, the court ruled that there was substantial, credible evidence that pit bulls posed a special threat to the people of Tijeras and that there were no grounds to overturn the ordinance.
  4. The defendants claimed the ordinance denied them procedural due process against the loss of property; however, the court ruled that the court hearings specified by the ordinance were sufficient due process to ensure the owners had "the opportunity to be heard and present evidence would occur at a meaningful time, that is, prior to the destruction of the dog."
  5. The defendants claimed the ordinance would deprive them of property without compensation; however, the court ruled that well-established precedent did not require compensation for property seized under a city's police powers.[115]
New York
A  Doberman Pinscher
A Doberman Pinscher

The New York City Housing Authority updated their pet policy in 2010 to exclude dogs over 25 pounds and specifically prohibit Doberman Pinschers, Pit bulls, Rottweilers, and any mixes thereof.[116]

Ohio

In Toledo v. Tellings – Reversed – 871 N.E.2d 1152 (Ohio, 2007), the Ohio Sixth District Court of Appeal struck down a portion of the Toledo, Ohio, municipal code that limited people to owning only one pit bull. The law relied on a state definition of a vicious dog as one that has bitten or killed a human, has killed another dog, or "belongs to a breed that is commonly known as a Pit Bull dog." The court held that the legislation was void for violation of a Pit Bull owner's right to due process since the owner could not appeal a designation of his pet as a vicious dog. The court held that,

"Since we conclude that there is no evidence that pit bulls are inherently dangerous or vicious, then the city ordinance limitation on ownership is also arbitrary, unreasonable and discriminatory."[117]

The Supreme Court of Ohio reversed the Court of Appeal (Toledo v. Tellings, 114 Ohio St.3d 278, 2007-Ohio-3724), and reinstated the Toledo ordinance for the following reasons:

Mr. Tellings appealed the case to the Supreme Court of the United States, which declined to hear the case.[119]

Texas

In City of Richardson v. Responsible Dog Owners of Texas, 794 S.W.2d 17 (Tex. 1990), several people ("Responsible Dog Owners") sued the city of Richardson, Texas, to prevent it from enforcing restrictions on pit bulls within its city limits on the grounds that the Texas state legislature had passed legislation preempting the a city's power to adopt an ordinance regulating the keeping of dogs. The trial court granted summary judgment in favor of the city, but the Texas Court of Appeals reversed the trial court's decision (781 S.W.2d 667). The Supreme Court of Texas reversed the Court of Appeals and upheld the original decision on the grounds that

Under article XI, section 5 of the Texas Constitution, home-rule cities have broad discretionary powers provided that no ordinance "shall contain any provision inconsistent with the Constitution of the State, or of the general laws enacted by the Legislature of this State...." Thus, the mere fact that the legislature has enacted a law addressing a subject does not mean that the subject matter is completely preempted....Although there is a small area of overlap in the provisions of the narrow statute and the broader ordinance, we hold that it is not fatal.[120]

Texas Health and Safety Code

In the state of Texas, the State Health and Safety Code prohibits breed-specific legislation as stated

Sec. 822.047. LOCAL REGULATION OF DANGEROUS DOGS. A county or municipality may place additional requirements or restrictions on dangerous dogs if the requirements or restrictions:

(1) are not specific to one breed or several breeds of dogs; and
(2) are more stringent than restrictions provided by this subchapter.

Added by Acts 1991, 72nd Leg., ch. 916, Sec. 1, eff. September 1, 1991.[121]

Washington

In McQueen v. Kittitas County, 115 Wash. 672, 677 (1921), the Washington Supreme Court established the broadly accepted precedent that cities have the power to regulate dogs, even to the point of banning specific breeds.

