Yakima, Washington
Yakima as viewed from Lookout Point
Yakima as viewed from Lookout Point
Official seal of Yakima, Washington
Nickname(s): 
The Palm Springs of Washington; The Heart of Central Washington
Location of Yakima in Yakima County
Location of Yakima in Yakima County
Yakima, Washington is located in the United States
Yakima, Washington
Yakima, Washington
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 46°36′07″N 120°30′28″W / 46.60194°N 120.50778°W / 46.60194; -120.50778
CountryUnited States
StateWashington
CountyYakima
IncorporatedDecember 10, 1883
Government
 • TypeCouncil–manager
 • BodyCity council
 • MayorPatricia Byers[1]
 • City managerVacant[1]
Area
 • City28.27 sq mi (73.21 km2)
 • Land27.81 sq mi (72.02 km2)
 • Water0.46 sq mi (1.19 km2)  1.84%
Elevation
1,066 ft (325 m)
Population
 • City96,968
 • Estimate 
(2022)[4]
97,012
 • RankUS: 347th
WA: 11th
 • Density1,346.4/sq mi (3,487.16/km2)
 • Urban
133,145 (US: 257th)
 • Metro
257,001 (US: 193rd)
DemonymYakimanian[5]
Time zoneUTC-8 (Pacific (PST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-7 (PDT)
ZIP codes
98901–98904, 98907–98909
Area code509
FIPS code53-80010
GNIS feature ID1509643[6]
Websiteyakimawa.gov

Yakima (/ˈjækɪmɑː/ or /ˈjækɪmə/) is a city in, and the county seat of, Yakima County, Washington, United States, and the state's 11th most populous city. As of the 2020 census, the city had a total population of 96,968 and a metropolitan population of 256,728.[3] The unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima.[7]

Yakima is about 60 miles (100 kilometers) southeast of Mount Rainier in Washington. It is situated in the Yakima Valley, a productive agricultural region noted for apple, wine, and hop production. As of 2011, the Yakima Valley produces 77% of all hops grown in the United States.[8] The name Yakima originates from the Yakama Nation Native American tribe, whose reservation is located south of the city.

History

The Yakama people were the first known inhabitants of the Yakima Valley. In 1805, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came to the area and encountered abundant wildlife and rich soil, prompting the settlement of homesteaders.[9] A Catholic Mission was established in Ahtanum, southwest of present-day Yakima, in 1847.[10] The arrival of settlers and their conflicts with the natives resulted in the Yakima War. The U.S. Army established Fort Simcoe in 1856 near present-day White Swan as a response to the uprising. The Yakamas were defeated and forced to relocate to the Yakama Indian Reservation.[11][12]

Yakima County was created in 1865. When bypassed by the Northern Pacific Railroad in December 1884, over 100 buildings were moved with rollers and horse teams to the nearby site of the depot. The new city was dubbed North Yakima and was officially incorporated and named the county seat on January 27, 1886. The name was changed to Yakima in 1918. Union Gap was the new name given to the original site of Yakima.[13]

On May 18, 1980, the eruption of Mount St. Helens caused a large amount of volcanic ash to fall on the Yakima area. Visibility was reduced to near-zero conditions that afternoon, and the ash overloaded the city's wastewater treatment plant.[13][14]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 27.69 sq mi (71.72 km2), of which 27.18 sq mi (70.40 km2) is land and 0.51 sq mi (1.32 km2) is water.[15] Yakima is 1,095 feet above mean sea level.

Yakima region

The city of Yakima is located in the Upper Valley of Yakima County. The county is geographically divided by Ahtanum Ridge and Rattlesnake Ridge into two regions: the Upper (northern) and Lower (southern) valleys. Yakima is located in the more urbanized Upper Valley, and is the central city of the Yakima Metropolitan Statistical Area.

