Buffy Sainte-Marie
Sainte-Marie in 2015
Sainte-Marie in 2015
Background information
Birth nameBeverly Sainte-Marie
Born (1941-02-20) February 20, 1941 (age 82)[1]
Piapot 75 Reserve, Qu'Appelle Valley, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • Musician
  • singer-songwriter
  • composer
  • record producer
  • visual artist
  • educator
  • social activist
  • actress
  • humanitarian
  • Vocals, guitar, keyboard, piano
Years active1963–2023

Buffy Sainte-Marie, CC (born Beverly Sainte-Marie; February 20, 1941)[1] is an Indigenous Canadian-American (Piapot Cree Nation) singer-songwriter, musician, composer, visual artist, educator, pacifist, and social activist.[2] While working in these areas, her work has focused on issues facing Indigenous peoples of the Americas. Her singing and writing repertoire also includes subjects of love, war, religion, and mysticism. She has won recognition, awards and honours for her music as well as her work in education and social activism. Among her most popular songs are "Universal Soldier", "Cod'ine", "Until It's Time for You to Go", "Take My Hand for a While", "Now That the Buffalo's Gone", and her versions of Mickey Newbury's "Mister Can't You See" and Joni Mitchell's "The Circle Game". Her songs have been recorded by many artists including Donovan, Joe Cocker, Jennifer Warnes, Janis Joplin, Elvis Presley, and Glen Campbell.

In 1983, she became the first Indigenous North American person to win an Oscar,[3] when her song "Up Where We Belong", co-written for the film An Officer and a Gentleman, won the Academy Award for Best Original Song at the 55th Academy Awards.[4] The song also won the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song that same year.[5]

In 1997, she founded the Cradleboard Teaching Project, an educational curriculum devoted to better understanding Native Americans.[6]

Personal life

Sainte-Marie was born in 1941[7] on the Piapot 75 reserve in the Qu'Appelle Valley, Saskatchewan, Canada, to Cree parents.[8][9] At age two or three she was taken from her parents as part of the Sixties Scoop - a government policy where Indigenous children were taken from their families, communities and cultures for placement in non-First Nations families.[10] She was adopted by an American couple, Albert and Winifred Sainte-Marie, from Wakefield, Massachusetts. Though "visibly white", her adoptive mother, Winifred, "self-identified as part Mi'kmaq."[10][11][12] She attended the University of Massachusetts Amherst earning degrees in teaching and Oriental philosophy;[13] she graduated as one of the top ten members of her class.[14][8]

In 1964, on a return trip to the Piapot Cree reserve in Canada for a powwow, she was welcomed and (in a Cree Nation context) adopted by the youngest son of Chief Piapot, Emile Piapot and his wife, Clara Starblanket Piapot, who added to Sainte-Marie's cultural value and place in native culture.[15]

In 1968, she married surfing teacher Dewain Bugbee who is from Hawaii and they divorced in 1971. She married Sheldon Wolfchild from Minnesota in 1975; they have a son, Dakota "Cody" Starblanket Wolfchild. They divorced. She married Jack Nitzsche, her co-writer of "Up Where We Belong" on March 19, 1982; they were married for seven years. Sainte-Marie has characterized the relationship as abusive and controlling; she left their home in Los Angeles out of fear for her and her son's safety. She also blames Nitzsche for the stagnation of her career during this time.[16]

Although not a Baháʼí herself, she became an active friend of the Baháʼí faith and has appeared at concerts, conferences and conventions of that religion. In 1992, she appeared in the musical event prelude to the Baháʼí World Congress, a double concert "Live Unity: The Sound of the World" in 1992 with video broadcast and documentary.[17] In the video documentary of the event Sainte-Marie is seen on the Dini Petty Show explaining the Baháʼí teaching of progressive revelation.[18] She also appears in the 1985 video Mona With The Children by Douglas John Cameron. However, while she supports a universal sense of religion, she does not subscribe to any particular religion.