[D]ogs do not stand on the same plane as horses, cattle, sheep, and other domesticated animals.[122]..On the general question, it is the almost universal current of authority that dogs are a subject of the police power of the state, and their keeping subject to any kind of license or regulation, even to absolute prohibition...since dogs are a subject of the police power, we see no reason why the legislature may not make distinctions between breeds, sizes and the localities in which they may be kept. The object of the statute is protection. The purpose is to prevent injuries to persons and property by dogs. Any distinction founded upon reasons at least, is therefore valid..."[123]

In American Dog Owners Ass'n v. City of Yakima, 777 P.2d 1046 (Wash.1989, en banc), the Washington Supreme Court reviewed a pit bull ban in the city of Yakima. The dog owners asked a state court to prevent Yakima from enforcing its ban on pit bull dogs. The trial court issued a temporary injunction against the city and accepted motions for summary judgment from both the dog owners and the city. The court decided in favor of the city and lifted the injunction, whereupon the dog owners appealed to the Washington Supreme Court on the grounds that the ordinance was vague because a person of ordinary intelligence could not tell what was prohibited, and that the trial court had improperly decided the summary judgment in favor of the city.

The Washington Supreme Court ruled that the ordinance was not unconstitutionally vague because it specified the dog breeds that together fit the definition of "pit bull", whereas an earlier case in Massachusetts, American Dog Owners Ass'n, Inc. v. Lynn, 404 Mass. 73, 533 N.E.2d 642 (1989), had resulted in the pit bull ban being annulled because the ordinance did not specify in sufficient detail what a "pit bull" was; in addition, the higher court ruled that the summary judgment had been properly awarded, thus upholding the Yakima pit bull ban.[124]

