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Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of computer software operating systems created by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs).

All versions of Microsoft Windows are commercial proprietary software.

General information

Basic general information about Windows.

DOS shells

Name Release date Latest version Status support Codename OS required Architecture Editions Target market
Windows 1.0 1985-11-20 1.04 (1987-04-08) Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Interface Manager DOS 2.0 or higher 16-bit Desktops
Windows 2.0 1987-09-08 2.03 (1987-12-09) Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
DOS 3.0 or higher 16-bit Desktops
Windows 2.1x 1988-05-27 2.11 (1989-03-13) Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
DOS 3.0 or higher 16-bit Desktops
Windows 3.0 1990-05-22 3.0a with
Multimedia Extensions
(1991-10-20)
Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
DOS 3.1 or higher 16-bit Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0a
Windows 3.0a with Multimedia Extensions
Desktops
Windows 3.1x 1992-04-06 3.11 (1993-12-31) Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Janus
  • 3.1 for Workgroups:Kato
  • 3.11:Snowball (LB)
  • 3.11 for Workgroups:Sparta
DOS 3.3 or higher 16-bit* Windows 3.1
Windows for Workgroups 3.1
Windows 3.11
Windows for Workgroups 3.11
Windows 3.2 (Simplified Chinese only)
Desktops
* Has partial 32-bit compatibility with Win32s

Windows 9x

Name Release date RTM build Latest version Status support Codename MS-DOS version Kernel type Architecture Editions Target market
Windows 95 1995-07-14 950 4.00.950C OSR2.5 (1997-11-26) Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Chicago MS-DOS 7.0, MS-DOS 7.1 (OSR2.x) Monolithic Hybrid 16/32-bit Retail, OSR1, OSR2, OSR2.1, OSR2.5 Desktops
Windows 98 1998-05-15 1998 4.10.1998 Unsupported
(2006-07-11)
Memphis MS-DOS 7.1 Monolithic Hybrid 16/32-bit Desktops
Windows 98 SE 1999-05-05 2222 4.10.2222A (2000-02-25) Unsupported
(2006-07-11)
MS-DOS 7.1 Monolithic Hybrid 16/32-bit Desktops
Windows Me 2000-06-19 3000 4.90.3000 (2000-09-14) Unsupported
(2006-07-11)
Millennium MS-DOS 8.0 Monolithic Hybrid 16/32-bit Desktops