I gave a lot of support to Baháʼí people in the '80s and '90s … Baháʼí people, as people of all religions, is something I'm attracted to … I don't belong to any religion. … I have a huge religious faith or spiritual faith but I feel as though religion … is the first thing that racketeers exploit. … But that doesn't turn me against religion …[19]: 16:15–18:00min 


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Sainte-Marie taught herself to play piano and guitar in her childhood and teen years. In college some of her songs, "Ananias", the Indian lament "Now That the Buffalo's Gone", and "Mayoo Sto Hoon" (a cover of a Hindi Bollywood song "Mayus To Hoon Waade Se Tere" sung by the Indian singer Mohammed Rafi from the 1960 movie Barsaat Ki Raat) were already in her repertoire.[13]


Sainte-Marie performing in the Netherlands in the Grand Gala du Disque Populaire 1968

In her early twenties she toured alone, developing her craft and performing in various concert halls, folk music festivals, and First Nations communities across the United States, Canada, and abroad. She spent a considerable amount of time in the coffeehouses of downtown Toronto's old Yorkville district, and New York City's Greenwich Village as part of the early to mid-1960s folk scene, often alongside other emerging Canadian contemporaries, such as Leonard Cohen, Neil Young, and Joni Mitchell. (She also introduced Mitchell to Elliot Roberts, who became Mitchell's manager.)[15]

In 1963, recovering from a throat infection, Sainte-Marie became addicted to codeine and recovering from the experience became the basis of her song "Cod'ine",[14] later covered by Donovan, Janis Joplin, the Charlatans, Quicksilver Messenger Service, Man,[20] the Litter, the Leaves, Jimmy Gilmer, Gram Parsons,[21] Charles Brutus McClay,[22] the Barracudas (spelled "Codeine"),[23] the Golden Horde,[24] Nicole Atkins and Courtney Love. Also in 1963, she witnessed wounded soldiers returning from the Vietnam War at a time when the U.S. government was denying involvement[25] – which inspired her protest song "Universal Soldier",[26] released on her debut album It's My Way on Vanguard Records in 1964, and later became a hit for both Donovan and Glen Campbell.[27]

She was subsequently named Billboard magazine's Best New Artist. Some of her songs addressing the mistreatment of Native Americans, such as "Now That the Buffalo's Gone" (1964) and "My Country 'Tis of Thy People You're Dying" (1964, included on her 1966 album), created controversy at the time.[12] In 1967, she released Fire & Fleet & Candlelight, which contained her interpretation of the traditional Yorkshire dialect song "Lyke Wake Dirge". In 1968 she released her song "Take My Hand for a While" which was also later recorded by Glen Campbell and at least 13 other artists.[28] Sainte-Marie's other well-known songs include "Mister Can't You See", (a Top 40 U.S. hit in 1972); "He's an Indian Cowboy in the Rodeo"; and the theme song of the movie Soldier Blue. She appeared on Pete Seeger's Rainbow Quest with Pete Seeger in 1965 and several Canadian Television productions from the 1960s to the 1990s,[15] and other TV shows such as American Bandstand, Soul Train, The Johnny Cash Show and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson; and sang the opening song "The Circle Game" (written by Joni Mitchell[15]) in Stuart Hagmann's film The Strawberry Statement (1970) Then Came Bronson; episode 20 "Mating Dance for Tender Grass" (1970) sang and acted.

In the late 1960s, she used a Buchla synthesizer to record the album Illuminations, which did not receive much notice. It was the first totally quadraphonic electronic vocal album.[citation needed]

She appeared in "The Heritage" episode of The Virginian, that first aired on October 30, 1968. She played a Shoshone woman who had been sent to be educated at school.[29]


Sainte-Marie in 1970

In late 1975, Sainte-Marie received a phone call from Sesame Street producer Dulcy Singer to appear on the show for a one-shot guest appearance. Sainte-Marie told Singer she had no interest in doing a children's TV show, but reconsidered after asking "Have you done any Native American programming?" According to Sainte-Marie, Singer wanted her to count and recite the alphabet but Buffy wanted to teach the show's young viewers that "Indians still exist".[citation needed] She regularly appeared on Sesame Street over a five-year period from 1976 to 1981. Sainte-Marie breastfed her first son, Dakota "Cody" Starblanket Wolfchild, during a 1977 episode, which is believed to be the first representation of breastfeeding ever aired on television.[30] Sesame Street aired a week of shows from her home in Hawaii in January 1978. Her closest friend from the Sesame Street cast was Alaina Reed, who played Olivia Robinson on the show.