Wisconsin

In Dog Federation of Wisconsin, Inc. v. City of South Milwaukee, 178 Wis.2d 353, 504 N.W.2d 375 (Wis.App.,1993), the Wisconsin Court of Appeals reviewed the appeal of a trial court decision upholding a pit bull ban in South Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Court of Appeals upheld the trial court on the following grounds:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Breed-Specific Legislation in the United States - Animal Legal & Historical Center". www.animallaw.info.
  2. ^ "Pet Policy for Privatized Housing Under the Army's Residential Communities Initiative (RCI) Privatization Program" (PDF). Department of the Army. January 5, 2009.
  3. ^ a b "Garrison Policy Memorandum #08-10, Mandatory Pet Micro-Chipping and Pet Control". US Army Installation Management Command, Fort Drum, NY. 2009-02-03. Archived from the original on 2009-04-27. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
  4. ^ a b "Marine Corps Housing Management" (PDF). United States Marine Corps. 2009-08-11. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 14, 2011.
  5. ^ "Overview of States that Prohibit BSL - Animal Legal & Historical Center". www.animallaw.info.
  6. ^ a b Campbell, Dana (July–August 2009). "Pit Bull Bans: The State of Breed–Specific Legislation". GP-Solo. 26 (5). Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved Mar 4, 2021.
  7. ^ "Breed-specific legislation FAQ". dogsbite.org. 2009. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
  8. ^ Nelson, Kory (2005). "One city's experience: why pit bulls are more dangerous and why breed-specific legislation is justified" (PDF). Municipal Lawyer. Vol. 46, no. 6 (published August 2005). pp. 12–15. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
  9. ^ "HSUS Statement on Dangerous Dogs". Humane Society of the United States. 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
  10. ^ "A community approach to dog bite prevention" (PDF). American Veterinary Medical Association. Vol. 218, no. 11. June 1, 2001. pp. 1731–1749. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-06. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
  11. ^ Phillips, Kenneth (October 10, 2008). "Breed Specific Laws". dogbitelaw.com. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
  12. ^ Barlow, Karen (2005-05-03). "NSW bans pit bull terrier breed". Sydney, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
  13. ^ Hughes, Gary (2009-10-20). "Pit bull bite prompts call for national approach to dangerous dog breeds". The Australian. Sydney, Australia. Retrieved 2009-12-23.
  14. ^ "Garrison Policy Memorandum #08-10, Mandatory Pet Micro-Chipping and Pet Control". US Army Installation Management Command, Fort Drum, New York. February 3, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  15. ^ "Marine Corps Housing Management" (PDF). United States Marine Corps. August 11, 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 22, 2009. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
  16. ^ Palika, Liz (January 31, 2006). American Pit Bull Terrier: Your Happy Healthy Pet. Howell Book House. ISBN 978-0-471-74822-9. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
  17. ^ "States prohibiting or allowing breed specific ordinances". American Veterinary Medical Association. October 2007. Archived from the original on November 28, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
  18. ^ "Dog Bite Risk and Prevention: The Role of Breed". American Veterinary Medical Association. May 15, 2014.
  19. ^ "Resolution #100" (PDF). American Bar Association. 6–7 August 2012. Retrieved 15 Aug 2020.
  20. ^ Nolen, R. Scott (15 November 2017). "The dangerous dog debate". AVMA. Retrieved 12 Nov 2019.
  21. ^ a b c d Creedon, Nanci; Ó’Súilleabháin, Páraic S. (2017-07-21). "Dog bite injuries to humans and the use of breed-specific legislation: a comparison of bites from legislated and non-legislated dog breeds". Irish Veterinary Journal. 70: 23. doi:10.1186/s13620-017-0101-1. PMC 5521144. PMID 28736610.
  22. ^ "Breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1998" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-11. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
  23. ^ "American Veterinary Medical Association Statement on 'Breeds of dogs involved in fatal human attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1998'" (PDF). American Veterinary Medical Association. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-11. Retrieved 2016-01-23.
  24. ^ a b c "Estimated U.S. Cities, Counties, States and Military Facilities with Breed-Specific Pit Bull Laws - Dog Breeds". Scribd. DogsBite.org. December 20, 2018.
  25. ^ "Conditions & Application for the Keeping of Prohibited & Restricted Breeds of Dog (Rev. Dec. 2015)" (PDF). Government of Bermuda. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
