Black Panther
Black Panther as depicted in Original Sin #2 (May 2014), by Gabriele Dell'Otto.
Publication information
PublisherMarvel Comics
First appearanceFantastic Four #52
(July 1966)
Created byStan Lee
Jack Kirby
In-story information
Alter egoT'Challa
SpeciesHuman mutate
Place of originWakanda, Africa
Team affiliationsAvengers
Fantastic Four
Mighty Avengers
Fantastic Force
New Avengers
Ultimates
PartnershipsStorm
Shuri
Notable aliasesKing of the Dead
Black Leopard
Black Panther
Mr. Okonkwo
Panther King
Red Panther
Abilities
  • The power to draw upon the knowledge, strength and every experience of every previous Black Panther
  • Enhanced strength, endurance, speed, agility, reflexes, stamina and senses
  • Master hand-to-hand combatant and martial artist
  • Highly proficient tactician, strategist and inventor
  • Genius-level intellect
  • Utilizing vibranium suit and equipment

Black Panther is a character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist-coplotter Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in Fantastic Four #52 (July 1966) in the Silver Age of Comic Books.[1][2] Black Panther's real name is T'Challa, and he is depicted as the king and protector of the fictional African nation of Wakanda. Along with possessing enhanced abilities achieved through ancient Wakandan rituals of drinking the essence of the heart-shaped herb, T'Challa also relies on his proficiency in science, expertise in his nation's traditions, rigorous physical training, hand-to-hand combat skills, and access to wealth and advanced Wakandan technology to combat his enemies.

Black Panther is the first black superhero for Marvel comics. In one comic book storyline, the Black Panther mantle is handled by Kasper Cole, a multiracial New York City police officer. Beginning as an impersonator, Cole would later take on the moniker of White Tiger and become an ally to T'Challa. The role of Black Panther and leadership of Wakanda was also given to T'Challa's sister Shuri while he was in a coma for a short time.

Black Panther has made numerous appearances in various television shows, animated films, and video games. Chadwick Boseman portrayed T'Challa in Phase Three of the Marvel Cinematic Universe's films: Captain America: Civil War (2016), Black Panther (2018), Avengers: Infinity War (2018), and Avengers: Endgame (2019), and posthumously voiced alternate versions of the character in the first season of the animated series What If...? (2021); while Letitia Wright, who played Shuri in previous MCU films, took over the Black Panther mantle in Black Panther: Wakanda Forever (2022), following Boseman's death in 2020.

Concept and creation

Name

The name Black Panther predates the founding of the Black Panther Party in October 1966, though not the black panther logo of the party's predecessor, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO), nor the segregated World War II 761st "Black Panthers" Tank Battalion.[3][4] Scripter Stan Lee denied that the comic, which pre-dates the political usage of the term, was, or could have been, named after any of the political uses of the term "black panther", including the LCFO, citing "a strange coincidence".[5] The Black Panther is the first black superhero in American mainstream comic books; very few black heroes were created before him, and none with actual superpowers. These included the characters in the single-issue, low distribution All-Negro Comics #1 (1947).[6] Waku, Prince of the Bantu, who starred in his own feature in the omnibus title Jungle Tales, from Marvel's 1950s predecessor, Atlas Comics[7][8] and the Dell Comics Western character Lobo, the first black person to star in his own comic book.[9] Previous non-caricatured black supporting characters in comics include U.S. Army infantry private Gabriel Jones of Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos.

In a guest appearance in Fantastic Four #119 (February 1972), the Black Panther briefly used the name Black Leopard to avoid connotations with the Party, but the new name did not last.[10] The character's name was changed back to Black Panther in The Avengers #105, with T'Challa explaining that renaming himself made as much sense as altering the Scarlet Witch's name, and he is not a stereotype.[11]

Co-creator Stan Lee recounted that the name was inspired by a pulp adventure hero who had a black panther as a helper.[12] Jack Kirby's original concept art for Black Panther used the concept name Coal Tiger.[13] Influences on the character included historical figures such as 14th-century Mali Empire sultan Mansa Musa and 20th-century Jamaican activist Marcus Garvey, as well as Biblical figures such as Ham and Canaan.[14]

Publication history

Black Panther first appearance in Fantastic Four #52 (July 1966).

The origin of the idea for the character was disputed by both Kirby and Lee. Kirby claimed sole credit for creating the character in The Comics Journal #134 (February 1990), stating that realizing there were no black characters in his comics demanded that some be added for "human reasons".[15] Lee claimed the character was created by his desire in the mid-1960s to include more African and African-American characters in Marvel Comics. While there is no documentation showing which claim is closer to the truth, by 1966 Kirby is thought to have been largely plotting the book on his own[16] and having to explain the stories to Lee when the pages arrived in the Marvel offices, as had happened a few issues prior with the Silver Surfer in The Fantastic Four #48 (March 1966). In a 1968 interview, Lee said:[17]

Some artists, such as Jack Kirby, need no plot at all. I mean I’ll just say to Jack, ‘Let’s let the next villain be Dr. Doom’… or I may not even say that. He may tell me. And then he goes home and does it. He’s so good at plots, I’m sure he’s a thousand times better than I. He just about makes up the plots for these stories. All I do is a little editing.

In an interview, Kirby shared the same genesis as Lee: "I came up with the Black Panther because I realized I had no blacks in my strip. I'd never drawn a black. I needed a black. I suddenly discovered that I had a lot of black readers. My first friend was a black! And here I was ignoring them because I was associating with everybody else."[18]

Roy Thomas has made claims that support Lee's version of events, while Kirby was supported by his wife and prior artwork. In 1963, they included a black character, Gabe Jones, in the ensemble cast of Sgt. Fury and His Howling Commandos,[19] and Lee encouraged artists to include black characters in crowd scenes.[20] In a 1998 interview, Lee explained his motivation: "I wasn't thinking of civil rights. I had a lot of friends who were black and we had artists who were black. So, it occurred to me... why aren't there any black heroes?"[21] Soon after Black Panther was introduced, Marvel added two more recurring black characters: Jill Jerrold in Modeling with Millie, and Bill Foster in The Avengers.[20]

There was some debate at Marvel, with Lee wondering how far to go with the commercially-risky introduction of a black superhero in that era. In the first version of the cover for Fantastic Four #52, Kirby drew the Black Panther wearing a cowl that exposed his face. In the published version, the cowl became a full face-mask. Previews in other comics did not show the cover at all, indicating that Lee was hesitant.[22]

Following his debut in Fantastic Four #52–53 (July – August 1966) and subsequent guest appearance in Fantastic Four Annual #5 (1967) and with Captain America in Tales of Suspense #97–99 and Captain America 100 (January – April 1968), the Black Panther journeyed from the fictional African nation of Wakanda to New York City to join the titular American superhero team in The Avengers #52 (May 1968), appearing in that comic for the next few years. During his time with the Avengers, he made solo guest-appearances in three issues of Daredevil, and fought Doctor Doom in Astonishing Tales #6–7 (June & August 1971), in that supervillain's short-lived starring feature.

He received his first starring feature with Jungle Action #5 (July 1973), a reprint of the Panther-centric story in The Avengers #62 (March 1969). A new series began running the following issue, written by Don McGregor, with art by pencilers Rich Buckler, Gil Kane, and Billy Graham, and which gave inkers Klaus Janson and Bob McLeod some of their first professional exposure. The critically acclaimed[23] series ran in Jungle Action #6–24 (September 1973 – November 1976).[24]

One now-common format McGregor pioneered was that of the self-contained, multi-issue story arc.[25] The first, "Panther's Rage", ran through the first 13 issues. Critic Jason Sacks has called the arc "Marvel's first graphic novel":

[T]here were real character arcs in Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four [comics] over time. But ... "Panther's Rage" is the first comic that was created from start to finish as a complete novel. Running in two years' issues of Jungle Action (#s 6 through 18), "Panther's Rage" is a 200-page novel that journeys to the heart of the African nation of Wakanda, a nation ravaged by a revolution against its king, T'Challa, the Black Panther.[25]

The second and final arc, "Panther vs. the Klan", ran as mostly 17-page stories in Jungle Action #19–24 (January – November 1976), except for issue #23, a reprint of Daredevil #69 (October 1970), in which the Black Panther guest-starred.[24] The subject matter of the Ku Klux Klan was considered controversial in the Marvel offices at the time, creating difficulties for the creative team.[26]