In 1979, Spirit of the Wind, featuring Sainte-Marie's original musical score, including the song "Spirit of the Wind", was one of three entries that year at the Cannes Film Festival. The film is a docudrama about George Attla, the "winningest dog musher of all time", as the film presents him, with all parts played by Native Americans except one by Slim Pickens. The film was shown on cable TV in the early 1980s and was released in France in 2003.[citation needed]


Sainte-Marie began using Apple II and Macintosh computers as early as 1981 to record her music and later some of her visual art.[31][13] The song "Up Where We Belong" (which Sainte-Marie co-wrote with Will Jennings and musician Jack Nitzsche) was performed by Joe Cocker and Jennifer Warnes for the film An Officer and a Gentleman. It received the Academy Award for Best Original Song in 1982.[4] On January 29, 1983, Jennings, Nitzsche and Sainte-Marie won the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song.[5] They also won the BAFTA film award for Best Original Song in 1984.[32] On the Songs of the Century list compiled by the Recording Industry Association of America in 2001, the song was listed at number 323.[33] In 2020, it was included on Billboard magazine's list of the "25 Greatest Love Song Duets".[34]

In the early 1980s one of her native songs was used as the theme song for the CBC's native series Spirit Bay. She was cast for the TNT 1993 telefilm The Broken Chain. It was shot entirely in Virginia. In 1989 she wrote and performed the music for Where the Spirit Lives, a film about native children being abducted and forced into residential schools.

In 1986, British pop band Red Box covered her song "Qu'Appele Valley, Saskatchewan" (shortened to just "Saskatchewan") on their debut album The Circle & the Square.[35] The song originally appears on Sainte-Marie's 1976 album Sweet America.


Buffy Sainte-Marie playing the Peterborough Summer Festival of Lights on June 24, 2009

Sainte-Marie voiced the Cheyenne character, Kate Bighead, in the 1991 made-for-TV movie Son of the Morning Star, telling the Indian side of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, where Sioux Chief Sitting Bull defeated Lt. Col. George Custer.

In 1992, after a sixteen-year recording hiatus, Sainte-Marie released the album Coincidence and Likely Stories.[36] Recorded in 1990 at home in Hawaii on her computer and transmitted via modem through the Internet to producer Chris Birkett in London, England,[15] the album included the politically charged songs "The Big Ones Get Away" and "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee" (which mentions Leonard Peltier), both commenting on the ongoing plight of Native Americans (see also the book and film with the same name). Also in 1992, Sainte-Marie appeared in the television film The Broken Chain with Wes Studi and Pierce Brosnan along with First Nations Baháʼí Phil Lucas. Her next album followed up in 1996 with Up Where We Belong, an album on which she re-recorded a number of her greatest hits in more unplugged and acoustic versions, including a re-release of "Universal Soldier". Sainte-Marie has exhibited her art at the Glenbow Museum in Calgary, the Winnipeg Art Gallery, the Emily Carr Gallery in Vancouver and the American Indian Arts Museum in Santa Fe, New Mexico. In 1995, she provided the voice of the spirit in the magic mirror in HBO's Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child, which featured a Native American retelling of the Snow White fairy tale.

Also in 1995, the Indigo Girls released two versions of Sainte-Marie's protest song "Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee" on their live album 1200 Curfews. The song appears toward the end of Disc One in a live format, recorded at the Atwood Concert Hall in the Alaska Center for the Performing Arts in Anchorage, Alaska. "Every word is true", Emily says in the introduction. The second, found at the end of Disc Two, is a studio recording.

In 1996, she started a philanthropic non-profit fund Nihewan Foundation for American Indian Education devoted to improving Native American students’ participation in learning. The word "Nihewan" comes from the Cree language and means "talk Cree", which implies "Be Your Culture".

