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Cluster II
The Cluster II constellation.
Artist's impression of the Cluster constellation.
Mission typeMagnetospheric research
OperatorESA with NASA collaboration
FM7 (SAMBA): 2000-041B
FM5 (RUMBA): 2000-045A
FM8 (TANGO): 2000-045B
SATCAT no.FM6 (SALSA): 26410
FM7 (SAMBA): 26411
FM5 (RUMBA): 26463
FM8 (TANGO): 26464
Mission durationplanned: 5 years
elapsed: 22 years, 7 months and 5 days
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerAirbus (ex. Dornier)[1]
Launch mass1,200 kg (2,600 lb)[1]
Dry mass550 kg (1,210 lb)[1]
Payload mass71 kg (157 lb)[1]
Dimensions2.9 m × 1.3 m (9.5 ft × 4.3 ft)[1]
Power224 watts[1]
Start of mission
Launch dateFM6: 16 July 2000, 12:39 UTC (2000-07-16UTC12:39Z)
FM7: 16 July 2000, 12:39 UTC (2000-07-16UTC12:39Z)
FM5: 09 August 2000, 11:13 UTC (2000-08-09UTC11:13Z)
FM8: 09 August 2000, 11:13 UTC (2000-08-09UTC11:13Z)
Launch siteBaikonur 31/6
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeElliptical Orbit
Perigee altitudeFM6: 16,118 km (10,015 mi)
FM7: 16,157 km (10,039 mi)
FM5: 16,022 km (9,956 mi)
FM8: 12,902 km (8,017 mi)
Apogee altitudeFM6: 116,740 km (72,540 mi)
FM7: 116,654 km (72,485 mi)
FM5: 116,786 km (72,567 mi)
FM8: 119,952 km (74,535 mi)
InclinationFM6: 135 degrees
FM7: 135 degrees
FM5: 138 degrees
FM8: 134 degrees
PeriodFM6: 3259 minutes
FM7: 3257 minutes
FM5: 3257 minutes
FM8: 3258 minutes
Epoch13 March 2014, 11:15:07 UTC
Cluster II mission insignia

ESA solar system insignia for Cluster II  

Cluster II[2] is a space mission of the European Space Agency, with NASA participation, to study the Earth's magnetosphere over the course of nearly two solar cycles. The mission is composed of four identical spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation. As a replacement for the original Cluster spacecraft which were lost in a launch failure in 1996, the four Cluster II spacecraft were successfully launched in pairs in July and August 2000 onboard two Soyuz-Fregat rockets from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. In February 2011, Cluster II celebrated 10 years of successful scientific operations in space. As of October 2020, its mission has been extended until the end of 2022.[3] China National Space Administration/ESA Double Star mission operated alongside Cluster II from 2004 to 2007.

Mission overview

The four identical Cluster II satellites study the impact of the Sun's activity on the Earth's space environment by flying in formation around Earth. For the first time in space history, this mission is able to collect three-dimensional information on how the solar wind interacts with the magnetosphere and affects near-Earth space and its atmosphere, including aurorae.

The spacecraft are cylindrical (2.9 x 1.3 m, see online 3D model) and are spinning at 15 rotations per minute. After launch, their solar cells provided 224 watts power for instruments and communications. Solar array power has gradually declined as the mission progressed, due to damage by energetic charged particles, but this was planned for and the power level remains sufficient for science operations. The four spacecraft maneuver into various tetrahedral formations to study the magnetospheric structure and boundaries. The inter-spacecraft distances can be altered and has varied from around 4 to 10,000 km. The propellant for the transfer to the operational orbit, and the maneuvers to vary inter-spacecraft separation distances made up approximately half of the spacecraft's launch weight.

The highly elliptical orbits of the spacecraft initially reached a perigee of around 4 RE (Earth radii, where 1 RE = 6371 km) and an apogee of 19.6 RE. Each orbit took approximately 57 hours to complete. The orbit has evolved over time; the line of apsides has rotated southwards so that the distance at which the orbit crossed the magnetotail current sheet progressively reduced, and a wide range of dayside magnetopause crossing latitudes were sampled. Gravitational effects impose a long term cycle of change in the perigee (and apogee) distance, which saw the perigees reduce to a few 100 km in 2011 before beginning to rise again. The orbit plane has rotated away from 90 degrees inclination. Orbit modifications by ESOC have altered the orbital period to 54 hours. All these changes have allowed Cluster to visit a much wider set of important magnetospheric regions than was possible for the initial 2-year mission, improving the scientific breadth of the mission.