African-American writer-editor Dwayne McDuffie said of the Jungle Action "Black Panther" feature:

This overlooked and underrated classic is arguably the most tightly written multi-part superhero epic ever. If you can get your hands on it ... sit down and read the whole thing. It's damn-near flawless, every issue, every scene, a functional, necessary part of the whole. Okay, now go back and read any individual issue. You'll find seamlessly integrated words and pictures; clearly introduced characters and situations; a concise (sometimes even transparent) recap; beautifully developed character relationships; at least one cool new villain; a stunning action set piece to test our hero's skills and resolve; and a story that is always moving forward towards a definite and satisfying conclusion. That's what we should all be delivering, every single month. Don [McGregor] and company did it in only 17 story pages per issue.[23]

Though popular with college students, the overall sales of Jungle Action were low,[27] and Marvel relaunched the Black Panther in a self-titled series, bringing in the character's co-creator Jack Kirby—newly returned to Marvel after having decamped to rival DC Comics for a time—as writer, penciler, and editor. However, Kirby wanted to work on new characters and was unhappy at being assigned a series starring a character he had already worked with extensively.[28] He left the series after only 12 issues and was replaced by Ed Hannigan (writer), Jerry Bingham (penciler), and Roger Stern (editor). Black Panther ran 15 issues (January 1977 – May 1979).[29] Due to the series getting discontinued, the contents of what would have been Black Panther #16–18 were published in Marvel Premiere #51–53.

A four-issue miniseries, Black Panther vol. 2,[30] (July – October 1988) was written by Peter B. Gillis and penciled by Denys Cowan.[31] McGregor revisited his Panther saga with Gene Colan in "Panther's Quest", published as 25 eight-page installments within the bi-weekly anthology series Marvel Comics Presents (issues #13–37, Feb.–December 1989).[32] He later teamed with artist Dwayne Turner in the square-bound miniseries Black Panther: Panther's Prey (September 1990 – March 1991).[33] McGregor conceived a fifth arc in his Black Panther saga, titled "Panther's Vows", but it failed to get off the ground.[27]

Writer Christopher Priest's and penciller Mark Texeira's 1998 series The Black Panther vol. 3 used Erik Killmonger, Venomm, and other characters introduced in "Panther's Rage", together with new characters such as State Department attorney Everett Ross; the Black Panther's adopted brother, Hunter; and the Panther's protégé, Queen Divine Justice. The Priest-Texeira series was under the Marvel Knights imprint in its first year. Priest said the creation of character Ross contributed heavily to his decision to write the series. "I realized I could use Ross to bridge the gap between the African culture that the Black Panther mythos is steeped in and the predominantly white readership that Marvel sells to," adding that in his opinion, the Black Panther had been misused in the years after his creation.[34]

The last 13 issues (#50–62) saw the main character replaced by a multiracial New York City police officer named Kasper Cole, with T'Challa relegated to a supporting character. This Black Panther, who became the White Tiger, was placed in the series The Crew, running concurrently with the final few Black Panther issues. The Crew was canceled with issue #7.

Artist John Romita Jr. signing a copy of the fourth Black Panther series at Midtown Comics in Manhattan

In 2005, Marvel began publishing Black Panther vol. 4,[35] which ran 41 issues (April 2005 – November 2008).[36] It was initially written by filmmaker Reginald Hudlin (through issue #38) and penciled by John Romita, Jr. (through #6). Hudlin said he wanted to add "street cred" to the title, although he noted that the book was not necessarily or primarily geared toward an African-American readership.[37] As influences for his characterization of the character, Hudlin has cited comic character Batman, film director Spike Lee, and music artist Sean Combs.[37]

Black Panther vol. 5[38] launched in February 2009, with Hudlin, again scripting, introducing a successor Black Panther, T'Challa's sister Shuri.[39][40][41] Hudlin co-wrote issue #7 with Jonathan Maberry, who then became the new writer,[42] joined by artist Will Conrad.[43] The Panther was also a featured player, with members of the Fantastic Four and the X-Men, in the Doctor Doom-based, six-issue miniseries Doomwar (April – September 2010).[44]

T'Challa then accepted an invitation from Matt Murdock, the superhero Daredevil, to become the new protector of New York City's Hell's Kitchen neighborhood. He became the lead character in Daredevil beginning with issue #513 (February 2011), when that series was retitled Black Panther: The Man Without Fear.[45] Under writer David Liss and artist Francesco Francavilla, he took on the identity of Mr. Okonkwo, an immigrant from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and becomes the owner of a small diner to be close to the people.[46]

A new Black Panther series written by Ta-Nehisi Coates and drawn by Brian Stelfreeze was launched in 2016 and continues to be published with Coates as the head writer.[47][48][49]

In 2017, the Africanfuturist writer Nnedi Okorafor wrote the series Black Panther: Long Live the King.[50]

In February 2018, Christopher Priest, Don McGregor, and Reginald Hudlin each contributed one story to the Black Panther Annual #1.[51] In May 2021, Marvel Comics announced the screenwriter and director John Ridley will write Black Panther comics.[52]

In July 2022 the limited series Wakanda was announced, written by Stephanie Williams and illustrated by Paco Medina, the series will have a backup series titled History of the Black Panthers, written by Evan Narcisse and illustrated by Natacha Bustos.[53] In August 2022, Marvel announced the one-shot Black Panther: Unconquered, written by Bryan Edward Hill and illustrated by Alberto Foche.[54]

In January 2023, a new Black Panther series was announced, written by Eve Ewing and illustrated by Chris Allen.[55]

In June 2023, Jonathan Hickman started the project Ultimate Universe with Ultimate Invasion,[56] which ignores both the original Ultimate universe and the plots in Venom, and shows instead the Maker moving to a new alternate universe and changing it with extensive time travel to prevent the existence of most superheroes and make himself its unquestionable leader. By the end of the story, the Maker is defeated and banished inside an impenetrable dome-city, but his group that manages international relations in a "power behind the throne" style remains a threat; the new comics are set within such background.

Bryan Edward Hill write Ultimate Black Panther with art by Stefano Caselli. The comic will be about Black Panther defending the continent of Africa from the deities Khonshu and Ra. Hill said "I was invigorated by this opportunity because in addition to my immense respect for Johnathan Hickman's detailed storytelling, the idea of shepherding this bold new take on Black Panther in this event gives me a platform to do the kind of broad, epic, storytelling I've always wanted to do in comics. My influences range from the history of Black Panther comics, to Ryan Coogler's incredible work with the recent films, to Frank Herbert's world-building capacity of Dune. This is something people won't expect, in the best of ways, and full credit to Marvel and editors Wil Moss and Michelle Marchese for bringing this creative possibility to me."[57]

Fictional character biography

In his first published appearance, T'Challa invites the Fantastic Four to Wakanda, then attacks and attempts to neutralize them individually to test himself to see if he is ready to battle Klaw, who had replaced his shattered right hand with a sonic weapon.[58][59] After the ruler makes proper amends to the Four, they befriend and help T'Challa, and he in turn aids them against the supervillain the Psycho-Man.[60] T'Challa later joins the Avengers.[61]

After receiving numerous urgent official letters requesting him to return to his increasingly troubled homeland,[62] the Panther leaves his active Avengers membership to return to a Wakanda on the brink of civil war. T'Challa eventually proposes and becomes engaged to Monica Lynne,[63] though the couple never marry.

Killmonger then defeats T'Challa in ritual combat, thus inheriting the role of Black Panther,[64] but falls into a coma upon eating the heart-shaped herb.[65] T'Challa preserves his rival's life rather than allowing him to die.

Later, T'Challa finds he has a brain aneurysm like his alternate future self, and succumbs to instability and hallucinations. After his mental state almost causes tribal warfare, the Panther hands power to his council[66] and hides in New York City.