  26. ^ "Restricted Dog Breeds". Bermuda Minister of the Environment. January 14, 2004. Archived from the original on 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  27. ^ "The Responsible Pet Ownership By-law: By-law 92/2013". City Clerk's Department: By-laws. City of Winnipeg. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  28. ^ a b c "An Act to amend the Dog Owners' Liability Act to increase public safety in relation to dogs, including pit bulls, and to make related amendments to the Animals for Research Act". Government of Ontario, Canada. 2005-08-29. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
  29. ^ a b "Information on The Dog Owners' Liability Act and Public Safety Related to Dogs Statute Law Amendment Act, 2005". Ministry of the Attorney General. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
  30. ^ "Indian Reservations - Breed-Specific Legislation". DogsBite.org.
  31. ^ "State Laws". Stop BSL. 2011-02-06. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  32. ^ "BSL Continues To Crumble". Pitbullinfo.org. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  33. ^ "Denver election results for 2J: Voters repeal city's pit bull ban". The Denver Post. 2020-11-04. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  34. ^ "Municode Library". library.municode.com. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  35. ^ Miami-Dade County. "Miami-Dade County, Florida, Code of Ordinances". Miami-Dade County, Florida. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
  36. ^ "Council Bluffs Municipal Code 4.20.112 Pit Bulls Prohibited". councilbluffs.municipalcodeonline.com. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  37. ^ "Council Bluffs Bans Pit Bulls". ketv.com. 2004-11-09. Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
  38. ^ "Animal Control". Union County Kentucky. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  39. ^ "Sec. 3-185.01. - Pit Bull Terriers". Municode, Prince George's County, Maryland. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  40. ^ "Part II, Chapter 4, Article II, Division 5. - PIT BULL TERRIERS". Code of Ordinances, City of Melvindale, Michigan. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  41. ^ "SEC. 3.03.006. KEEPING OF PIT BULLS PROHIBITED" (PDF). City Code, Independence, Missouri. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  42. ^ "Independence Passes Pit Bull Ban". Kansas City, Missouri: KMBC-TV. August 28, 2006. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
  43. ^ "Section 205.195: Keeping of Pit Bull Dogs Prohibited" (PDF). City of Kearney, Missouri. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  44. ^ "Springfield, MO, Overwhelmingly Votes to Repeal BSL Law". ASPCA. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  45. ^ "Dogs". City of Springfield, Missouri. Retrieved 2021-11-15.
  46. ^ "Title 10 Animal Control, Chapter 3 Pit Bulls" (PDF). The Sparta Municipal Code (updated 2018). Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  47. ^ "Title 7 Animals, Chapter 7.08 Pit Bull Dogs". Enumclaw Municipal Code. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  48. ^ City of Royal City, Washington (2009-05-09). "Municipal Code, City of Royal City, Washington". www.municode.com. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
  49. ^ "Article 508 Dangerous and Vicious Dogs". Codified Ordinances of the City of Wheeling, West Virginia. Retrieved August 28, 2021.
  50. ^ "Ordinary Law – PROVIDES FOR THE IMPORTATION, MARKETING, CREATION, AND BEARING OF PITT-BULL DOGS, AND GIVES OTHER PROCEDURES". Rio de Janeiro Legislative Assembly – Alerj. Archived from the original on 2013-07-26. Retrieved 2012-04-20.
  51. ^ "Ecuador descalifica a perros pit bull y rottweiler como mascotas" (in Spanish). Ecuador: Diaro Hoy. 2009-02-04. Archived from the original on 2009-03-12. Retrieved 2009-08-24.
  52. ^ "Venezuela restringe tenencia de perros Pit Bull". La Prensa (in Spanish). Managua, Nicaragua. 2010-01-06. Archived from the original on 2010-07-20. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
  53. ^ "electronic Irish Statute Book (eISB), S.I. No. 442/1998 - Control of Dogs Regulations, 1998". www.irishstatutebook.ie.
  54. ^ "Gov.ie - Dog Control". www.gov.ie. November 23, 2018.
  55. ^ "Control and ownership of dogs". citizensinformation.ie.
  56. ^ "Types of dogs prohibited in Great Britain : Guidance on the recognition of prohibited dogs in Great Britain" (PDF). Defra. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2013. via Internet Archive Wayback Machine
  57. ^ "Dangerous Dogs Act 1991". www.legislation.gov.uk. July 25, 1991.
  58. ^ "The Dangerous Dogs (Northern Ireland) Order 1991". www.legislation.gov.uk. October 16, 1991.
  59. ^ "VETERINARY SERVICES - non - Commercial Movements of Pet Animals".
  60. ^ Information, Rets (2010-03-17). "Lov om ændring af lov om hunde og dyreværnsloven" (in Danish). Ministry of Justice of Denmark. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