The unincorporated suburban areas of West Valley and Terrace Heights are considered a part of greater Yakima. Other nearby cities include Moxee, Tieton, Cowiche, Wiley City, Tampico, Gleed, and Naches in the Upper Valley, as well as Wapato, Toppenish, Zillah, Harrah, White Swan, Parker, Buena, Outlook, Granger, Mabton, Sunnyside, and Grandview in the Lower Valley.

Bodies of water

The primary irrigation source for the Yakima Valley, the Yakima River, runs through Yakima from its source at Lake Keechelus in the Cascade Range to the Columbia River at Richland. In Yakima, the river is used for both fishing and recreation. A 10-mile (16 km) walking and cycling trail, a park, and a wildlife sanctuary are located at the river's edge.

The Naches River forms the northern border of the city. Several small lakes flank the northern edge of the city, including Myron Lake, Lake Aspen, Bergland Lake (private) and Rotary Lake (also known as Freeway Lake). These lakes are popular with fishermen and swimmers during the summer.

Climate

Climate chart for Yakima

Yakima has a cold desert climate (Köppen BWk) with a Mediterranean precipitation pattern. Winters are cold, with December the coolest month, with a mean temperature of 28.5 °F (−1.9 °C).[16] Annual average snowfall is 21.6 in (55 cm),[16] with most occurring in December and January, when the snow depth averages 2 to 3 in (5.1 to 7.6 cm). There are 18.9 days per year in which the high does not surpass freezing, and 1.6 mornings where the low is 0 °F (−18 °C) or lower.[16] Springtime warming is very gradual, with the average last freeze of the season May 13. Summer days are hot, but the diurnal temperature variation is large, averaging 34.9 °F (19.4 °C) in July, sometimes reaching as high as 50 °F (27.8 °C) during that season; there are 40.2 afternoons of maxima reaching 90 °F (32 °C) or greater annually and 5.7 afternoons of 100 °F (38 °C) maxima. Autumn cooling is very rapid, with the average first freeze of the season occurring on September 30. Due to the city's location in a rain shadow, precipitation, at an average of 8.01 in (203 mm) annually, is low year-round,[16] but especially during summer. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −25 °F (−32 °C) on February 1, 1950,[a] to 113 °F (45 °C) on June 29, 2021.[18]