Sainte-Marie founded the Cradleboard Teaching Project in October 1996 using funds from her Nihewan Foundation and with a two-year grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation of Battle Creek, Michigan. With projects across Mohawk, Cree, Ojibwe, Menominee, Coeur D'Alene, Navajo, Quinault, Hawaiian, and Apache communities in eleven states, partnered with a non-native class of the same grade level for Elementary, Middle, and High School grades in the disciplines of Geography, History, Social Studies, Music and Science and produced a multimedia curriculum CD, Science: Through Native American Eyes.[37]


Sainte-Marie performing at The Iron Horse in Northampton, Massachusetts on June 15, 2013

In 2000, Sainte-Marie gave the commencement address at Haskell Indian Nations University.[38] In 2002 she sang at the Kennedy Space Center for Commander John Herrington, USN, a Chickasaw and the first Native American astronaut.[39] In 2003 she became a spokesperson for the UNESCO Associated Schools Project Network in Canada.[40]

In 2002, a track written and performed by Sainte-Marie, titled "Lazarus", was sampled by Hip Hop producer Kanye West and performed by Cam'Ron and Jim Jones of The Diplomats. The track is called "Dead or Alive". In June 2007, she made a rare U.S. appearance at the Clearwater Festival in Croton-on-Hudson, New York.

In 2008, a two-CD set titled Buffy/Changing Woman/Sweet America: The Mid-1970s Recordings was released, compiling the three studio albums that she recorded for ABC Records and MCA Records between 1974 and 1976 (after departing her long-time label Vanguard Records). This was the first re-release of this material. In September 2008, Sainte-Marie made a comeback onto the music scene in Canada with the release of her studio album Running for the Drum. It was produced by Chris Birkett (producer of her 1992 and 1996 best of albums). Sessions for this project commenced in 2006 in Sainte-Marie's home studio in Hawaii and in part in France. They continued until spring 2007.[citation needed]


In 2015, Sainte-Marie released the album Power in the Blood on True North Records. She had a television appearance on May 22, 2015, with Democracy Now! to discuss the record and her musical and activist career. On September 21, 2015, Power in the Blood was named the winner of the 2015 Polaris Music Prize.[41]

Also in 2015, A Tribe Called Red released an electronic remix of Sainte-Marie's song, "Working for the Government".[42]

In 2016, Sainte-Marie toured North America with Mark Olexson (bass), Anthony King (guitar), Michel Bruyere (drums), and Kibwe Thomas (keyboards).[43]

In 2017, she released the single "You Got to Run (Spirit of the Wind)", a collaboration with fellow Polaris Music Prize laureate, Tanya Tagaq.[44] The song was inspired by George Attla who is a champion dog sled racer from Alaska.[45]

On November 29, 2019, a 50th-anniversary edition of Sainte-Marie's 1969 album, Illuminations, was released on vinyl by Concord Records, the company that bought Vanguard Records, the original publisher of the album.[46]


Saint-Marie is the subject of Buffy Sainte-Marie: Carry It On, a 2022 documentary film by Madison Thomas.[47] In the same year the National Arts Centre staged Buffy Sainte-Marie: Starwalker, a tribute concert of musicians performing Sainte-Marie's songs.[48]

On August 3, 2023, Saint-Marie issued a statement announcing her retirement from live performances, due to health concerns.[49]

Alleged Blacklisting

Sainte-Marie said in a 2008 interview at the National Museum of the American Indian[50] that she had been blacklisted by American radio stations and that she, Native Americans, and other Indigenous people in the Red Power movements were pushed out of the industry during the 1970s.[51]

In a 1999 interview at Diné College with a staff writer with Indian Country Today, Sainte-Marie said, "I found out 10 years later, in the 1980s, that President Lyndon B. Johnson had been writing letters on White House stationery praising radio stations for suppressing my music" and "In the 1970s, not only was the protest movement put out of business, but the Native American movement was attacked."[52]

As a result of being blacklisted which Sainte-Marie claims was led by (among others) Presidents Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, and Nashville disc jockey Ralph Emery (following the release of I'm Gonna Be a Country Girl Again), Sainte-Marie said, "I was put out of business in the United States".[53]