  61. ^ "Rural code, articles L211-11 to L211-28" (in French). Government of France. April 30, 1999. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
  62. ^ "Ministerial decision" (in French). Government of France. April 30, 1999. Retrieved 2009-08-10.
  63. ^ "Dangerous dogs". Bundesministerium der Finanzen ("Federal Finance Ministry"). 2010-11-02. Archived from the original on 2012-04-21. Retrieved 2012-03-10.
  64. ^ "Customs online - Dangerous dogs - Dangerous dogs". www.zoll.de. Archived from the original on 2019-07-28. Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  65. ^ "Customs online - Private individuals - Provisions imposed by individual federal states". www.zoll.de.
  66. ^ "Iceland Pet Passport & Import Regulations". PetTravel.com. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  67. ^ "Court Decides: Bull Terriers Unwelcome In Iceland". The Reykjavik Grapevine. November 2, 2015.
  68. ^ "Subsidiary Legislation 36.42: Importation of Dogs and Cats Regulations" (PDF). Government of Malta. 1998-02-17. Retrieved 2010-07-05.
  69. ^ "FOR 2004-08-20 nr 1204: Forskrift om hunder" (in Norwegian). Government of Norway. Retrieved 2009-10-02.
  70. ^ "Obwieszczenie Marszałka Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 7 grudnia 2018 r. w sprawie ogłoszenia jednolitego tekstu ustawy o ochronie zwierząt". prawo.sejm.gov.pl. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
  71. ^ a b Straka, Alena (2005-02-17). "Dangerous Dogs: Protection Strategy". City of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
  72. ^ "Cainii din rasa Pitbull vor fi interzisi in Romania". Adevǎrul (in Romanian). Bucharest, Romania. 2002-04-26. Archived from the original on 18 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-16.
  73. ^ "BOE.es - Documento BOE-A-2002-6016". archive.fo. Agencia Estatal Boletin Oficial del Estado. March 27, 2002. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012.
  74. ^ https://www.perild.com/2021/11/10/list-of-dangerous-dog-breeds-approved-in-ukraine/. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  75. ^ https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1164-2021-%D0%BF#TextOn. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  76. ^ |url=https://www8.city-adm.lviv.ua/inteam/uhvaly.nsf/(SearchForWeb)/4556C8DB2857D3B8C22584FD00395C8D?OpenDocument
  77. ^ "Ухвала №262 від 03/17/2016".
  78. ^ "Justice must be blind". Mir Sobak. March 2006. Retrieved 2009-11-14.
  79. ^ Dangerous Dogs Regulation (Cap. 167D), ss. 4, 5, 6, 7, and Schedule 1
  80. ^ "List of Banned Dogs by Countries".
  81. ^ a b "Isu Anjing Terlarang/Terhad". Department of Veterinary Services of Malaysia. 2011-04-18. Archived from the original on 2016-01-07. Retrieved 2013-06-19.
  82. ^ "Veterinary Conditions for the importation of dogs/cats for countries under Category A (1/4)" (PDF). Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore. 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2009-08-04.[permanent dead link]
  83. ^ "Dog Licensing and Control Rules 2007" (PDF). Government of Singapore. 2007-08-06. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-29. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
  84. ^ Everington, Keoni (September 17, 2020). "Taiwan mulls total ban on pit bulls". Taiwan News.
  85. ^ Tzu-ti, Huang (August 18, 2021). "Taiwan bans import of pit bulls over safety concerns". Taiwan News.
  86. ^ "Tehlike Arz Eden Hayvanlara İlişkin Genelge" [Directive on Dangerous Animals] (in Turkish). Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. 9 December 2021. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  87. ^ Eğrıkavuk, Işil. "Pit Bull attacks reignite debate on Turkish ban against breed". Hürriyet. Istanbul, Turkey. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
  88. ^ "CUSTOMS (PROHIBITED IMPORTS) REGULATIONS 1956 – SCHEDULE 1 Goods the importation of which is prohibited absolutely". Austlii.edu.au. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
  89. ^ "Companion Animals Act 1998 No 87:Part 5 Division 5 Section 57, 57A, 57B, 57C, 57D". New South Wales Government. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
  90. ^ "Animal Management (Cats and Dogs) Act 2008 (QLD)". pp. 62–67, 161–163.
  91. ^ "Owning a restricted breed dog". Victorian Government:Department of Agriculture. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  92. ^ "Companion Animals Act 1998 No. 87; Section 55 – Interpretation". New South Wales Parliament. 2009-07-06. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
  93. ^ "Restricted Dogs". Blacktown City Council, NSW, Australia. 2006-01-13. Archived from the original on 2009-07-13. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  94. ^ "Regulated Dogs". Government of Queensland. 2009-03-04. Archived from the original on 2009-07-09. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