Climate data for Yakima Airport, Washington (1991–2020 normals,[b] extremes 1946–present[c])
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 68
(20)
70
(21)
80
(27)
92
(33)
102
(39)
113
(45)
109
(43)
110
(43)
100
(38)
91
(33)
73
(23)
72
(22)
113
(45)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 56.3
(13.5)
59.1
(15.1)
70.0
(21.1)
79.7
(26.5)
89.9
(32.2)
95.8
(35.4)
101.5
(38.6)
100.3
(37.9)
92.1
(33.4)
78.3
(25.7)
64.9
(18.3)
54.4
(12.4)
102.9
(39.4)
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 39.5
(4.2)
47.2
(8.4)
56.6
(13.7)
64.7
(18.2)
74.1
(23.4)
80.7
(27.1)
89.9
(32.2)
88.5
(31.4)
79.4
(26.3)
64.4
(18.0)
48.9
(9.4)
38.2
(3.4)
64.3
(17.9)
Daily mean °F (°C) 31.7
(−0.2)
36.6
(2.6)
43.4
(6.3)
49.9
(9.9)
58.8
(14.9)
65.1
(18.4)
72.4
(22.4)
70.9
(21.6)
62.2
(16.8)
49.8
(9.9)
38.0
(3.3)
30.6
(−0.8)
50.8
(10.4)
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 24.0
(−4.4)
26.1
(−3.3)
30.2
(−1.0)
35.2
(1.8)
43.5
(6.4)
49.5
(9.7)
55.0
(12.8)
53.3
(11.8)
44.9
(7.2)
35.3
(1.8)
27.2
(−2.7)
23.1
(−4.9)
37.3
(2.9)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 7.4
(−13.7)
11.4
(−11.4)
19.7
(−6.8)
23.9
(−4.5)
30.2
(−1.0)
36.8
(2.7)
43.8
(6.6)
42.3
(5.7)
33.8
(1.0)
21.3
(−5.9)
13.2
(−10.4)
8.1
(−13.3)
0.5
(−17.5)
Record low °F (°C) −21
(−29)
−25
(−32)
−1
(−18)
18
(−8)
25
(−4)
30
(−1)
34
(1)
35
(2)
24
(−4)
4
(−16)
−13
(−25)
−17
(−27)
−25
(−32)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.19
(30)
0.81
(21)
0.64
(16)
0.55
(14)
0.74
(19)
0.50
(13)
0.20
(5.1)
0.21
(5.3)
0.23
(5.8)
0.64
(16)
0.86
(22)
1.44
(37)
8.01
(203)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 6.2
(16)
2.7
(6.9)
0.6
(1.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
3.0
(7.6)
7.7
(20)
20.3
(52)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.5 7.3 6.6 5.6 6.3 4.6 2.2 2.2 3.0 5.9 8.3 10.3 71.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.4 2.0 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.5 5.5 14.3
Average relative humidity (%) 77.7 72.7 60.6 51.6 48.2 46.8 44.3 48.2 55.6 63.4 74.5 79.8 60.3
Average dew point °F (°C) 22.8
(−5.1)
27.3
(−2.6)
28.8
(−1.8)
30.9
(−0.6)
36.7
(2.6)
42.6
(5.9)
46.0
(7.8)
46.9
(8.3)
42.3
(5.7)
35.1
(1.7)
30.0
(−1.1)
23.9
(−4.5)
34.4
(1.4)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 64 113 186 210 279 300 341 310 240 186 60 62 2,351
Mean daily sunshine hours 2 4 6 7 9 10 11 10 8 6 2 2 6
Percent possible sunshine 22 38 50 51 60 63 71 71 64 55 21 23 49
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 7 5 3 1 1 4
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, and dew point 1961–1990)[16][18][19][17]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (sun and uv)[20]
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on MediaWiki.org.

See or edit raw graph data.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
18901,535
19003,154105.5%
191014,082346.5%
192018,53931.7%
193022,10119.2%
194027,22123.2%
195038,48641.4%
196043,28412.5%
197045,5885.3%
198049,8269.3%
199054,82710.0%
200071,84531.0%
201091,06726.8%
202096,9686.5%
2022 (est.)97,012[4]0.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[21]
2020 Census[3]

2020 census

As of the census of 2020,[22] there were 96,968 people, 33,752 households, 21,624 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,486.8 per square mile (1,346.4/km2). There were 35,763 housing units at an average density of 1,286.0 per square mile (496.6/km2). The racial makeup was 51.8% (50,234) white, 1.45% (1,405) black or African-American, 2.53% (2,453) Native American, 1.46% (1,418) Asian, 0.18% (171) Pacific Islander, 27.66% (26,824) from other races, and 14.92% (14,463) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race was 45.8% (42,947) of the population.

Of the 33,752 households, 32.6% had children under the age of 18; 42.8% were married couples living together; 31.1% had a female householder with no husband present. Of all households, 29.1% consisted of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.7 and the average family size was 3.4.

27.3% of the population was under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.6 years. For every 100 females, the population had 96.0 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older, there were 95.7 males.

The 2016–2020 five-year American Community Survey[23] estimates show that the median household income was $48,220 (with a margin of error of +/- $2,579) and the median family income $57,296 (+/- $3,722). Males had a median income of $31,188 (+/- $828) versus $26,018 (+/- $1,183) for females. The median income for those above 16 years old was $28,697 (+/- $1,619). Approximately, 14.7% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under the age of 18 and 10.0% of those ages 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the census of 2010, there were 91,067 people with 33,074 households, and 21,411 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,350.5 people per square mile. There were 34,829 housing units at an average density of 1,281.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.1% Caucasian, 1.7% African American, 2.0% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 23.3% from other races, and 4.4% from two or more races. 41.3% were Hispanic or Latino, of any race.[24][25] 19.1% of the population had a bachelor's degree or higher.[26]

There were 33,074 households, of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 35.3% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.3.