The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) acquires telemetry and distributes to the online data centers the science data from the spacecraft. The Joint Science Operations Centre JSOC at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK coordinates scientific planning and in collaboration with the instrument teams provides merged instrument commanding requests to ESOC.

The Cluster Science Archive is the ESA long term archive of the Cluster and Double Star science missions. Since 1 November 2014, it is the sole public access point to the Cluster mission scientific data and supporting datasets. The Double Star data are publicly available via this archive. The Cluster Science Archive is located alongside all the other ESA science archives at the European Space Astronomy Center, located near Madrid, Spain. From February 2006 to October 2014, the Cluster data could be accessed via the Cluster Active Archive.


The Cluster mission was proposed to ESA in 1982 and approved in 1986, along with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and together these two missions constituted the Solar Terrestrial Physics "cornerstone" of ESA's Horizon 2000 missions programme. Though the original Cluster spacecraft were completed in 1995, the explosion of the Ariane 5 rocket carrying the satellites in 1996 delayed the mission by four years while new instruments and spacecraft were built.

On July 16, 2000, a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome launched two of the replacement Cluster II spacecraft, (Salsa and Samba) into a parking orbit from where they maneuvered under their own power into a 19,000 by 119,000 kilometer orbit with a period of 57 hours. Three weeks later on August 9, 2000, another Soyuz-Fregat rocket lifted the remaining two spacecraft (Rumba and Tango) into similar orbits. Spacecraft 1, Rumba, is also known as the Phoenix spacecraft, since it is largely built from spare parts left over after the failure of the original mission. After commissioning of the payload, the first scientific measurements were made on February 1, 2001.

The European Space Agency ran a competition to name the satellites across all of the ESA member states.[4] Ray Cotton, from the United Kingdom, won the competition with the names Rumba, Tango, Salsa and Samba.[5] Ray's town of residence, Bristol, was awarded with scale models of the satellites in recognition of the winning entry,[6][7] as well as the city's connection with the satellites. However, after many years of being stored away, they were finally given a home at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.

Originally planned to last until the end of 2003, the mission has been extended several times. The first extension took the mission from 2004 until 2005, and the second from 2005 to June 2009. The mission has now been extended until the end of 2020.[8]

Scientific objectives

Previous single and two-spacecraft missions were not capable of providing the data required to accurately study the boundaries of the magnetosphere. Because the plasma comprising the magnetosphere cannot be viewed using remote sensing techniques, satellites must be used to measure it in-situ. Four spacecraft allow scientists make the 3D, time-resolved measurements needed to create a realistic picture of the complex plasma interactions occurring between regions of the magnetosphere and between the magnetosphere and the solar wind.

Each satellite carries a scientific payload of 11 instruments designed to study the small-scale plasma structures in space and time in the key plasma regions: solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail, plasmapause boundary layer and over the polar caps and the auroral zones.