Honours and awards

Date unknown




Year Album Peak chart positions
CAN AUS[65] US UK[66]
1964 It's My Way!
1965 Many a Mile
1966 Little Wheel Spin and Spin 97
1967 Fire & Fleet & Candlelight 126
1968 I'm Gonna Be a Country Girl Again 171
1969 Illuminations
1971 She Used to Wanna Be a Ballerina 47 182
1972 Moonshot 134
1973 Quiet Places
1974 Buffy
1975 Changing Woman
1976 Sweet America
1992 Coincidence and Likely Stories 63 39
1996 Up Where We Belong
2008 Running for the Drum N/A
2015 Power in the Blood N/A
2017 Medicine Songs N/A


Year Album Peak chart positions
CAN AUS[65] US UK[66]
1985 Attla: A Motion Picture Soundtrack Album (with William Ackerman) N/A N/A



Year Single Peak chart positions Album
1965 "Until It's Time for You to Go" Many a Mile
1970 "The Circle Game" 76 109 83 Fire & Fleet & Candlelight
1971 "Soldier Blue" 7 She Used to Wanna Be a Ballerina
"I'm Gonna Be a Country Girl Again" 86 98 34 I'm Gonna Be a Country Girl Again
1972 "Mister Can't You See" 21 38 70 Moonshot
"He's an Indian Cowboy in the Rodeo" 98
1973 "I Wanna Hold Your Hand Forever"[68] N/A
1974 "Waves" 27 Buffy
1992 "The Big Ones Get Away" 24 14 39 Coincidence & Likely Stories
"Fallen Angels" 50 26 57
1996 "Until It's Time for You to Go" 54 Up Where We Belong
2008 "No No Keshagesh" Running for the Drum
2017 "You Got to Run (Spirit of the Wind)" (feat. Tanya Tagaq) Medicine Songs


Soundtrack appearances

Year Song(s) Album
1970 "Dyed, Dead, Red" and "Hashishin" with Ry Cooder Performance

Compilation albums

Year Album Peak chart positions
1970 The Best of Buffy Sainte-Marie 142
1971 The Best of Buffy Sainte-Marie Vol. 2
1974 Native North American Child: An Odyssey
1976 Indian Girl (European release)
A Golden Hour of the Best Of (UK release)
2003 The Best of the Vanguard Years
2008 Buffy/Changing Woman/Sweet America
2010 The Pathfinder: Buried Treasures - The Mid-70's Recordings