People under the age of 18 accounted for 28.3% of the population, while 13.1% were 65 years or older. The median age was 33.9 years, and 50.7% of the population was female.

The median household income was $39,706. The per capita income was $20,771. 21.3% of the population were below the poverty line.

Economy

Yakima's growth in the 20th century was fueled primarily by agriculture. The Yakima Valley produces many fruit crops, including apples, peaches, pears, cherries, and melons. Many vegetables are also produced, including peppers, corn and beans. Most of the nation's hops, a key ingredient in the production of beer, are also grown in the Yakima Valley. Many of the city's residents have come to the valley out of economic necessity and to participate in the picking, processing, marketing and support services for the agricultural economy.

Largest employers in the Yakima area[27]
Employer Industry Employee count
1. Yakima Valley Memorial Hospital Hospital 2,500
2. Walmarts
(Yakima/Sunnyside/Grandview)
Department store 1,700
3. Yakima School District, No. 7 School district
(Education)
1,594
4. Zirkle Fruit Fruit processing 1,500+
5. Washington Fruit & Produce Fruit processing 1,500+
6. Yakama Nation
Government Operations
Government 1,289
7. Borton Fruit Fruit processing 1,212
8. Astria Health
(Yakima/Sunnyside/Toppenish)
Hospital 1,200
9. Yakama Nation Enterprises
(Utility, C-Store, Credit Enterprise,
Forest Products, Legends Casino)
Enterprise 1,170
10. Yakima County County government 1,074
11. Monson Fruit Fruit processing 1,023
12. Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic Hospital 1,006
13. Washington State Department of Social and Health Services State government
(Social services)
920
14. A.B. Foods Beef processing 900
15. City of Yakima City government 722
16. Sunnyside School District School district
(Education)
652
17. Tree Top, Inc. Fruit processing 615
18. Costco Department store 600
19. Novolex-Shields Food processing 500
20. Yakima Training Center United States Army
(Military)
491

Downtown Yakima, long the retail hub of the region, has undergone many changes since the late 1990s. Three major department stores, and an entire shopping mall that is now closed, have been replaced by a Whirlpool Corporation facility (shut down in 2011), an Adaptis call center, and several hotels. The region's retail core has shifted to the town of Union Gap to a renovated shopping mall and other new retail businesses. The Downtown Futures Initiative promotes the downtown area as a center for events, services, entertainment, and small, personal shopping experiences.[28] The DFI has provided for street-to-storefront remodeling along Yakima Avenue throughout the entire downtown core, and includes new pedestrian-friendly lighting, water fountains, planters, banner poles, new trees and hanging baskets, and paver-inlaid sidewalks.

Events held downtown include Yakima Downtown New Year's Eve, a Cinco de Mayo celebration, Yakima Live music festival, Yakima Summer Kickoff Party, Fresh Hop Ale Fest,[29] a weekly Farmers' Market,[30] and the Hot Shots 3-on-3 Basketball Tournament.[31]

Over ninety wineries are in the Yakima Valley.[32]

The Yakima Training Center, between Yakima and Ellensburg, is a United States Army training center. It is used primarily for maneuver training and land warrior system testing, and has a live-fire area. Artillery units from the Canadian Armed Forces based in British Columbia, as well as the Japan Ground Self Defense Force, conduct annual training in Yakima. Japanese soldiers train there because it allows for large-scale live-fire maneuvers not available in Japan. Similarly, it is the closest impact area for the Canadian Gunners, the next closest being in Wainwright, Alberta.