Marriage and passing the mantle

Main article: Civil War (comics)

T'Challa recounts the story of his ascension as the Black Panther in the fourth volume of his eponymous comic book series. He defeated his uncle during the Black Panther celebration,[67] and during his walkabout when he fell in love with a street urchin named Ororo Munroe.[68] Shortly afterwards, he proposes and the two are married.[69]

Black Panther faces Erik Killmonger, defeating him with assistance from Monica Rambeau (a.k.a. Pulsar).[70] Attacked by the forces of fellow Cabal member Doctor Doom, T'Challa is left comatose.[71] His sister Shuri is trained as the next Black Panther, with the mantle passing onto her officially after T'Challa awakens from his coma and attempts to recover from his injuries.[72] In the aftermath, T'Challa loses all of his enhanced attributes given to him by being the Panther totem. As a result, he works with his sorcerer, Zawavari, to accumulate a replacement.[73]

The Man Without Fear

After the events of "Shadowland", Matt Murdock (the superhero Daredevil) asks T'Challa to replace him as guardian of Hell's Kitchen, giving T'Challa a chance to discover himself and explore his new limits while Murdock takes a leave of absence to cope with the aftermath of his own recent experiences being possessed by the Beast of the Hand.

Wakanda again

Upon his return to Wakanda, T'Challa serves as a second to his sister, Shuri, who remains the kingdom's active ruler. In preparation for an upcoming attack on Wakanda as part of the Avengers vs. X-Men storyline, the Panther Goddess returns T'Challa's abilities.[74] Empowered by the Phoenix, Namor destroys Wakanda with a massive tidal wave.[75] Returning to help, Storm is stunned when the Panther informs her that their marriage has been annulled.[76]

Incursions

After witnessing an alternate Earth over Wakanda being destroyed by the Black Swan, T'Challa reforms the Illuminati—with Beast replacing the now-deceased Charles Xavier—to confront the threat of the Incursions, parallel universes colliding with each other to the destruction of both.

Secret Wars

Black Panther is one of the few heroes to survive the Incursion in a specially-designed "life pod." As Reed takes Doom's power and sets out to rebuild the multiverse, T'Challa uses the Time Gem to take himself back to Wakanda before the Incursions, proclaiming to his people that they will lead the way to the stars and explore new ideas.[77]

All-New, All-Different Marvel

As part of the All-New, All-Different Marvel, Black Panther is a member of the Ultimates.[78]

During the 2016 "Civil War II" storyline, Black Panther represents Wakanda on the Alpha Flight Space Program's Board of Governors.[79]

During Hydra's reign over America led by Arnim Zola, Baron Zemo and Steve Rogers, Panther is captured for opposing this regime, and brought into a containing room.

After the defeat of Supreme Hydra Steve Rogers, Black Panther establishes his quest to go across the universe with his people, and found an Intergalactic Empire of Wakanda on Planet Bast, located in the Benhazin Star System.[80][81]

Black Panther later hosts a meeting with Arabian Knight from Saudi Arabia, Sabra from Israel, Sunfire from Japan, Collective Man from China, Captain Britain from the United Kingdom, and Ursa Major from Russia in the Eden Room of Avengers Mountain. The meeting has Black Panther proposing that they work together to protect the world from future threats.

Other Black Panthers

Main article: List of Black Panther supporting characters

The mantle of the Black Panther is passed down from generation to generation among the rulers of Wakanda[82] although it must still be won through combat, involving the best warriors of the nation.

Mosi

Mosi is the Black Panther of 1,000,000 BC who appeared for the first time in Marvel Legacy #1 (November 2017). Mosi is part of the Avengers,[83] along with Agamotto, Lady Phoenix, Odin, and prehistoric versions of Ghost Rider, Iron Fist, and Star Brand. The Stone Age Avengers defeated the Fallen and sealed it underground in what would become South Africa.[84]

Olumo Bashenga

Olumo Bashenga appeared for the first time in Black Panther #7 (January 1978) by Jack Kirby (scripts and drawings). Wise warrior at the head of the Panther Tribe, according to legends, during the tumult where the vibranium meteorite fell on the soil of the village, then composed of various warring clans, he gathered all the aforementioned under his guide to defeating the inhabitants transformed by the impact into fierce "demonic spirits", a company which has unified the nation by founding Wakanda and becoming its first ruler[85][86][87] and the first to obtain the title of "Black Panther" as it tells of his "spiritual connection" with the Panther Goddess Bast that led to the foundation of the Cult of the Panther.[82]

Nehanda

During the 11th century, Nehanda was among the heroes of that time that became a member of the A.D. 1000's version of the Avengers.[88][89]

Nehanda was among the ghosts that T'Challa summoned for consul.[90]

M'Teli

M'Teli was a Black Panther and ruler of Wakanda a century a go. M'Teli is the husband of Imandla and father of T'Chanda.[91]

T'Chanda (Azzuri the Wise)

T'Chanda a.k.a. Chanda,[92] Azzari, Azzaria,[93] or Azzuri the Wise,[92] was the Black Panther and ruler of Wakanda during the Second World War, Chanda is the husband of Nanali and father of T'Chaka and S'Yan; distinguished by an excessively good and compassionate nature, he welcomed the Nazi colonel Fritz Klaue after Klaue's plane crashed in Wakanda. Over time, the two made a kind of friendship and Klaue develops a strong obsession with the culture of Wakanda coming to try to convince them to make their religion deist rather than spiritist, which causes a strong friction between him and Chanda culminating in the death of Nanali by the Nazi and in its subsequent expulsion from the country.[94]

He is well known for easily outmatching his ally Captain America and repelling Nazi super-powered invasion forces from their invasion during World War II.[95]

He was first mentioned as Azzari the Wise in Black Panther #1 (October, 1976), wrriten and illustrated by Jack Kirby. Appears for the first time in Fantastic Four Unlimited #1 (March 1993) by Roy Thomas (scripts) and Herb Trimpe (drawings), where he was called Chanda.

T'Chaka

Main article: T'Chaka

T'Chaka appeared for the first time in Fantastic Four #53 (August 1966) by Stan Lee (script) and Jack Kirby (art). The eldest son of King Azzuri and Queen Nanali, T'Chaka inherits the throne and the title of the Black Panther on his father's death by being helped in his monarch duties by his younger brother and trusted adviser S'Yan.[96] After having married a woman named N'Yami, believing she cannot have children, he adopts a child with her, Hunter; however, she later becomes pregnant and dies giving birth to her first child, T'Challa; from the relationship with a woman of another tribe T'Chaka then has a second son, Jakarra, and finally remarries with Ramonda, with whom he has his only daughter, Shuri.[96] When Ramonda subsequently disappears into nothingness, leading him to believe that he has been abandoned, he raises his children alone.[97] To protect the kingdom, T'Chaka instituted a policy of strong isolationism,[98] but in the course of his life he often collaborated with agents of the U.S. government.[99][100] He is killed by Ulysses Klaw after having surprised him when he was trying to illegally extract vibranium in his kingdom.[101]

S'Yan

S'Yan the Fast first appeared in Black Panther vol. 4 #2 (May 2005) and was created by Reginald Hudlin and John Romita Jr. The second son of King Azzuri and Queen Nanali, S'Yan is T'Chaka's younger brother and trusted advisor. Although he has no desire to reign, he agrees to ascend the throne after his brother's death until his nephew T'Challa becomes an adult[96] and becomes one of the most beloved monarchs in the history of Wakanda. When T'Challa returns home and obtains the title of the Black Panther, he gladly returns to being a royal adviser.[96] He dies during the war with Latveria defending Ramonda from the soldiers of Doctor Doom.[volume & issue needed]

Erik Killmonger / N'Jadaka

Main article: Erik Killmonger

In Black Panther vol. 3 #15 (February 2000), Erik Killmonger challenges and beats T'Challa in a duel for the throne, overthrowing him as king of Wakanda and taking on the role as the Black Panther.[102] He becomes comatose after attempting to ingest the heart-shaped herb to acquire the Black Panther's powers, as he is not of royal blood. Killmonger's time as king is short-lived however, as he is killed by Monica Rambeau during T'Challa's attack to reclaim Wakanda.[103]

Shuri

Main article: Shuri (comics)

When T'Challa ends up in a coma because of Doctor Doom,[104] Shuri becomes his substitute as the Black Panther and queen of Wakanda which, after the rise of her half-brother to "king of the dead" creates, for the first time in history, two avatars of the Panther Goddess.