Windows NT

Name Release date Version RTM build Latest build Status support Codename, working name Supported architectures Editions OS type
Windows NT 3.1 1993-07-27 3.1 528 528 (SP3)
(1994-11-10)
Unsupported
(2000-12-31)[1]
New Technology OS/2 IA-32, DEC Alpha,
MIPS
Workstation,
Advanced Server
Workstation,
Server
Windows NT 3.5 1994-09-21 3.5 807 807 (SP3)
(1995-06-21)
Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
Daytona IA-32, DEC Alpha,
MIPS, PowerPC[2]
Workstation,
Server
Workstation,
Server
Windows NT 3.51 1995-05-30 3.51 1057 1057 (SP5)
(1996-09-19)
Unsupported
(2001-12-31)
IA-32, DEC Alpha,
MIPS, PowerPC
Workstation,
Server
Workstation,
Server
Windows NT 4.0 1996-07-31 4.0 1381 1381 (SP6a)
(1999-11-30)
Unsupported
(2004-06-30) Extended Security Updates were released until 2006
Cairo/Shell Update Release
Hydra (Terminal Server)
Impala (Embedded)
IA-32, DEC Alpha,
MIPS, PowerPC
Workstation,
Server,
Server Enterprise Edition,
Terminal Server,
Embedded
Workstation,
Server,
Embedded PCs
Windows 2000 1999-12-15 5.0 2195 SP4 Rollup 1 v2
(2005-09-13)
Unsupported
(2010-07-13)
N/A IA-32 Professional,
Server,
Advanced Server,
Datacenter Server,
Powered (Embedded)
Desktop,
Workstation,
Server,
Embedded PCs
Windows XP 2001-08-24 5.1 2600 2600 (SP3)
(2008-04-21)
Unsupported
(2014-04-08)
Whistler IA-32, IA-64, x86-64 HomeK,
ProfessionalKx64,
Media Center,
Tablet PC,
Starter,
Embedded
Desktop,
Workstation,
Embedded PCs
Windows Server 2003 2003-04-24 5.2 3790 3790 (SP2)
(2007-03-13)
Unsupported
(2015-07-14)
Whistler Server, Windows.NET Server IA-32, IA-64, x86-64 Standard,
Enterprise,
Datacenter,
Web,
Storage,
Small Business Server,
Compute Cluster
Server,
Network Appliance,
Embedded PCs,
HPC
Windows Server 2003 R2 2005 5.2 3790 ? Unsupported
(2015-07-14)
? IA-32, x86-64 Server,
Network Appliance,
Embedded PCs,
HPC
Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs 2006-07-08 5.1 2600 Unsupported
(2014-04-08)
Eiger, Mönch IA-32 Fundamentals for Legacy PCs Desktop
Windows Vista 2006-11-30 6.0 6000 6002 (SP2)
(2009-04-28)
Unsupported
(2017-04-11)
Longhorn IA-32, x86-64 Starter,
Home BasicK,
Home PremiumK,
BusinessK,
EnterpriseK,
UltimateK
Desktop,
Workstation
Windows Home Server 2007-11-04 5.2 3790 Unsupported
(2013-01-08)
Q, Quattro IA-32, x86-64 Home Server Server
Windows Server 2008 2008-02-04 6.0 6001 6002 (SP2)
(2009-04-28)
Unsupported
(2020-01-14)
Longhorn Server IA-32, IA-64, x86-64 WebCore,
StandardCorewHVCwHV,
EnterpriseCorewHVCwHV,
Small Business Server,
DatacenterCorewHVCwHV,
HPC,
HyperV Core,
Foundation,
Storage
Server
Windows 7 2009-07-22 6.1 7600 7601 (SP1)
(2011-02-22)
Unsupported
(2020-01-14)
7 IA-32, x86-64 StarterK,
Home BasicK,
Home PremiumK,
ProfessionalK,
UltimateK,
EnterpriseK
Desktop, Workstation, Multi-touch
Windows Server 2008 R2 2009-07-22 6.1 7600 7601 (SP1)
(2011-02-22)
Unsupported
(2020-01-14)
7 Server IA-64, x86-64 StandardCore,
EnterpriseCore,
DatacenterCore,
WebCore
Server
Windows Home Server 2011 2011-04-06 6.1 8400 Unsupported
(2016-04-12)
Vail x86-64 Home Server Server
Windows Server 2012 2012-08-01 6.2 9200 Unsupported
(2023-10-10)
8 Server x86-64 Foundation, Essentials,
Standard, Datacenter,
Storage Standard,
Storage Workgroup
Server
Windows 8 2012-08-01 6.2 9200 (RTM only) Unsupported
(2016-01-12)
8 IA-32, x86-64, ARMv7 Windows 8, Pro,
EnterpriseK, Windows RT
Desktop,
Workstation,
Multi-touch
Windows 8.1 2013-08-27 6.3 9600 Unsupported
(2023-01-10)
Blue IA-32, x86-64, ARMv7 Windows 8.1, Pro,
EnterpriseK,
Windows RT 8.1
Desktop,
Workstation,
Multi-touch
Windows Server 2012 R2 2013-10-18 6.3 9600 Unsupported
(2023-10-10)
Blue Server x86-64 Foundation, Essentials,
Standard, Datacenter,
Storage Essentials,
Storage Standard,
Storage Workgroup
Server