See also


  1. ^ a b "Encyclopedia of the Great Plains | SAINTE-MARIE, BUFFY (b. 1941)". Plainshumanities.unl.edu. Retrieved April 6, 2022.
  2. ^ More than 26.5 million copies sold world-wide as per Buffy Saint-Marie biography/profile Archived May 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Manoukian, Marina (April 20, 2021). "Buffy Sainte-Marie: The First Indigenous Person To Win An Academy Award - Grunge". Grunge.com. Retrieved October 13, 2022.
  4. ^ a b c ""An Officer and a Gentleman" (NY)". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. September 16, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2019. Academy Award winner: Music – Original Song ("Up Where We Belong", Music by Jack Nitzsche, Buffy Sainte-Marie; Lyrics by Will Jennings)
  5. ^ a b Sheward 1997, p. 159.
  6. ^ Cradleboard Project FAQ.
  7. ^ Nygaard King, Betty. "Saint-Marie, Buffy". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
  8. ^ a b Colette P. Simonot. "Sainte-Marie, Buffy (Beverly) (1941–)". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. University of Regina. Archived from the original on September 24, 2016. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
  9. ^ Bennett, Tony, and Valda Blundell. 1995. Cultural studies. Vol. 9, no. 1, First peoples: cultures, policies, politics. London: Routledge. pg. 111; ISBN 0-203-98575-3
  10. ^ a b Warner, Andrea (March 22, 2021). "Buffy Sainte-Marie At 80". Chatelaine.com. Retrieved November 19, 2022. It is believed that Buffy Sainte-Marie was born in 1941 on the Piapot First Nation reserve in Saskatchewan, and taken from her biological parents when she was two or three. She was adopted by a visibly white couple in Massachusetts, though her adoptive mother, Winifred, self-identified as part Mi'kmaq. Sainte-Marie's experience of being adopted out of her culture and placed in a non-Indigenous family by child welfare services is an all-too-familiar story in Canada. This practice was later dubbed the Sixties Scoop, referring to the decade in which it was most prevalent (though it had gone on well before the 1960s, and would go on for decades to come).
  11. ^ "Six Amazing Indian Women From New England". Newenglandhistoricalsociety.com. March 21, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  12. ^ a b Encyclopedia of the Great Plains entry by Paula Conlon, University of Oklahoma, edited by David J. Wishart
  13. ^ a b c "Buffy Sainte-Marie UK Biography". Buffysaintemarie.co.uk. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  14. ^ a b 45 Profiles in Modern Music by E. Churchill and Linda Churchill, pgs. 110–2
  15. ^ a b c d e Buffy Sainte-Marie: A Multimedia Life (Director's Cut) DVD, distributed by Filmwest Associates of Canada and the US, [1] Archived June 30, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, 2006
  16. ^ The relationship is explored in great detail in the 2018 book, Buffy Sainte-Marie: The Authorized Biography, by Andrea Warner ISBN 978-1-77164-358-0, chapter 12 "Up Where We Belong"
  17. ^ Baháʼís and the Arts: Language of the Heart Archived October 26, 2012, at the Wayback Machine by Ann Boyles, also published in 1994–95 edition of The Baháʼí World, pgs. 243–72
  18. ^ Live Unity:The Sound of the World A Concert Documentary, VCR Video, distributed by Unity Arts Inc., of Canada, © Live Unity Enterprises, Inc., 1992
  19. ^ Buffy Sainte-Marie; interviewed by Jon Faine (March 3, 2015). The Conversation Hour (radio). Melbourne, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
  20. ^ On their album Maximum Darkness
  21. ^ On Another Side of This Life: The Lost Recordings of Gram Parsons 1965–1966
  22. ^ Charles Brutus McClay – "Bottled in France", released 1970 by CBS France, cat.nr.64478
  23. ^ The Barracudas – "Drop Out with The Barracudas", released 1981 by Zonophone, cat.nr.ZONO103
  24. ^ "Codeine (live, London, 1991) by The Golden Horde on SoundCloud". SoundCloud. March 9, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  25. ^ "Vietnam War 1961–1964". The History Place. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  26. ^ Folk and Blues: The Premier Encyclopedia of American Roots Music by Irwin Stambler, Lyndon Stambler, pp. 528–530
  27. ^ "Show 34 – Revolt of the Fat Angel: American musicians respond to the British invaders". Digital.library.unt.edu. April 18, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  28. ^ Take My Hand for a While. https://secondhandsongs.com/work/13720/all
  29. ^ "From the Archives: Cree folk singer Buffy Sainte-Marie gets Native Americans hired for 'The Virginian'". Los Angeles Times. November 16, 2017.
  30. ^ Sen, Mayukh (January 22, 2018). "The Short-Lived Normalization of Breastfeeding on Television". Hazlitt. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  31. ^ Names under the sun: Buffy Sainte-Marie – multi-awarded native American singer makes a comeback, Los Angeles Business Journal, May 1992 by Michael Logan