  95. ^ "Animal Management (Cats and Dogs) 2008" (PDF). Government of Queensland. 2009-03-04. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
  96. ^ "Dog and Cat Management Act (1995)" (PDF). Government of South Australia. 2005-07-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-09-14. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
  97. ^ "Things you should know about restricted breed dogs" (PDF). Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia. 2005-11-04. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-09-30. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
  98. ^ "Dangerous Dogs". City of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
  99. ^ "Laws for Responsible Dog Owners – the Dog Act of 1976" (PDF). Government of Western Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
  100. ^ "Dog Control Amendment Act of 2003". New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs. 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
  101. ^ a b c "Cochrane v. Ontario (Attorney General), 2007 CanLII 9231 (ON S.C.)" (PDF). Ontario Superior Court of Justice. 2007-03-23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-01-07. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
  102. ^ a b "Who let the dogs out?". Center for Constitutional Studies, University of Alberta, Canada. 2009-06-12. Archived from the original on 2011-06-14. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
  103. ^ "Cochrane v. Ontario (Attorney General), 2008 ONCA 718" (PDF). Ontario Court of Appeal. 2008-10-24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
  104. ^ "Sentell v. New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad Company, 166 U.S. 698 (1897)". Supreme Court of the United States. 1897-04-16.
  105. ^ "Vanater v. Village of South Point, 717 F. Supp. 1236 (D. Ohio 1989)". Retrieved 2009-06-30.
  106. ^ "American Dog Owners Ass'n, Inc. v. Dade County, Fla., 728 F.Supp. 1533 (S.D.Fla.,1989)". Retrieved 2009-07-31.
  107. ^ "American Canine Federation and Florence Vianzon v. City of Aurora, Colorado, 618 F.Supp.2d 1271" (PDF). United States Circuit Court of Colorado. Retrieved 2009-08-20.
  108. ^ "Holt v. City of Maumelle, 817 S.W.2d 208 (AR., 1991)" (PDF). Arkansas Supreme Court. 1991-10-28. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  109. ^ "Colorado Dog Fanciers v. City and County of Denver, Colorado, 820 P.2d 644 (Colo. 1991)". Animal Legal and Historical Center. 1991-11-12. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  110. ^ Nelson, Kory (2005-04-15). "Denver's Pit Bull Ordinance: a review of its history and judicial rulings" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-11-20. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  111. ^ "State of Florida v. Peters, 534 So.2d 760 (Fla.App. 3 Dist. 1988)". 1988. Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  112. ^ "Hearn v. City of Overland Park, 772 P.2d 758 (Kan. 1989)". 1989. Retrieved 2009-07-09.
  113. ^ "Bess v. Bracken County Fiscal Court, 210 S.W.3d 177 (Ky.App.,2006)" (PDF). Kentucky Court of Justice. 2006-12-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  114. ^ "American Dog Owners Ass'n, Inc. v. City of Lynn, 404 Mass. 73, 533 N.E.2d 642 (Mass.,1989)". Archived from the original on 2016-03-09. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
  115. ^ "Garcia v. Village of Tijeras, 767 P.2d 355 (1988)". Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  116. ^ "NYCHA PET POLICY OVERVIEW" (PDF). nyc.gov. March 28, 2018.
  117. ^ "Toledo v. Tellings – Reversed – 871 N.E.2d 1152 (Ohio, 2007)". Retrieved 2009-08-15.
  118. ^ "Toledo v. Tellings, 114 Ohio St.3d 278, 2007-Ohio-3724" (PDF). Supreme Court of Ohio. Retrieved 2009-06-29.
  119. ^ "Certeriorari – Summary Dispositions (Order List: 552 U.S.)" (PDF). United States Supreme Court. 2008-02-19. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
  120. ^ "City of Richardson v. Responsible Dog Owners of Texas, 794 S.W.2d 17". Retrieved 2009-07-28.
  121. ^ TITLE 10. HEALTH AND SAFETY OF ANIMALS http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/HS/htm/HS.822.htm
  122. ^ Karp, Adam (March 2004). "The law of breed-specific legislation" (PDF). Skagit County Bar Association News. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  123. ^ Weight, Michael (February 1987). "City bites dog – legislating vicious dogs/pit bull terriers" (PDF). Legal Notes. 444. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2003-06-17. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
  124. ^ "American Dog Owners Ass'n v. City of Yakima, 777 P.2d 1046 (Wash.1989)". Retrieved 2009-07-28.
  125. ^ "Dog Federation of Wisconsin, Inc. v. City of South Milwaukee, 178 Wis.2d 353, 504 N.W.2d 375 (Wis.App.,1993)". Retrieved 2009-08-13.