Windows 10 Original Release 2015-07-29 10.0 10240 Unsupported
(2017-05-09)
Threshold IA-32, x86-64, ARMv7 Home, Pro,
Education, Enterprise
Desktop,
Workstation,
Multi-touch
Supported
(2025-10-14)
Enterprise LTSB
November Update 2015-11-12 10586 Unsupported
(2017-10-10)
Threshold 2 Home, Pro,
Education, Enterprise
Anniversary Update 2016-08-02 14393 Unsupported
(2018-04-10)
Redstone Home, Pro,
Pro Education
Unsupported
(2019-04-09)
Education, Enterprise
Supported
(2026-10-13)
Enterprise LTSB
Creators Update 2017-04-11 15063 Unsupported
(2018-10-09)
Redstone 2 Home, Pro,
Pro Education
Unsupported
(2019-10-08)
Education, Enterprise
Fall Creators Update 2017-10-17 16299 Unsupported
(2019-04-09)
Redstone 3 IA-32, x86-64, ARMv7, ARM64 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education
Unsupported
(2020-10-13)
Education, Enterprise
April 2018 Update 2018-04-30 17134 Unsupported
(2019-11-12)
Redstone 4 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education
Unsupported
(2021-05-11)
Education, Enterprise
October 2018 Update 2018-10-02 17763 Unsupported
(2020-11-10)
Redstone 5 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education
Unsupported
(2021-05-11)
Education, Enterprise
Supported
(2029-01-09)
Enterprise LTSC
May 2019 Update 2019-05-21 18362 Unsupported
(2020-12-08)
19H1 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education,
Education, Enterprise
November 2019 Update 2019-11-12 18363 Unsupported
(2021-05-11)
19H2 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education
Unsupported
(2022-05-10)
Education, Enterprise
May 2020 Update 2020-05-27 19041 Unsupported
(2021-12-14)
20H1 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education,
Education, Enterprise
October 2020 Update 2020-10-20 19042 Unsupported
(2022-05-10)
20H2 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education
Unsupported
(2023-05-09)
Education, Enterprise
May 2021 Update 2021-05-18 19043 Unsupported
(2022-12-13)
21H1 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education,
Education, Enterprise
November 2021 Update 2021-10-16 19044 Unsupported
(2023-06-13)
21H2 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education
Supported
(2024-06-11)
Education, Enterprise
Supported
(2027-01-12)
Enterprise LTSC
2022 Update 2022-10-18 19045 Supported
(2025-10-14)
22H2 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education
Education, Enterprise
Windows Server 2016 2016-09-26 10.0 14393 Supported
(2027-01-12)
Redstone Server x86-64 Essentials, Standard,
Datacenter,
MultiPoint Premium,
Storage Standard,
Storage Workgroup
Server
Windows Server 2019 2018-10-02 10.0 17763 Supported
(2029-01-09)
Redstone 5 Server x86-64 Essentials, Standard,
Datacenter
Server
Windows Server 2022 2021-08-18 10.0 20348 Supported
(2031-10-14)
21H2 Server x86-64 Essentials, Standard,
Datacenter,
Datacenter for Azure
Server
Windows 11 Original Release 2021-10-05 10.0 22000 Unsupported
(2023-10-10)
Sunvalley (21H2) x86-64, ARM64 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education, SE
Desktop,
Workstation,
Multi-touch
Supported
(2024-10-08)
Education, Enterprise
2022 Update 2022-09-20 22621 22H2 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education, SE
Supported
(2025-10-14)
Education, Enterprise
2023 Update 2023-10-31 22631 Supported
(2025-11-11)
23H2 Home, Pro,
Pro for Workstations,
Pro Education, SE
Supported
(2026-11-10)
Education, Enterprise
Name Release date Version RTM build Latest build Status support Codename, working name Supported architectures Editions OS type
^N has also an N-edition
^K has also an N-edition
^KN has also an N-edition
^x64 has a separate x64-edition
^Core has also a Core-edition
^wHV has also an edition without HyperV
^CwHV has also a Core-edition without HyperV