Instrumentation on each Cluster satellite

Number Acronym Instrument Measurement Purpose
1 ASPOC Active Spacecraft Potential Control experiment Regulation of spacecraft's electrostatic potential Enables the measure by PEACE of cold electrons (a few eV temperature), otherwise hidden by spacecraft photoelectrons
2 CIS Cluster Ion Spectroscopy experiment Ion times-of-flight (TOFs) and energies from 0 to 40 keV Composition and 3D distribution of ions in plasma
3 DWP Digital Wave Processing instrument Coordinates the operations of the EFW, STAFF, WBD and WHISPER instruments. At the lowest level, DWP provides electrical signals to synchronise instrument sampling. At the highest level, DWP enables more complex operational modes by means of macros.
4 EDI Electron Drift Instrument Electric field E magnitude and direction E vector, gradients in local magnetic field B
5 EFW Electric Field and Wave experiment Electric field E magnitude and direction E vector, spacecraft potential, electron density and temperature
6 FGM Fluxgate Magnetometer Magnetic field B magnitude and direction B vector and event trigger to all instruments except ASPOC
7 PEACE Plasma Electron and Current Experiment Electron energies from 0.0007 to 30 keV 3D distribution of electrons in plasma
8 RAPID Research with Adaptive Particle Imaging Detectors Electron energies from 39 to 406 keV, ion energies from 20 to 450 keV 3D distributions of high-energy electrons and ions in plasma
9 STAFF Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuation experiment Magnetic field B magnitude and direction of EM fluctuations, cross-correlation of E and B Properties of small-scale current structures, source of plasma waves and turbulence
10 WBD Wide Band Data receiver High time resolution measurements of both electric and magnetic fields in selected frequency bands from 25 Hz to 577 kHz. It provides a unique new capability to perform Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Properties of natural plasma waves (e.g. auroral kilometric radiation) in the Earth magnetosphere and its vicinity including: source location and size and propagation.
11 WHISPER Waves of High Frequency and Sounder for Probing of Density by Relaxation Electric field E spectrograms of terrestrial plasma waves and radio emissions in the 2–80 kHz range; triggering of plasma resonances by an active sounder. Source location of waves by triangulation; electron density within the range 0.2–80 cm−3

Double Star mission with China

In 2003 and 2004, the China National Space Administration launched the Double Star satellites, TC-1 and TC-2, that worked together with Cluster to make coordinated measurements mostly within the magnetosphere. TC-1 stopped operating on 14 October 2007. The last data from TC-2 was received in 2008. TC-2 made a contribution to magnetar science[9][10] as well as to magnetospheric physics. The TC-1 examined density holes near the Earth's bow shock that can play a role in bow shock formation[11][12] and looked at neutral sheet oscillations.[13]


Cluster team awards

Individual awards

Discoveries and mission milestones






















Selected publications

All 3618 publications related to the Cluster and the Double Star missions (count as of 31 December 2022) can be found on the publication section of the ESA Cluster mission website. Among these publications, 3125 are refereed publications, 342 proceedings, 121 PhDs and 30 other types of theses.