  32. ^ British Film Institute 1985, p. 282.
  33. ^ Whitburn 2009, p. 1041.
  34. ^ Partridge, Kenneth (February 11, 2020). "The 25 Greatest Love Song Duets: Critic's Picks". Billboard. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  35. ^ Mureika, Tomas. "Review: Red Box – The Circle & the Square". Allmusic. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
  36. ^ a b c Strong, Martin C. (2000). The Great Rock Discography (5th ed.). Edinburgh: Mojo Books. pp. 840–841. ISBN 1-84195-017-3.
  37. ^ "Cradleboard History". Cradleboard.org. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  38. ^ New generation of Haskell family honored, Topeka Capital-Journal, May 13, 2000 by Andrea Albright
  39. ^ "Buffy Sainte-Marie Kennedy Space Center Performance". May 15, 2006. Archived from the original on May 15, 2006. Retrieved April 6, 2022.
  40. ^ "Buffy UNESCO Spokes Person". Cradleboard.org. February 13, 2003. Archived from the original on February 6, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  41. ^ "Buffy Sainte-Marie wins Polaris Music Prize". The Globe and Mail, September 21, 2015
  42. ^ "Buffy Sainte-Marie: "Working for the Government" (A Tribe Called Red remix)". Exclaim!, July 2, 2015
  43. ^ "Buffy Sainte-Marie's highly anticipated brand new album Power in the Blood is available in stores now!". Buffysainte-marie.com. Archived from the original on December 25, 2019. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  44. ^ "Buffy Sainte-Marie and Tanya Tagaq Share New Collaboration". Exclaim!, February 21, 2017
  45. ^ Queens of Indigenous Music Buffy Ste-Marie and Tanya Tagaq Unite for “You Got To Run (Spirit Of The Wind)” Archived December 23, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. RPM.fm, February 22, 2017
  46. ^ Sainte-Marie, Buffy. "News". Official Buffy Sainte-Marie Website.
  47. ^ Becca Longmire, "‘Buffy Sainte-Marie: Carry It On’ To Premiere At TIFF 2022". ET Canada, August 10, 2022.
  48. ^ Garret K. Woodward, "The Tragically Hip’s Surviving Members Reunite to Pay Tribute to a Canadian Icon, Tease New Projects". Rolling Stone, September 30, 2022.
  49. ^ "Singer-songwriter Buffy Sainte-Marie retiring from live performances due to health concerns". CBC.ca. August 3, 2023. Retrieved August 5, 2023.
  50. ^ "2008 Native Writer's Series #3 – Buffy Sainte-Marie". April 17, 2008. Archived from the original on April 27, 2010. Retrieved April 23, 2014 – via YouTube.
  51. ^ Paulsen, Sasha (September 24, 2011). "An original rebel with a resonating voice". Napa Valley Register. Napa, CA. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
  52. ^ "CENSORED NEWS: Uncensored: Buffy Sainte-Marie honored with Lifetime Achievement Award". Bsnorrell.blogspot.com. October 22, 2008. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  53. ^ Nagy, Rob (August 12, 2016). "Folk icon Buffy Sainte-Marie continues her journey — performs at Philadelphia Folk Festival 2016". Bucks Local News. Retrieved May 14, 2017.
  54. ^ "Buffy Sainte-Marie". Canadaswalkoffame.com. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  55. ^ "Cradleboard Comments & News Stories". Cradleboard.org. Retrieved April 23, 2014.
  56. ^ "Human rights activists to be honoured at Spring Convocation (news release)". Carleton University. June 5, 2008. Archived from the original on June 8, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
  57. ^ "OCAD News Release: OCAD to confer honorary doctorates on Carole Condé, Karl Beveridge, Anita Kunz and Buffy Sainte-Marie". June 2, 2010. Archived from the original on January 3, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2010.
  58. ^ "Buffy Sainte-Marie to get Governor General’s Award". Toronto Star, Jennifer Ditchburn April 29, 2010
  59. ^ "Junos 2018: the complete list of winners". Cbc.ca. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
  60. ^ "Winners and Nominees – Indigenous Music Awards". Indigenousmusicawards.com. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  61. ^ "Singer, activist, philanthropist Buffy Sainte-Marie receives U of T honorary degree". University of Toronto News. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  62. ^ "2020 Slaight Family Polaris Heritage Prize Winners Named". FYI Music News, November 16, 2020
  63. ^ "New stamp honours renowned singer-songwriter Buffy Sainte-Marie – Magazine". Canadapost-postescanada.ca.
  64. ^ Wulf, Steve (March 23, 2015). "Supersisters: Original Roster". ESPN. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  65. ^ a b c Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 263. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  66. ^ a b c d Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. p. 479. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
  67. ^ "Attla: A Motion Picture Soundtrack Album". Discogs.
  68. ^ "Buffy Sainte-Marie – I Wanna Hold Your Hand Forever". Discogs. Retrieved January 11, 2021.

Further reading