Supporting characters

Main article: List of Black Panther supporting characters

Cultural impact and legacy

Critical response

Anubhav Chaudhry of Sportskeeda described Black Panther as a "powerful, regal, and intelligent black hero," writing, "The introduction of the Black Panther in 1966 marked a pivotal moment in the history of comic books, opening the doors for diverse characters to enter the mainstream. His influence on the genre can still be felt today, inspiring a new generation of readers and creators. As the comics continue to innovate and evolve, the legacy of the Black Panther remains a testament to the power of representation and inclusion in storytelling. Indeed, this groundbreaking character will always hold a special place in the hearts of comic book fans worldwide."[105] Laura Bradley of Vanity Fair included Black Panther in their "Stan Lee’s Most Iconic Characters" list, describing him as the "first superhero of African descent in the comics world."[106] Fred Bluden of Screen Rant included Black Panther their "25 Greatest Comic Book Heroes" list, asserting, "Black Panther is more than a superhero, he's a king. As the leader of the incredibly advanced and highly private nation of Wakanda he has near-infinite financial resources, as well as access to technologies that are decades ahead of anything else in the world. Black Panther was created at a time when Black characters in mainstream comics were either sidekicks or racial stereotypes. As a technological genius, diplomat, statesman, and superhero, Black Panther helped to encourage the creation of other prominent black superheroes who were more than stereotypes. As a character, and a cultural milestone, his importance cannot be overstated."[107] The A.V. Club ranked Black Panther 1st in their "100 Best Marvel Characters" list.[108] Joseph J. Darowski, in the introduction to The Ages of Black Panther: Essays on the King of Wakanda, argues that "The Black Panther's place in popular culture history is secured even as it is constantly evolving."[109]

Lance Cartelli of ComicBook.com ranked Black Panther 5th in their "50 Most Important Superheroes Ever" list.[110] Geoff Boucher of Deadline ranked Black Panther 5th in their "Hollywood Heroes Co-Created By The Marvel Comics Icon" list.[111] BuzzFeed ranked Black Panther 6th in their "84 Avengers Members Ranked From Worst To Best" list, calling him the "first black superhero in mainstream American comics."[112] GameSpot ranked Black Panther 8th in their "50 Most Important Superheroes" list, stating, "This Marvel Comics star is the first black superhero in mainstream comic book history."[113] IGN ranked Black Panther 10th in their "Top 50 Avengers" list, writing, "Black Panther is not the first monarch turned superhero, but his continuing struggle to juggle his political responsibilities and personal commitments makes him one of the most fascinating Avengers,"[114] and ranked him 51st in their "Top 100 Comic Books Heroes" list, saying, "T'Challa is a hero and a force to be reckoned with regardless of his technology and resources."[115]

Rob Bricken of Gizmodo ranked Black Panther 11th in their "Every Member Of The Avengers" list, stating, "Black Panther is a tremendous hero of power, virtue and integrity."[116] Darren Franich of Entertainment Weekly ranked Black Panther 26th in their "Let's Rank Every Avenger Ever" list, writing, "The Black Panther has one of the most interesting backstory/mythologies in comic books."[117] Andrew Wheeler of ComicsAlliance ranked Black Panther 33rd in their "50 Sexiest Male Characters in Comics" list.[118] Wizard Magazine ranked Black Panther 79th in their "200 Greatest Comic Book Character of All Time" list.[119]

Comic Book Resources ranked Black Panther 1st in their "10 Most Attractive Marvel Heroes" list,[120] 1st in their "10 Most Iconic Avengers Who Aren't Iron Man, Captain America, Or Thor" list,[121] 2nd in their "Avengers' Greatest Leaders" list,[122] 7th in their "10 Smartest Tech-Powered Heroes" list,[123] 5th in their "10 Best Team Leaders In Comics" list,[124] 10th in their "10 Greatest Avengers, Ranked By Courage" list,[125] 10th in their "10 Scariest Avengers" list,[126] and 29th in their "30 Strongest Marvel Superheroes" list.[127]

Impact

Literary reception

Volumes

Black Panther (1998)

Jim Dandeneau of Den of Geek stated, "This is probably the definitive run of Black Panther. This is where Wakanda stopped being backstory and started being a living, breathing place, with geography and politics and history that all contributed to its depth and beauty. It's also where a bunch of what's going on the screen started: Priest introduced Everett K. Ross and the Dora Milaje almost immediately in his first issue. Priest had been separated from Marvel for several years before coming back to write this book under a separate, independent line within Marvel as the rest of the company went bankrupt around it. So, he was given a lot of leeway to write the story he wanted to, and what came out was one of the greatest runs on any comic ever. Priest's Black Panther was funny, complex, smart, timeless and yet very much of its time."[144] Chase Magnett of ComicBook.com included the Black Panther comic book series in their "10 best Black Panther comics of all time" list, asserting, "More than anything else, what "The Client" does best is set the table for what's to come. The initial five issues of a 60-issue run written by Priest, this story introduces a swath of new characters and concepts, infuses the story with humor, and prefects its non-linear storytelling. It is the Rosetta Stone for the best Black Panther series ever created, and incredibly entertaining to boot. Whether it's the introduction of the Dora Milaje or the hilarious, pantsless antics of Everett K. Ross, "The Client" offers everything you might want in a Black Panther or superhero comic."[145]

Cultural critic Douglas Wolk agrees that Christopher Priest's run established the canonical version of the character, although: "The tone of Priest's run was wildly different from any other Black Panther stories before or since--it's basically a political comedy--but Priest's central insight was that T'Challa isn't actually a superhero in the ordinary sense," but rather a monarch. He also says that the first issue of the run makes no sense at first reading, and requires a continuing interpretation of future issues. He argues that this is unique in mainstream superhero comics.[146]

Black Panther (2005)

According to Diamond Comic Distributors, Black Panther #1 was the 27th best-selling comic book in February 2005.[147][148][149]

Tyler Huckabee of IGN included the Black Panther comic book series in their "10 Best Black Panther Comic Books" list, stating, "Reginald Hudlin's run is more traditionally superhero-esque in nature than many other titles on this list, featuring costumed villains and super guest stars like the X-Men and Namor. It also introduces a number of characters who've become key players in the Black Panther's life (like his sister Shuri) and tells what has now become the definitive origin story. It's a good entry point into the Black Panther's world, and contains some great art by the reliably terrific superhero comic book legend John Romita Jr. If you're completely unfamiliar with the Black Panther and are just looking for an introduction to Wakanda, this is for you."[150]

Douglas Wolk observes that the most well-known moment in Hudlin's run is the wedding of Black Panther and Storm, and contends that the "mutual admiration leading to matrimony seemed to come out of nowhere," that neither have much in common "besides being superheroes with somewhat formal speech patterns and connections to Africa and divinity," and that while "one is a champion of a cross-sectional group, the other is a monach of a physical nation."[151]

Black Panther (2016)

Issue 1

According to Diamond Comic Distributors, Black Panther #1 was the best-selling comic book in April 2016.[152][153][154]

Alexander Jones of Comics Beat called Black Panther #1 "exciting and unique," saying, "This is another comic that immediately kicks things off with a recap page and events that are directly affected by previously established continuity. However, this is not necessarily a bad thing. Like I mentioned, Coates said he aims to honor Black Panther's history– not rewrite it. Indeed, you don't need to know much going into the book, as Coates deftly uses Black Panther's past to welcome new characters to the family. Immediately upon opening the pages of Black Panther #1, readers are going to be struck by Denny Mederos’ excellent design. The title page makes me think I'm looking at a Jonathan Hickman comic! This immediately sets Black Pantherapart from some of the competition, and the reader hasn't even reached the first page yet!"[155] Jesse Schedeen of IGN gave Black Panther #1 a grade of 8.8 out of 10, writing, "After several years of ups and downs, Black Panther finally has the solo comic he deserves again. Coates and Stelfreeze build on the many stories that have come before to weave a tale about Wakanda in its darkest hour and a king who may not be up to the task of saving it. Whether you're a hardcore fan of the character or Captain America: Civil War has you interested in learning more about T'Challa, this comic has plenty to offer."[156]

Issue 2

According to Diamond Comic Distributors, Black Panther #2 was the 9th best-selling comic book in May 2016.[157][158][159]