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Cluster (Four Spacecraft Constellation in Concert with SOHO)". ESA. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
  2. ^ "Cluster II operations". European Space Agency. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  3. ^ "Extended Operations Confirmed for Science Missions". ESA. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  4. ^ "European Space Agency Announces Contest to Name the Cluster Quartet" (PDF). XMM-Newton Press Release. European Space Agency: 4. 2000. Bibcode:2000xmm..pres....4.
  5. ^ "Bristol and Cluster – the link". European Space Agency. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  6. ^ "Cluster II – Scientific Update and Presentation of Model to the City of Bristol". SpaceRef Interactive Inc. 9 July 2001.
  7. ^ "Cluster – Presentation of model to the city of Bristol and science results overview". European Space Agency.
  8. ^ "Extended life for ESA's science missions". ESA. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  9. ^ Schwartz, S.; et al. (2005). "A γ-ray giant flare from SGR1806-20: evidence for crustal cracking via initial timescales". The Astrophysical Journal. 627 (2): L129–L132. arXiv:astro-ph/0504056. Bibcode:2005ApJ...627L.129S. doi:10.1086/432374. S2CID 119371524.
  10. ^ "ESA Science & Technology - Double Star and Cluster observe first evidence of crustal cracking". September 21, 2005. Archived from the original on 2020-02-01. Retrieved 2021-07-14.
  11. ^ "ESA Science & Technology - Cluster and Double Star discover density holes in the solar wind". June 20, 2006. Archived from the original on 2021-08-29. Retrieved 2021-07-14.
  12. ^ Britt, Robert Roy (June 20, 2006). " - Earth surrounded by giant fizzy bubbles - Jun 20, 2006". Archived from the original on 2006-06-22. Retrieved 2021-07-14.
  13. ^ "ESA Science & Technology - Cluster and Double Star reveal the extent of neutral sheet oscillations". March 30, 2006. Archived from the original on 2021-04-18. Retrieved 2021-07-14.
  14. ^ Li, W. (2022). "The Dawn-Dusk Tail Lobe Magnetotail Configuration and the Formation of Aurora Transpolar Arc". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 127 (10). doi:10.1029/2022JA030676.
  15. ^ Zhang, H. (2022). "A highway for atmospheric ion escape from Earth during the impact of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection". Astrophysical Journal. 937 (4). Bibcode:2022ApJ...937....4Z. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac8a93.
  16. ^ Fear, R.C. (2022). "Joint Cluster/ground-based studies in the first 20 years of the Cluster mission" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 127 (8). Bibcode:2022JGRA..12729928F. doi:10.1029/2021JA029928. S2CID 251333661.
  17. ^ Qiu, H.; Han, D.-S.; et al. (2022). "In situ observation of a magnetopause indentation that is correspondent to throat aurora and is caused by magnetopause reconnection". Geophys. Res. Lett. 49 (15). Bibcode:2022GeoRL..4999408Q. doi:10.1029/2022GL099408. S2CID 250718001.
  18. ^ Hwang, K.-J.; Weygand, J.M.; Sibeck, D.G.; et al. (2022). "Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices as an interplay of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling". Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences. 9: 895514. Bibcode:2022FrASS...9.5514H. doi:10.3389/fspas.2022.895514.
  19. ^ Petrinec, S.M.; Wing, S.; Johnson, R.; Zhang, Y.; et al. (2022). "Multi-Spacecraft Observations of Fluctuations Occurring Along the Dusk Flank Magnetopause, and Testing the Connection to an Observed Ionospheric Bead". Frontiers in Astronomy and Space Sciences. 9: 827612. Bibcode:2022FrASS...927612P. doi:10.3389/fspas.2022.827612.
  20. ^ Lane, J.H.; Grocott, A.; Case, N.A. (2022). "The influence of localized dynamics on dusk-dawn convection in the Earth's magnetotail". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 127 (5). Bibcode:2022JGRA..12730057L. doi:10.1029/2021JA030057. S2CID 248850580.
  21. ^ Chong, G.S.; Pitkänen, T.; Hamrin, M.; Kullen, A. (2022). "Dawn-dusk ion flow asymmetry in the plasma sheet". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 127 (4). doi:10.1029/2021JA030208. S2CID 247652250.
  22. ^ LaBelle, J.; Yearby, K.; Pickett, J.S. (2022). "South Pole Station ground-based and Cluster satellite measurements of leaked and escaping Auroral Kilometric Radiation" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 127 (2). Bibcode:2022JGRA..12729399L. doi:10.1029/2021JA029399. S2CID 246333134.