Tourism

In the early 2000s, the city of Yakima, in conjunction with multiple city organizations, began revitalization and preservation efforts in its historic downtown area. The Downtown Yakima Futures Initiative was created to make strategic public investments in sidewalks, lighting and landscaping to encourage further development. As a result, local businesses featuring regional produce, wines, and beers, among other products, have returned to the downtown area. Many of these businesses are located on Front Street, Yakima Avenue and 1st Street.[citation needed]

During the summer, a pair of historic trolleys operate along five miles (8 km) of track of the former Yakima Valley Transportation Company through the Yakima Gap connecting Yakima and Selah. The Yakima Valley Trolleys organization, incorporated in 2001, operates the trolleys and a museum for the City of Yakima.

Arts and culture

Yakima, Washington as seen from the west

Cultural activities and events take place throughout the year. The Yakima Valley Museum houses exhibits related to the region's natural and cultural history, a restored soda fountain, and periodic special exhibitions. Downtown Yakima's historic Capitol Theatre and Seasons Performance Hall, as well as the West-side's Allied Arts Center, present numerous musical and stage productions. Larson Gallery housed at Yakima Valley College present six diverse art exhibitions each year. The city is home to the Yakima Symphony Orchestra. The Yakima Area Arboretum is a botanical garden featuring species of both native and adapted non-native plants. Popular music tours, trade shows, and other large events are hosted at the Yakima SunDome in State Fair Park.

The film The Hanging Tree (1959) was shot entirely in and around Yakima.[33]

Festivals and fairs

Sports

The Sun Dome was home to the Warriors and Sun Kings.
Former professional teams

Government

Yakima is one of the ten first class cities, those with a population over 10,000 at the time of reorganization and operating under a home rule charter.

The Yakima City Council operates under the council–manager form of government. The city council has seven members, elected by district and the mayor is elected by the council members.[1] Yakima's city manager serves under the direction of the City Council, and administers and coordinates the delivery of municipal services. The city of Yakima is a full-service city, providing police, fire, water and wastewater treatment, parks, public works, planning, street maintenance, code enforcement, airport and transit to residents.

In 1994 and 2015, the City of Yakima received the All-America City Award, given by the National Civic League. Ten U.S. cities receive this award per year.

The city council was elected at-large until a 2012 lawsuit filed by the American Civil Liberties Union was ruled in the favor of Latino constituents on the grounds of racial discrimination.[37] The council's four district-based and three at-large seat arrangement was also removed in favor of seven districts—of which two have a Latino majority.[1] The city manager position has been vacant since January 2024, when the new city council removed incumbent Bob Harrison.[1] Several attempts were made in the early 2020s to move Yakima to a mayor–council form of government.[1]

The citizens of Yakima are represented in the Washington Senate by Republicans Curtis King in District 14, and Nikki Torres in District 15, and in the Washington House of Representatives by Republicans Chris Corry and Gina Mosbrucker in District 14, and Republicans Bruce Chandler and Bryan Sandlin in District 15.

At the national level, Yakima is part of Washington's US Congressional 4th District, currently represented by Republican Dan Newhouse.

Education

The city of Yakima has three K–12 public school districts, several private schools, and three post-secondary schools.

High schools

Public schools

There are four high schools in the Yakima School District:

Outside the city:

Private schools

Post-secondary schools

Yakima Valley College (YVC) is one of the oldest community colleges in the state of Washington. Founded in 1928, YVC is a public, four-year institution of higher education, and part of one of the most comprehensive community college systems in the nation. It offers programs in adult basic education, English as a Second Language, lower-division arts and sciences, professional and technical education, transfer degrees to in-state universities, and community services.[38]

Perry Technical Institute is a private, nonprofit school of higher learning located in the city since 1939. Perry students learn trades such as automotive technology, instrumentation, information technology, HVAC, electrical, machining, office administration, medical coding, and legal assistant/paralegal.