Alexander Jones of Comics Beat called Black Panther #2 "opaque, but so beautiful," asserting, "One absolute I can say about Black Panther #2 is that Brian Stelfreeze and Laura Martin are an artistic team without compare. Together, they make Wakanda seem vibrant and real. Every one of the many characters in this story feels as real as the last, and all the major players get very interesting costume designs. The amalgamation of mystical and technological elements in T'Challa's suit is noted and appreciated. This issue is bound to impress an open-minded Ta-Nehisi Coates fan, but his depiction of T’Challa needs more time to develop in order to win the hearts of everyone. Thankfully, Coates is committed, so we are too. This is still a comic that asks many questions. Let's hope the answers are just as satisfying as the mysteries themselves."[160] Levi Hunt of IGN gave Black Panther #2 a grade of 8.8 out of 10, stating, "T'Challa is much more in the spotlight as he takes it upon himself to quell the growing unrest in his kingdom and finds that the problem isn't so easily put to rest. There's a clear attempt to humanize the character here, as Ta-Nehisis Coates explores T'Challa's kingly hubris and the massive pressures he faces. There's also a balance to the conflict that might just be this book's greatest strength. There's no real right and wrong or good and evil here, on;y various players with their own valid points of view. It's less a question of whether Wakanda can be saved than if maintaining the status quo is what's best for this troubled nation. But for all the lofty ideals at play here, this book also has plenty of visual spectacle with which to bedazzle readers. Brian Stelfreeze's lithe, burly interpretation of Black Panther and his captivating use of light and shadow make for one of the most visually distinctive Black Panther comics ever published."[161]

Black Panther (2018)

According to Diamond Comic Distributors, Black Panther #1 was the 5th best-selling comic book in May 2018.[162][163][164]

Oliver Vestal of ComicsVerse gave Black Panther #1 a score of 97%, writing, "Black Panther #1 made for a strong start to the series. Ta-Nehisi Coates uses thorough world-building to establish a plot and characters. Daniel Acuña uses a mix of blurry and clear details and a dark palette to reflect the tone of the issue. Overall, I am very happy with how this issue turned out. I went into this with high hopes. I'm sure I was not the only one expecting a lot after the Black Panther movie, and this comic lived up to those hopes. It established a new and interesting story and used telling art to help that story along. I have nothing but good feelings about future issues."[165] Jesse Schedeen of IGN gave Black Panther #1 a grade of 8.6 out of 10, asserting, "Black Panther #1 is a promising start for this new era of Coates' run. It's certainly different enough from previous incarnations. And Acuna's art ensures that the book looks better than it has since Brian Stelfreeze was drawing it. Issue #1 gives readers a fresh start with the character while also offering plenty of incentive to stick around and see where this strange odyssey is heading."[166]

Black Panther (2021)

According to Diamond Comic Distributors, Black Panther #1 was the 10th best-selling comic book in November 2021.[167]

Hannibal Tabu of Bleeding Cool gave Black Panther #1 a grade of 8.5 out of 10, saying, "This John Ridley script is a rush of adrenaline and smarts all at once, with clever elements introduced along the way. T'Challa's secret balances both the old ways of Wakanda as personified by the White Wolf and the modern egalitarian Wakanda he's trying to build. Then there's the visual storytelling from Juann Cabal, Federico Blee, and Joe Sabino, which will tickle the fancy of fans of, well, any Marvel project featuring Sebastian Stan, basically. They feature a great Avengers fight scene (that also mixes in wonderful character work) with a gorgeous view of an evolving Wakanda. "A king's business is getting things done," T'Challa says at one point. With a great espionage-tinted take, this issue takes that business very seriously."[168] Tim Adams of ComicBook.com gave Black Panther #1 a grade of 4 out of 5, saying, "Marvel's new era of Black Panther gets off to a captivating start. Whereas the previous volume by Ta-Nehisi Coates and Daniel Acuna primarily took place in the stars, John Ridley, Juann Cabal, and Federico Blue deliver the beginnings of an espionage tale. Marvel Stormbreaker artist Juann Cabal is quickly rising as a superstar artist after fan-favorite runs on X-23 and Guardians of the Galaxy. His work with Blee on Black Panther remains top-notch, and watching T'Challa balance his responsibilities between being the chairperson of the Avengers and ruler of Wakanda is even stressful for the reader. The main plot reveals some major secrets Black Panther has been keeping, which has those closest to him questioning his actions in an understandable way. Something I always enjoy with a first issue is an end-of-page teaser offering clues to future storylines, and this one has some juicy scenes of stories-to-come."[169]

Black Panther (2023)

According to the ComicHub system at local comic book shops selling American comics, Black Panther #1 was the 11th best-selling comic book in June 2023.[170][171]

Hannah Rose of Comic Book Resources wrote, "Black Panther #1 is a subtle and humane study of a changing character and shifting fictional landscape. Although a slow burn in turns of action, and offers questions with no easy answers, this issue is worth checking out precisely for those reasons."[172] Charlie Ridgely of ComicBook.com gave Black Panther #1 a grade of 5 out of 5, stating, "If a king has no kingdom, what does he become? That's one of the central questions that writer Eve L. Ewing sets out to answer in her exciting new Black Panther series at Marvel Comics. This new take on the iconic character strips away so much of what we've always thought the Black Panther to be, focusing on who T'Challa is at his core. The result, at least in this week's debut issue, is a fantastic exploration of a character readers have known for years, making him seem both brand new and entirely familiar."[173]

Other versions

Age of Ultron

In the 2013 Age of Ultron miniseries, Black Panther contacts the Fantastic Four and informs them that Ultron has invaded Earth with an army of Ultron Sentinels.[174] Black Panther was later seen with Red Hulk and Taskmaster in Chicago spying on some Ultron Sentinels. When Taskmaster takes out a Sentinel that was sneaking up on him, alerting the other Sentinels, Red Hulk holds off the Sentinels while Black Panther and Taskmaster flee. During Red Hulk's fight against the Sentinels, the building they were in collapses resulting in Black Panther falling several stories and breaking his neck, killing him instantly.[175]

Amalgam Comics

Main article: List of Amalgam Comics characters

The Bronze Tiger is the ruler of Wakanda and is named B'Nchalla; he is an amalgamation of the Bronze Tiger (DC) and the Black Panther (Marvel).[176] A similar character (or perhaps the same character) called the Bronze Panther (also an amalgamation of the Bronze Tiger (DC) and the Black Panther (Marvel)) appears later.[177]

Avengers Forever

In the 1998–1999 limited series Avengers Forever, Captain America and Goliath visit an alternate future timeline where Martian invaders have ravaged the Earth. An aged Black Panther leads this reality's version of the Avengers, who consist of Jocasta, Living Lightning, Killraven, Crimson Dynamo and Thundra.[178]

Civil War

In an alternate reality where the Civil War between Iron Man and Captain America never ended, the Black Panther was killed alongside Maria Hill after activating Prison 42's self-destruct mechanism.[179] He is succeeded by his son, Azari, who takes on the Black Panther name.[180] It is later revealed that the Black Panther who destroyed Prison 42 was actually Queen Veranke of the shape-shifting alien race the Skrulls, who had stolen T'Challa's identity to manipulate and prolong the Civil War to suit her own needs.[181]

Earth-355

T'Chaka is the Coal Tiger, Sersi kills the Avengers, and the Coal Tiger is the only survivor.[182]

Earth-6606

T'Challa is Chieftain Justice, a Captain Britain Corps member, in Excalibur #44 (1991).[183]

Earth X

In the alternate universe of Earth X, T'Challa has been affected by the mutative event that drives the plot. Like most of humanity, he is mutated; in this case to become a humanoid black panther. He is entrusted with the Cosmic Cube by Captain America, who knows that T'Challa would be the only one to resist using it and to never give it back if asked. In fact, Captain America does ask for it back and T'Challa is forced to refuse.[184]

Exiles

An alternate version of the Black Panther, called simply the "Panther", is drafted into the interdimensional superhero team the Exiles. The Panther is the son of T'Challa and Storm and named T'Chaka, after his grandfather. Originating from Earth-1119, he was ambushed by Klaw while examining some ruins. Caught in Klaw's blast, the Panther was plucked out of time and placed on the team. Unlike the stoic 616-Black Panther, The Panther is a wisecracking flirt.[185] After his assumed death on Earth-1119, his sister took up the mantle of the Black Panther.[186]

An alternate T'Challa later appears in the third Exiles series. His universe is still in the Wild West and he goes by King.[187] He is a gunslinger equipped with vibranium clothing and bullets.