  23. ^ Nguyen, G.; Aunai, N.; Michotte de Welle, B.; Jeandet, A.; Lavraud, B.; Fontaine, D. (2022). "Massive multi-mission statistical study and analytical modeling of the Earth's magnetopause" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 127 (1). doi:10.1029/2021JA029773. S2CID 245248549.
  24. ^ Wei, D.; Dunlop, M.; et al. (2021). "Intense dB/dt variations driven by near‐Earth bursty bulk flows (BBFs): A case study". Geophysical Research Letters. 48 (4). Bibcode:2021GeoRL..4891781W. doi:10.1029/2020GL091781. S2CID 234111026.
  25. ^ Toledo-Rodeondo, S.; et al. (2021). "Solar Wind—Magnetosphere Coupling During Radial Interplanetary Magnetic Field Conditions: Simultaneous Multi-Point Observations". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 126 (11). Bibcode:2021JGRA..12629506T. doi:10.1029/2021JA029506. hdl:10481/72025. S2CID 243961209.
  26. ^ Kronberg, E.; et al. (2021). "Prediction of Soft Proton Intensities in the Near-Earth Space Using Machine Learning". Astrophysical Journal. 921 (1): 76. arXiv:2105.15108. Bibcode:2021ApJ...921...76K. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac1b30. S2CID 235254767.
  27. ^ Nakamura, R.; et al. (2021). "Thin Current Sheet Behind the Dipolarization Front". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 126 (10). arXiv:2208.12671. Bibcode:2021JGRA..12629518N. doi:10.1029/2021JA029518. S2CID 241861877.
  28. ^ Marklund, G.; Lindqvist, P.-A. (2021). "Cluster Multi-Probing of the Aurora During Two Decades". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 126 (6). Bibcode:2021JGRA..12629497M. doi:10.1029/2021JA029497. S2CID 236271440.
  29. ^ Huang, S.Y.; et al. (2021). "Multi-spacecraft measurement of anisotropic spatial correlation functions at kinetic range in the magnetosheath turbulence". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 126 (5). Bibcode:2021JGRA..12628780H. doi:10.1029/2020JA028780. S2CID 235556211.
  30. ^ Zhou, H.; He, H.-Q. (2021). "The Solar-cycle Variations of the Anisotropy of Taylor Scale and Correlation Scale in the Solar Wind Turbulence". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 911 (1): L2. arXiv:2104.04920. Bibcode:2021ApJ...911L...2Z. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/abef00. S2CID 233210154.
  31. ^ Haaland, S.; et al. (2021). "Heavy Metal and Rock in Space: Cluster RAPID Observations of Fe and Si". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 126 (3). Bibcode:2021JGRA..12628852H. doi:10.1029/2020JA028852. S2CID 233922057.
  32. ^ Lazar, M.; Pierrard, S. (2020). "Characteristics of solar wind suprathermal halo electrons". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 642 (A130): A130. Bibcode:2020A&A...642A.130L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202038830. S2CID 229028809.
  33. ^ Hatch, S.M.; Haaland, S. (2020). "Seasonal and hemispheric asymmetries of F region polar cap plasma density: Swarm and CHAMP observations". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 125 (11): e2020JA028084. Bibcode:2020JGRA..12528084H. doi:10.1029/2020JA028084.
  34. ^ Bakrania, M.R.; Rae, I.J.; Walsh, A.P. (2020). "Using Dimensionality Reduction and Clustering Techniques to Classify Space Plasma Regimes". Front. Astron. Space Sci. 7 (80): 80. arXiv:2009.10466. Bibcode:2020FrASS...7...80B. doi:10.3389/fspas.2020.593516.
  35. ^ Zhou, G.; He, H.-Q.; Wan, W. (2020). "Effects of Solar Activity on Taylor Scale and Correlation Scale in Solar Wind Magnetic Fluctuations". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 899 (L32): L32. arXiv:2008.08542. Bibcode:2020ApJ...899L..32Z. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/abaaa9.
  36. ^ Aryan, H.; Agapitov, O.V. (2020). "Outer Radiation Belt Electron Lifetime Model Based on Combined Van Allen Probes and Cluster VLF Measurements". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 125 (8): e2020JA028018. Bibcode:2020JGRA..12528018A. doi:10.1029/2020JA028018.
  37. ^ Mishin, E.; Streltsov, A. (2020). "Prebreakup Arc Intensification due to Short Circuiting of Mesoscale Plasma Flows Over the Plasmapause". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 125 (5): e2019JA027666. Bibcode:2020JGRA..12527666M. doi:10.1029/2019JA027666.
  38. ^ Forsyth, C.; Sergeev, V.A.; Henderson, M.G.; Nishimura, Y.; Gallardo-Lacourt, B. (2020). "Physical Processes of Meso-Scale, Dynamic Auroral Forms". Space Sci. Rev. 216 (3): 46. Bibcode:2020SSRv..216...46F. doi:10.1007/s11214-020-00665-y.
  39. ^ Haaland, S.; Daly, P.W.; Vilenius, E.; Dandouras, I. (2020). "Suprathermal Fe in the Earth's plasma environment: Cluster RAPID observations". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 125 (2): e2019JA027596. Bibcode:2020JGRA..12527596H. doi:10.1029/2019JA027596.