Windows Embedded Compact

Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) is a discontinued variation of Microsoft's Windows operating system for minimalistic computers and embedded systems. Windows CE was a distinctly different kernel, rather than a trimmed-down version of desktop Windows. It is supported on Intel x86 and is compatible on MIPS, ARM, and Hitachi SuperH processors.

Name Release date RTM build Current version Status support Codename Based on (kernel) Kernel type Operating environments Editions Purpose Short description
Windows CE 1.0 1996-11-16 Unsupported Pegasus, Alder CE 1.0 Embedded First release of Microsoft's Windows CE line for minimalistic computers and embedded systems
Windows CE 2.0 1997-11-29 Unsupported Mercury, Apollo CE 2.0 2.1, 2.11 Embedded
Windows CE 3.0 2000-06-15 Unsupported
(2007-10-09)
Cedar, Galileo, Rapier, Merlin, Stinger CE 3.0 Embedded kernel Embedded
Windows CE 4.0 2002-01-07 Unsupported Talisker CE 4.0 4.1, 4.2 Embedded
Windows CE 5.0 2004-07-09 5.0
(2004-07-09)
Unsupported
(2014-10-14)
Macallan CE 5.0 Embedded kernel Embedded
Windows Embedded CE 6.0 2006-11-01 Unsupported
(2018-04-10)
Yamazaki CE 6.0 Hybrid kernel
Windows Embedded Compact 7 2011-03-01 ? ? Unsupported
(2021-04-13)
Chelan CE 7.0 Hybrid ?
Standard, POSReady
Windows Embedded Compact 2013 2013-08-11 Update 17
(2017-11-15)
Unsupported
(2023-10-10)
CE 8.0 Standard
Industry (8.0, 8.1)
Handheld
Embedded

Windows IoT

The Windows IoT family is the successor to the now-discontinued Windows Embedded family.

Name Release date Version RTM build Editions License OS type Status support
Windows 10 IoT Anniversary Update 2016-08-02 NT 10.0 14393 Core OEM IoT Unsupported
(2018-04-10)[3]
Enterprise Unsupported
(2019-04-09)[4]
Enterprise LTSB Supported
(2026-10-13)[5]
Creators Update 2017-04-11 15063 Core Unsupported
(2018-10-09)[3]
Enterprise Unsupported
(2019-10-08)[4]
Fall Creators Update 2017-10-17 16299 Core Unsupported
(2019-04-09)[3]
Enterprise Unsupported
(2020-10-13)[4]
April 2018 Update 2018-04-30 17134 Core Unsupported
(2019-11-12)[3]
Enterprise Unsupported
(2021-05-11)[4]
October 2018 Update 2018-10-02 17763 Core Unsupported
(2020-11-10)[3]
Enterprise Unsupported
(2021-05-11)[4]
Core LTSC, Enterprise LTSC Supported
(2029-01-09)[6][7]
May 2019 Update 2019-08-29 18362 Enterprise Unsupported
(2020-12-08)[4]
November 2019 Update 2019-11-12 18363 Unsupported
(2022-05-10)[4]
May 2020 Update 2020-05-27 19041 Unsupported
(2021-12-14)[4]
October 2020 Update 2020-10-20 19042 Unsupported
(2023-05-09)[4]
May 2021 Update 2021-05-18 19043 Unsupported
(2022-12-13)[4]
November 2021 Update 2021-11-16 19044 Enterprise Supported
(2024-06-11)[4]
Enterprise LTSC Supported
(2032-01-13)[8]
2022 Update 2022-10-18 19045 Enterprise Supported
(2025-10-14)[4]
Windows Server IoT 2019 2019-02-26[9] NT 10.0 17763 Essentials, Standard, Datacenter,
Storage Standard,
Storage Workgroup,
Telecommunications
OEM IoT, Server Supported
(2029-01-09)[10][11]
Windows Server IoT 2022 2021-08-18[12][better source needed][dubious ] NT 10.0 20348 Standard, Datacenter,
Storage Standard,
Storage Workgroup,
Telecommunications
OEM IoT, Server Supported
(2031-10-14)[13]
Windows 11 IoT Original Release 2021-10-04 NT 10.0 22000 Enterprise OEM IoT Supported
(2024-10-08)[14]
2022 Update 2022-09-20 22621 Supported
(2025-10-14)[15]
2023 Update 2023-10-31 22631 Supported
(2026-11-10)[16]
Name Release date Version RTM build Editions License OS type Status support

Windows Mobile

Windows Mobile is Microsoft's discontinued line of operating systems for smartphones.

Name Release date RTM build Current version Status support Codename Based on (kernel) Supported architectures
Windows Pocket PC 2000 2000-04-19 Unsupported
(2007-10-09)
Rapier CE 3.0
Windows Pocket PC 2002 2001-10-04 Unsupported
(2008-10-14)
Merlin CE 3.0
Windows Mobile 2003 2003-06-23 Unsupported
(2014-07-08)
Ozone CE 4.20
Windows Mobile 5.0 2005-05-9/12 Unsupported
(2015-10-13)
Magneto CE 5.0
Windows Mobile 6.0 2007-02-12 Unsupported
(2013-01-08)
Crossbow CE 5.2
Windows Mobile 6.1 2008-04-01
Windows Mobile 6.5 2009-05-11

Windows Phone

Windows Phone is Microsoft's discontinued line of operating systems for smartphones.