Fox Kids

The Black Panther appears in issues #1 and 6–7 of Marvel Comics/Fox Kids comic book series based on the TV show The Avengers: United They Stand.[188]

Infinity Wars

In Infinity Wars, the Ghost Rider is fused with the Black Panther. Prince of Wakanda T'Challa was an arrogant boy who, because of his conflict with his father, was exiled from his place. He went to America where he found Jericho Simpson, who became his new father figure and gave T'Challa a new name as Johnny Blaze. During a stunt performance, he sensed his father T'Chaka dying and got distracted, which resulted in his own death. He was then revived by Zarathos, half-sister of Bast and offered to him powers in exchange of eating the souls of sinners. At first, he was reluctant, but when battling his father's killers, he accepted the offer, became the Ghost Panther and battled Erik Killraven (a fusion of Erik Killmonger and Killraven).[189]

Marvel 2099

In the Marvel 2099 continuity, a greatly weakened Wakanda is soon to be governed by its princess, Okusana. Fearing that she is not ready, she requests Doom's help in resurrecting Thandaza, her grandfather and a former Black Panther. Doom (who claims to have agreed to the proposal out of respect for T'Challa) and the Wakandan scientists revive Thandaza in a cyberbetic body made from vibranium, but the plan goes awry when Mkhalali, the current Panther Guard, opens fire on Thandaza, believing his resurrection to be an abomination. The attack throws off the calibrations and leaves Thandaza in a maddened state and constant pain, causing him to go on a bloody rampage. Doom is ultimately forced to kill Thandaza, who thanks him for ending his suffering.[190]

In the unified Marvel 2099 reality of Earth-2099, T'Shamba is the Black Panther. He appears as a member of the 2099 version of the New Avengers. During the fight with the 2099 version of the Masters of Evil, Black Panther lost his hand when it was sliced by Melter's melting ray. Despite what happened to his hand, Black Panther managed to defeat Melter.[191]

Marvel Knights 2099

Black Panther was featured in the Marvel Knights 2099 one shots, which were not tied to the main 2099 continuity. A new Black Panther, K'Shamba, rose to fight and thwart the mounting invasions by the successor of Doom, named Lucian. While the victory over the new Doom appeared triumphant, the new Wakandan king was ultimately revealed to be a puppet of Doom.[192]

Marvel Mangaverse

T'Challa appears in Marvel Mangaverse Volume 2 as a man with a pet panther. When summoning the spirits, T'Challa and his panther combine to become the Black Panther. He also became the Falcon. This Black Panther found himself the object of affection of the Mangaverse version of Tigra. T'Challa's sister, T'Channa, reveals herself to be this universe's Doctor Doom.[193]

Marvel Zombies

The Black Panther is, for the most part, one of the few uninfected superheroes in the alternate-universe series Marvel Zombies, where he is kept as a food supply for the Zombie Giant-Man, who keeps the Panther imprisoned and cuts off various limbs so that he can maintain his intelligence via a ready access to fresh meat without infecting the Panther with the zombie "virus".[194] Despite having lost half of his right arm and his left foot, the Panther escapes — with the severed head of zombified superheroine the Wasp in tow — [195] and joins forces with the mutant group the Acolytes.[196] While with the Acolytes, T'Challa briefly talks with his Earth-616 counterpart, where he expresses surprise at his marriage to Storm, but offers him all the information he can provide about the zombie plague.[197] Decades later, T'Challa has married one of the Acolytes, Lisa Hendricks, and they have a son, with Forge having provided T'Challa with artificial limbs to compensate for his injuries.[198] Facing retirement, the Panther is stabbed and critically wounded by an agent of an Acolyte splinter group, and the Wasp — now a willing ally after having lost her zombie hunger — zombifies the Panther to grant him continued existence. With the Wasp's help, he survives to the post-hunger stage himself and continues to lead his people, despite his status.[199] Further internal betrayal leads the Black Panther and many of his allies to be tossed through dimensions.[200] He ends up involved with another Earth that is threatened by the zombie virus. His attempts to save this new planet fail and he is destroyed, leaving only one hand displayed as a trophy by his enemies.[201]

MC2

In the MC2 universe, the Black Panther has a son named T'Chaka II, who joined the A-Next as the Coal Tiger.[202]

Mutant X

In the Mutant X reality, the Black Panther had the appearance of a humanoid black panther. He is among the second wave of heroes who died fighting the Beyonder.[203]

Sky Spider/Vibranium Man/Star Panther

On an unnamed alternate Earth where King Killmonger conquered Wakanda and Asgard, one baby version of T'Challa was placed into a rocket and was shot into outer space to protect him from being killed by King Killmonger. He landed on the planet Chandilar of the Shi'ar Empire. Years later, T'Challa was operating as Sky Spider where he saved an alien from King Killmonger's mercenaries called the War Panthers after the alien got thrown out a window. Sky Spider claims that the War Panthers are marauders and mercenaries who do not deserve the Panther name. Sky Spider fights the War Panthers as King Killmonger attacks the village from his ship. Many tomorrows later, T'Challa is on the trail of King Killmonger as Vibranium Man complete with the Dora Milaje A.I. and attacks a War Panthers ship. When he finds the one that King Killmonger is on, Vibranium Man goes on the attack as he claims that his suit flows with the blood and spirit of the fallen Wakandans. King Killmonger called him a second-rate Tony Stark as he mentioned that his armor was forged by the gods that fell before his axe as he throws Vibranium Man off his ship quoting "Wakanda Nevermore". Three days later, Robbie Reyes, his Deathlok companion, and Ant-Man of Earth-818 find Vibranium Man in a solid Vibranium cocoon in an active star. After the cocoon is removed from the star, T'Challa comes out with the powers of the "white-hot heavens" as he takes the name of Star Panther where he will use his new abilities to kill King Killmonger.[204]

When the Council of Red attack Avengers Tower in the God Quarry, Star Panther took on the members who were giant size and slayed most of them.[205] After the remaining Council of Red members were either slain by the arrival of Old Man Phoenix and the granddaughters of King Thor, Doom Supreme arrived at the God Quarry with Doom the Living Planet and the Doctor Doom variants loyal to him. Star Panther assisted Old Man Phoenix in attacking Doom Supreme.[206]

Ultimate Marvel

In the alternate reality Ultimate Marvel imprint, the Black Panther is T'Challa Udaku, a young man who is experimented on in the Weapon X program before being liberated by Nick Fury.[207]

T'Challa, the younger son of King T'Chaka of Wakanda, is severely injured during the "Trial of the Panther" from which the protector of the nation is selected. His older brother M'Baku finds T'Challa bloodied, mute, and near death but derisively calls him a fool for attempting the trial. Later, M'Baku adds that he, not T'Challa, should have taken the trial. Angry that his father has decided to share Wakanda's technology in exchange for America's help in saving T'Challa's life, M'Baku leaves the kingdom.[volume & issue needed]

To save T'Challa, T'Chaka turns him over to the Weapon X program. Over a year later, a healthy T'Challa, in his full Black Panther garb, has enhanced speed, strength and night vision and a healing ability. Additionally, he can summon short, cat-like adamantium claws from his knuckles by balling his hands into fists. T'Chaka becomes outraged upon learning that S.H.I.E.L.D. (who had shut down Weapon X and freed T'Challa) now considers his son an asset of the U.S. and S.H.I.E.L.D. He subsequently sends M'Baku a letter, claiming that M'Baku, not T'Challa, is the titular "favorite son", and he implores M'Baku to return.[volume & issue needed]

Fury has Captain America train and mentor the Panther, who reveals his damaged throat. Captain America, sympathizing for the Panther's plight, encourages Fury to place the Panther in the superhero team the Ultimates. This turns out to be a ruse in which Captain America impersonates the Panther, allowing T'Challa to escape and return home to Wakanda.[208]

After Ultimatum, the Black Panther joins the New Ultimates.[209]

Ultimate Universe

During the "Ultimate Invasion" storyline, Maker visited Earth-6160 and remade it into his own image.[210] T'Challa is the ruler of Wakanda who has Okoye as his queen. Following a nightmare, T'Challa goes to the Citadel of Knowledge where his father T'Chaka works. When T'Chaka assumes that T'Challa had another nightmare, he claims to T'Challa that the Gods are trying to speak to him. He is told by T'Challa to speak with the Divine Mother of the Voduk-Khan who wants T'Challa's counsel. Arriving at the Temple of the Vodu-Khan, T'Challa meets with Matron Imala who states that enemies will be in Wakanda's midst. At the Royal Court of Wakanda, T'Challa is told by Faxul and Anon about Lord Ra and Lord Khonshu who make up the duo Moon Knight. All T'Challa and Okoye can recommend at the time is a reconnaissance mission to see if they are a threat. During Wakanda's annual Celebration of Life, a female suicide bomber working for Lord Khonshu and Lord Ra crashes the event to take out T'Challa only for T'Chaka to push T'Challa out of the way and take the blast. Upon T'Challa becoming Black Panther and seeing his father's burning remains, he gives the orders to call Okoye, Shuri, and the Vodu-Khan as he quotes "Our enemies call themselves Moon Knight. Wakanda is at war".[211]