Pacific Northwest University of Health Sciences opened in the fall of 2008,[39] and graduated its first class of osteopathic physicians (D.O.) in 2012. The first college on the 42.5-acre (172,000 m2) campus is home to the first medical school approved in the Pacific Northwest in over 60 years, and trains physicians with an osteopathic emphasis. The school's mission is to train primary-care physicians committed to serving rural and underserved communities throughout the Pacific Northwest. It is housed in a state-of-the-art 45,000 sq ft (4,200 m2) facility.[40]

Media

See also: Category:Mass media in Yakima, Washington

The Yakima Herald-Republic is the primary daily newspaper in the area.

According to Arbitron, the Yakima metropolitan area is the 197th largest radio market in the US, serving 196,500 people.[41]

Yakima is part of the U.S.'s 114th largest television viewing market, which includes viewers in Pasco, Richland and Kennewick.[42]

Transportation

Roads and highways

Welcome sign on I-82

Interstate 82 is the main freeway through the Yakima Valley, connecting the region to Ellensburg and the Tri-Cities, with onward connections to Seattle and Oregon. U.S. Route 12 crosses northern Yakima, joining I-82 and U.S. Route 97 along the east side of the city. State Route 24 terminates in Yakima and is the primary means of reaching Moxee City and agricultural areas to the east. State Route 821 terminates in northern Yakima and traverses the Yakima River canyon, providing an alternate route to Ellensburg that bypasses the I-82 summit at Manastash Ridge.

Public transit

City-owned Yakima Transit serves Yakima, Selah, West Valley and Terrace Heights, as well as several daily trips to Ellensburg. There are also free intercity bus systems between adjacent Union Gap and nearby Toppenish, Wapato, White Swan, and Ellensburg.[43]

Airport

Yakima is served by the Yakima Air Terminal, a municipal airport located on the southern edge of the city and is used for general aviation and commercial air service. The FAA identifier is YKM. It has two asphalt runways: 9/27 is 7,604 by 150 feet (2,318 x 46 m) and 4/22 is 3,835 by 150 feet (1,169 x 46 m). Yakima Air Terminal is owned and operated by the city.

Yakima is served by one scheduled air carrier (Alaska Airlines) and two non-scheduled carriers (Sun Country Airlines and Xtra Airways). Alaska Airlines provides multiple daily flights to and from Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, Sun Country Airlines provide charter flights to Laughlin, NV and Xtra Airways provide charter flights to Wendover, NV. During World War II the airfield was used by the United States Army Air Forces.

The airport at is home to numerous private aircraft, and is a test site for military jets and Boeing test flights.

Notable people

Sister cities

See also

References

  1. ^ Low temperature record from February 1, 1950 has been hidden by NOAA[17]
  2. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  3. ^ For more information, see ThreadEx
  1. ^ a b c d e f Sundeen, Jasper Kenzo (January 10, 2024). "New Yakima council members open to idea of strong mayor form of government". Yakima Herald-Republic. Retrieved January 11, 2024.
  2. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 24, 2022.
  3. ^ a b c "Explore Census Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 5, 2023.
  4. ^ a b "City and Town Population Totals: 2020-2022". United States Census Bureau. November 5, 2023. Retrieved November 5, 2023.
  5. ^ Engel, Samina (November 14, 2013). "Museum honors Yakimanians with permanent exhibit". KIMA. Archived from the original on October 20, 2019. Retrieved October 20, 2019.
  6. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  7. ^ "State and City Quickfacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 22, 2006. Retrieved November 13, 2006.
  8. ^ "Hop Economics Working Group". Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2013.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  9. ^ "City of Yakima History". City of Yakima. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved December 28, 2006.
  10. ^ "St. Joseph's Mission, Ahtanum Valley, Tampico vicinity, Yakima County, WA". Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record. Archived from the original on June 29, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
  11. ^ Meyers, Donald W. (June 4, 2017). "It Happened Here: Treaty of 1855 took land, created the Yakama Nation". Yakima Herald-Republic. Archived from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
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Further reading