  40. ^ Nakamura, T.K.M.; Stawarz, J.E.; Hasegawa, H.; Narita, Y.; Franci, L.; Narita, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nystrom, W.D (2020). "Effects of Fluctuating Magnetic Field on the Growth of the Kelvin‐Helmholtz Instability at the Earth's Magnetopause". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 125 (3): e2019JA027515. Bibcode:2020JGRA..12527515N. doi:10.1029/2019JA027515. S2CID 212953719.
  41. ^ Lai, H.R.; Russell, C.T.; Jia, Y.D.; Connors, M. (2019). "First observations of the disruption of the Earth's foreshock wave field during magnetic clouds". Geophysical Research Letters. 46 (24): 14282–14289. doi:10.1029/2019GL085818. S2CID 213497617.
  42. ^ Turc, L.; Roberts, O.W.; Archer, M.O.; Palmroth, M.; Battarbee, M.; Brito, T.; Ganse, U.; Grandin, M.; Pfau‐Kempf, Y.; Escoubet, C.P.; Dandouras, I. (2019). "First observations of the disruption of the Earth's foreshock wave field during magnetic clouds" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 46 (22): 1612–1624. Bibcode:2019GeoRL..4612644T. doi:10.1029/2019GL084437. hdl:10138/315030. S2CID 212882584.
  43. ^ Duan, S.; Dai, L.; Wang, C.; Cai, C.; He, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Rème, H.; Dandouras, I. (2019). "Conjunction Observations of Energetic Oxygen Ions O+ Accumulated in the Sequential Flux Ropes in the High‐Altitude Cusp" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 124 (10): 7912–7922. Bibcode:2019JGRA..124.7912D. doi:10.1029/2019JA026989. S2CID 210305167.
  44. ^ Connor, H.K.; Carter, J.A. (2019). "Exospheric neutral hydrogen density at the nominal 10 RE subsolar point deduced from XMM-Newton X-ray observations". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 124 (3): 1612–1624. Bibcode:2019JGRA..124.1612C. doi:10.1029/2018JA026187.
  45. ^ Wang, J.; et al. (2019). "Asymmetric transport of the Earth's polar outflows by the interplanetary magnetic field". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 881 (2): L34. Bibcode:2019ApJ...881L..34W. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab385d. S2CID 202135965.
  46. ^ Chen, G.; Fu, H.S.; Zhang, Y.; Li, X.; Ge, Y.S.; Du, A.M.; Liu, C.M.; Xu, Y. (2019). "Energetic electron acceleration in unconfined reconnection jets". The Astrophysical Journal. 881 (1): L8. Bibcode:2019ApJ...881L...8C. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab3041.
  47. ^ Kieokaew, R.; Foullon, C. (2019). "Kelvin‐Helmholtz waves magnetic curvature and vorticity: Four‐spacecraft Cluster observations". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 124 (5): 3347–3359. Bibcode:2019JGRA..124.3347K. doi:10.1029/2019JA026484.
  48. ^ Damiano, P.A.; Chaston, C.C.; Hull, A.J.; Johnson, J.R. (2018). "Electron distributions in kinetic scale field line resonances: A comparison of simulations and observations". Geophysical Research Letters. 45 (12): 5826–5835. Bibcode:2018GeoRL..45.5826D. doi:10.1029/2018GL077748. OSTI 1468802.
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  50. ^ Kruparova, O.; et al. (2019). "Statistical survey of the terrestrial bow shock observed by the Cluster spacecraft" (PDF). J. Geophysical. Res. 124 (3): 1539–1547. Bibcode:2019JGRA..124.1539K. doi:10.1029/2018JA026272. hdl:11603/12953. S2CID 134189855.
  51. ^ Fu, H.S.; Xu, Y.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Y.V. (2019). "Super-efficient electron acceleration by an isolated magnetic reconnection". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 870 (L22): L22. Bibcode:2019ApJ...870L..22F. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aafa75.
  52. ^ Slapak, R.; Nilsson, H. (2018). "The Oxygen Ion Circulation in The Outer Terrestrial Magnetosphere and Its Dependence on Geomagnetic Activity". Geophys. Res. Lett. 45 (23): 12, 669–12, 676. Bibcode:2018GeoRL..4512669S. doi:10.1029/2018GL079816.
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  54. ^ Liebert, E.; Nabert, C.; Glassmeier, K.-H. (2018). "Statistical survey of day-side magnetospheric current flow using Cluster observations: bow shock". Annales Geophysicae. 36 (4): 1073–1080. Bibcode:2018AnGeo..36.1073L. doi:10.5194/angeo-36-1073-2018.
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  56. ^ Coxon, J.C.; Freeman, M.P.; Jackman, C.M.; Forsyth, C.; Rae, I.J.; Fear, R.C. (2018). "Tailward propagation of magnetic energy density variations with respect to substorm onset times". Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics. 123 (6): 4741–4754. Bibcode:2018JGRA..123.4741C. doi:10.1029/2017JA025147.
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