In light of what happened to T'Chaka, T'Challa is told by Okoye about different Wakandans being suspected of being collaborators of Moon Knight. He states to Okoye that he will speak with the Vodu-Khan. At the Temple of the Vodu-Khan, Matron Imala tells T'Challa that a woman of light will come to him as their fates are intertwined. She will give him an heir. Outside the perimeters of Wakanda, the Dora Milaje are holding their own against Moon Knight's forces as Shuri tells T'Challa that it's time to turn the tide. Black Panther uses his vehicle to fell the attackers. In the war room, T'Challa learns from Shuri that Moon Knight is targeting resources. T'Challa states that someone is feeding Moon Knight information as they are not in the war room. Faxul and Anon reveal that Moon Knight is moving their resources to an area that the migratory animals avoid as T'Challa states that he will go there alone. When Faxul and Anon state that they are T'Challa's spies and should do the job, T'Challa states that they are needed in Wakanda to keep his family safe. While Faxul will protect Okoye, Anon will protect Shuri. As Black Panther arrives at the location, his ship crashes and he is ambushed by some soldiers. Just then, lightning from the sky strikes the soldiers as Black Panther sees his flying rescue who he claims is the "woman made of light" that Matron Imala has foretold of.[212]

Following the rescue, Black Panther is taught by Killmonger how to hunt for his own food as seen when Killmonger kills a gazelle and coordinates Black Panther how to harvest the meat while leaving the carcass behind. At the campfire, Black Panther learns that Killmonger used to live in Wakanda before he "got tired of living in paradise while people who looked like me suffered in the world beyond it". To show Black Panther something with help from Ororo Munroe (who goes by the name of Storm and Wind-Rider), he had his head covered with a hood. Upon arrival being told to take the hood off, they arrive at a cave where they meet Ororo in an underground cave of Vibranium. Black Panther is shown a large green orb that Killmonger and Ororo don't want to fall into the enemy hands.[213]

Black Panther returns to Wakanda and saves Shuri from a Moon Knight operative that used to be a Dora Milaje. He states that Lord Khonshu has infected her and that the Vodu-Khan will probe her mind. Just then, the Moon Knight operative is reduced to a skeleton in front of them. As Okoye confronts Black Panther about why he was away for a long time, he tells her that Lord Ra and Lord Khonshu think that they are gods. At the Temple of the Sacred Dead the next morning, T'Challa introduces Shuri and Okoye to Killmonger and Storm.[214]

Shuri is shown a large metal orb that is not Vibranium as T'Challa asks Storm to use her abilities on it. Once that was done, a bunch of plants emerge from it causing it to be incinerated. T'Challa considers its properties to be alchemical as it enhances life. With Lord Ra and Lord Khonshu being silent, T'Challa advises Shuri not to inform anyone about it as he needs to speak to the Vodu-Khan about it. At the temple of the Vodu-Khan, T'Challa speaks with Matron Imala about what he has learned. Matron Imala states that the large green orb spreads life like a plague and has been blind to all of existence. Then she states that Lord Ra and Lord Khonshu want it for its power and that she has seen what is to come. Black Panther is told not to let the large green orb fall into Lord Ra and Lord Khonshu's hands.[215]

In other media

Television

Film

Marvel Cinematic Universe

Main articles: T'Challa (Marvel Cinematic Universe) and Shuri (Marvel Cinematic Universe)

Chadwick Boseman portrayed T'Challa / Black Panther in media set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe.[233][234] This version displays enhanced speed, agility, strength, and durability, which he gains from ingesting the heart-shaped herb, as in the comics.[235] Additionally, his suit has retractable claws and is made of a Vibranium weave, which can deflect heavy machine gunfire and withstand explosive attacks. T'Challa appears in the live-action films Captain America: Civil War (2016), Black Panther (2018),[233][234] Avengers: Infinity War (2018),[236] and Avengers: Endgame (2019).[237] Following his death, Boseman posthumously voices three alternate timeline versions of T'Challa in the first season of the Disney+ animated series What If...?[238][239] In Black Panther: Wakanda Forever (2022), T'Challa's sister Shuri (portrayed by Letitia Wright) takes over the mantle of the Black Panther.

Video games

Miscellaneous

Books

Novels

Miscellaneous

Collected editions

Omnibus

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Black Panther: The Early Marvel Years Omnibus Fantastic Four (vol. 1) #52-53, 56, 119, Captain America (vol. 1) #100, Avengers (vol. 1) #52, 62, 73–74, 77–79, 87, 112, 126, Daredevil (vol. 1) #52, 69, Daredevil Annual (vol. 1) #4, Marvel Team-Up #20, Jungle Action #6-24, material from Fantastic Four (vol. 1) #54, Tales of Suspense #97-99, Astonishing Tales #6-7 September 2022 978-1302945084
Black Panther By Christopher Priest Omnibus Black Panther (vol. 3) #1-33, Deadpool (vol. 2) #44, material from Marvel Double-Shot #2 September 2022 978-1302945015
Black Panther By Ta-Nehisi Coates Omnibus Black Panther (vol. 6) #1-18, 166–172, Black Panther (vol. 7) #1-22, material from #23-25 August 2022 978-1302945695
Wakanda: World of Black Panther Omnibus Rise of the Black Panther #1-6, Black Panther: World of Wakanda #1-6, Black Panther & The Crew #1-6, Black Panther: Long Live the King #1-6, Black Panther Annual (vol. 7) #1, Amazing Spider-Man: Wakanda Forever, X-Men: Wakanda Forever, Avengers: Wakanda Forever, Black Panther vs. Deadpool #1-5, Shuri #1-10, Kilmonger #1-5, Black Panther and the Agents of Wakanda #1-8, King in Black: Black Panther, The Last Annihilation: Wakanda, material from Venomverse: War Stories, Marvel Comics #1000, Marvel's Voices #1, Marvel's Voices: Legacy, Black Panther (vol. 7) #23-25 October 2022 978-1302946272

Marvel Masterworks

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Marvel Masterworks: Black Panther Volume 1 Jungle Action #6–22, 24 2010 978-0785141990
Marvel Masterworks: Black Panther Volume 2 Black Panther (vol. 1) #1–15, Marvel Premiere #51–53, material from Marvel Team-Up #100 2016 978-1302900205
Marvel Masterworks: Black Panther Volume 3 Black Panther (vol. 2) #1-4, and material from Marvel Comics Presents #13-37 April 2021 978-1302928698

Epic Collections

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Black Panther Epic Collection Volume 1: Panther's Rage Fantastic Four (vol. 1) #52–53, Jungle Action #6–22, 24 2016 978-1302901905
Black Panther Epic Collection Volume 2: Revenge of the Black Panther Black Panther (vol. 1) #1-15, Marvel Premiere #51-53, Black Panther (vol. 2) #1-4, material from Marvel Team-Up #100 2019 978-1302915421
Black Panther Epic Collection Volume 3: Panther's Prey Black Panther: Panther's Prey #1-4, material from Marvel Comics Presents #13-37, 148, Solo Avengers #19, Marvel Super Heroes (vol. 2) #1, Marvel Fanfare #60, Fantastic Four Unlimited #1 2021 978-1302921989

Volume 1

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Black Panther by Jack Kirby Volume 1 Black Panther (vol. 1) #1–7 2005 978-0785116875
Black Panther by Jack Kirby Volume 2 Black Panther (vol. 1) #8–13 2006 978-0785120698

Miniseries

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Black Panther: Panther's Quest Material from Marvel Comics Presents #13-37 2018 978-1302908034

Volume 3

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Black Panther Vol. 1: The Client Black Panther (vol. 3) #1–5 2001 978-0785107897
Black Panther Vol. 2: Enemy of the State Black Panther (vol. 3) #6–12 2002 978-0785108290
Black Panther by Christopher Priest: The Complete Collection Volume 1 Black Panther (vol. 3) #1–17 2015 978-0785192671
Black Panther by Christopher Priest: The Complete Collection Volume 2 Black Panther (vol. 3) #18–35, Deadpool (vol. 3) #44 2015 978-0785198116
Black Panther by Christopher Priest: The Complete Collection Volume 3 Black Panther (vol. 3) #36–49, 57–58, Incredible Hulk (vol. 3) #33, Thor (vol. 1) #370, material from Marvel Double-Shot #2 2016 978-0785195085
Black Panther by Christopher Priest: The Complete Collection Volume 4 Black Panther (vol. 3) #50–56, 59–62, The Crew #1–7 2016 978-1302900588

Volume 4

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Black Panther: Who is the Black Panther? Black Panther (vol. 4) #1–6 2006 978-0785120483
House of M: World of M featuring Wolverine Black Panther (vol. 4) #7 and Wolverine (vol. 3) #33–35, Captain America (vol. 5) #10, The Pulse #10 2006 978-0785119227
X-Men/Black Panther: Wild Kingdom Black Panther (vol. 4) #8–9, X-Men (vol. 2) #175–176 2006 978-0785117896
Black Panther: Bad Mutha Black Panther (vol. 4) #10–13 2006 978-0785117506
Black Panther: The Bride Black Panther (vol. 4) #14–18 2006 978-0785121077
Black Panther: Civil War Black Panther (vol. 4) #19–25 2007 978-0785122357
Black Panther: Four the Hard Way Black Panther (vol. 4) #26–30 2007 978-0785126553
Black Panther: Little Green Men Black Panther (vol. 4) #31–34 2008 978-0785126577
Black Panther: Back to Africa Black Panther (vol. 4) #35–38, Annual #1 2008 978-0785124528
Black Panther: Secret Invasion Black Panther (vol. 4) #39–41 2008 978-0785133971
Black Panther by Reginald Hudlin: The Complete Collection Vol. 1 Black Panther (vol. 4) #1–18, X-Men (vol. 2) #175–176 2017 978-1302907716
Black Panther by Reginald Hudlin: The Complete Collection Vol. 2 Black Panther (vol. 4) #19–34, Annual #1 2018 978-1302909475
Black Panther by Reginald Hudlin: The Complete Collection Vol. 3 Black Panther (vol. 4) #35–41, Black Panther (vol. 5) #1–6, Black Panther/Captain America: Flags of Our Fathers #1–4, Black Panther Saga 2018 978-1302910358
Miscellaneous
Captain America/Black Panther: Flags of our Fathers Captain America/Black Panther: Flags of our Fathers #1-4, Rise of The Black Panther #1 July 2018 978-1302914202
Marvel Knights 2099 Marvel Knights 2099: Black Panther #1 and Marvel Knights 2099: Daredevil #1, Marvel Knights 2099: Inhumans #1, Marvel Knights 2099: Punisher #1, Marvel Knights 2099: Mutant #1 January 2005 978-0785116134

Volume 5

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Black Panther: The Deadliest of the Species Black Panther (vol. 5) #1–6 2009 978-0785133421
Black Panther: Power Black Panther (vol. 5) #7–12 2010 978-0785138617
Miscellaneous
Doomwar Doomwar #1–6 2011 978-0785147152
Klaws of the Panther Klaws of the Panther #1-4 March 2011 978-0785151180
Black Panther: Doomwar Black Panther (vol. 5) #7–12, Doomwar #1–6, Klaws of the Panther #1–4, material from Age of Heroes #4 2017 978-1302904166
Black Panther: The Saga of Shuri & T'Challa Black Panther (vol. 4) #2, Black Panther (vol. 5) #1-6, Klaws of the Panther #1-4, Black Panther (vol. 6) #1 and #8-11, and Black Panther: Long Live the King #1-6 August 2022 978-1302946005

The Man Without Fear/The Most Dangerous Man Alive

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Black Panther: The Man Without Fear - Urban Jungle Black Panther: The Man Without Fear #513–518, material from X-Men: Curse of the Mutants Spotlight 2011 978-0785145233
Black Panther: The Man Without Fear - Fear Itself Black Panther: The Man Without Fear #519–523, Black Panther: The Most Dangerous Man Alive #524 2012 978-0785152064
Black Panther: The Most Dangerous Man Alive - The Kingpin of Wakanda Black Panther: The Most Dangerous Man Alive #523.1, 525–529 2012 978-0785160373
Black Panther: The Man Without Fear – The Complete Collection Black Panther: The Man Without Fear #513–523, Black Panther: The Most Dangerous Man Alive #523.1, 524–529 2018 978-1302907723

Volume 6

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Paperback
A Nation Under Our Feet Book 1 Black Panther (vol. 6) #1–4, Fantastic Four (vol. 1) #52 September 13, 2016 978-1302900533
A Nation Under Our Feet Book 2 Black Panther (vol. 6) #5–8 January 24, 2017 978-1302900540
A Nation Under Our Feet Book 3 Black Panther (vol. 6) #9–12 April 25, 2017 978-1302901912
Book 4: Avengers of the New World Part 1 Black Panther (vol. 6) #13–18 November 21, 2017 978-1302906498
Book 5: Avengers of the New World Part 2 Black Panther (vol. 6) #166–172 June 12, 2018 978-1302909888
Oversized hardcover
Vol. 1: A Nation Under Our Feet Black Panther (vol. 6) #1–12 August 15, 2017 978-1302904159
Vol. 2: Avengers of the New World Black Panther (vol. 6) #13–18, 166–172 November 27, 2018 978-1302908959
Miscellaneous
World of Wakanda Black Panther: World of Wakanda #1–6 June 27, 2017 978-1302906504
Black Panther & the Crew: We Are the Streets Black Panther & the Crew #1–6 October 31, 2017 978-1302908324
Black Panther: Long Live the King Black Panther: Long Live the King #1-6 June 5, 2018 978-1302905385
Rise of the Black Panther Rise of the Black Panther #1–6 August 14, 2018 978-1302908843
Wakanda Forever Amazing Spider-Man: Wakanda Forever; X-Men: Wakanda Forever; Avengers: Wakanda Forever; Black Panther Annual (vol. 2) #1 November 6, 2018 978-1302913588
Black Panther vs. Deadpool Black Panther vs. Deadpool #1-5 May 2, 2019 978-1846539671

Volume 7

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Paperback
Black Panther Book 6: The Intergalactic Empire of Wakanda Part 1 Black Panther (vol. 7) #1–6 February 5, 2019 978-1302912932
Black Panther Book 7: The Intergalactic Empire of Wakanda Part 2 Black Panther (vol. 7) #7–12 August 6, 2019 978-1302912949
Black Panther Book 8: The Intergalactic Empire of Wakanda Part 3 Black Panther (vol. 7) #13–18 December 24, 2019 978-1302914462
Black Panther Book 9: The Intergalactic Empire of Wakanda Part 4 Black Panther (vol. 7) #19–25 August 25, 2020 978-1302921101
Oversized hardcover
Black Panther Vol. 3: The Intergalactic Empire of Wakanda Part One Black Panther (vol. 7) #1–12 August 11, 2020 978-1302925314
Black Panther Vol. 4: The Intergalactic Empire of Wakanda Part Two Black Panther (vol. 7) #13–25 April 12, 2022 978-1302925420
Miscellaneous
King in Black: Avengers King in Black: Black Panther #1 and King in Black: Captain America #1, King in Black: Ghost Rider #1, King in Black: Immortal Hulk #1, King in Black: Iron Man/Doom #1, King in Black: Wiccan and Hulkling #1 August 2021 978-1302930349
Black Panther and the Agents of Wakanda Vol. 1: Eye of the Storm Black Panther and the Agents of Wakanda #1-5 March 2020 978-1302920081
Black Panther and the Agents of Wakanda Vol. 2 Black Panther and the Agents of Wakanda #6-10 August 2020 978-1302924478

Volume 8

Title Material collected Date published ISBN
Paperback
Black Panther by John Ridley Vol. 1: The Long Shadow Black Panther (vol. 8) #1-5 August 1, 2022 978-1846533525
Black Panther by John Ridley Vol. 2: Range Wars Black Panther (vol. 8) #6-10 November 9, 2022 978-1302928834
Black Panther by John Ridley Vol. 3: All This and the World, Too Black Panther (vol. 8) #11-15 June 13, 2023 978-1302947651
Miscellaneous
Black Panther Legends Black Panther Legends #1-4, material from Shuri: A Black Panther Novel October 4, 2022 978-1302931414

See also

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