Name Release date RTM build Current version Status support Codename Based on (kernel) Supported architectures
Windows Phone 7 2010-11-08 7004 7.10.8862 Unsupported Photon CE 6.0 ARM
Windows Phone 7.5 2011-09-27 7720 Unsupported Mango CE 6.1 ARM
Windows Phone 7.8 2013-02-01 8858 Unsupported
(2014-10-14)
Tango CE 6.1 ARM
Windows Phone 8 2012-10-29 10211 10.0.10586 Unsupported
(2014-07-08)
Apollo, Portico NT 6.2 ARM[citation needed]
Windows Phone 8.1 2014-04-14 12359 Unsupported
(2017-07-11)
Blue NT 6.3 ARM
Windows 10 Mobile 2015-11-08 10586–16299 Unsupported Threshold, Redstone NT 10.0 ARM

Technical information

DOS shells

Name Architecture Integrated firewall SMP support USB support UDMA support LFN support Update management APIs Safe Mode
Windows 1.0 x86 16-bit No No No No No No Win16 No
Windows 2.0 x86 16-bit No No No No No No Win16 No
Windows 2.1x x86 16-bit No No No No No No Win16 No
Windows 3.0 x86 16-bit No No No No No No Win16 No
Windows 3.1x x86 16-bit (partial 32-bit compatibility through Win32s) No No No No No No Win16, Win32s No

Windows 9x

Name Kernel Kernel type Architecture Integrated firewall SMP support USB support UDMA support LFN support Update management APIs DDIs Safe Mode DirectX
Windows 95 MS-DOS 7.0 (Win95, Win95A), MS-DOS 7.1 (Win95B, Win95C) Monolithic kernel x86, hybrid 16/32-bit No No Partial (OSR 2.1/2.5 only)[17] Partial (OSR 2.x only)[18] Yes Windows Update Win16, Win32 DOS, DLL, VxD, WDM (USB-only), direct-access Yes N/A (RTM/OSR1)
2.0a (OSR2/2.1)
5.0 (OSR2.5)
8.0a (optional)
Windows 98 MS-DOS 7.1 Monolithic kernel x86, hybrid 16/32-bit No No Yes Yes Yes Windows Update Win16, Win32 DOS, DLL, VxD, WDM (partial), direct-access Yes 5.2
9.0c (Oct 2006) (optional)
Windows 98 Second Edition MS-DOS 7.1 Monolithic kernel x86, hybrid 16/32-bit No No Yes Yes Yes Windows Update Win16, Win32 DOS, DLL, VxD, WDM (partial), direct-access Yes 6.1a
9.0c (Oct 2006) (optional)
Windows Me MS-DOS 8.0 Monolithic kernel x86, hybrid 16/32-bit No No Yes Yes Yes Windows Update Win16, Win32 DLL, VxD, WDM (partial), direct-access Yes 7.1
9.0c (Oct 2006) (optional)

It is possible to install the MS-DOS variants 7.0 and 7.1 without the graphics user interface of Windows. If an independent installation of both, DOS and Windows is desired, DOS ought to be installed prior to Windows, at the start of a small partition. The system must be transferred by the (dangerous) "SYSTEM" DOS-command, while the other files constituting DOS can simply be copied (the files located in the DOS-root and the entire COMMAND directory). Such a stand-alone installation of MS-DOS 8 is not possible, as it is designed to work as real mode for Windows Me and nothing else.

Windows NT

The Windows NT kernel powers all recent Windows operating systems. It has run on IA-32, x64, DEC Alpha, MIPS architecture, PowerPC, Itanium, ARMv7, and ARM64 processors, but currently supported versions run on IA-32, x64, ARMv7, and ARM64.

Name Architecture Store Integrated firewall SMP support USB support UDMA support Long filename support Package management Update management APIs DDIs Safe Mode Data Execution Prevention DirectX
Windows NT 3.1 IA-32, DEC Alpha, MIPS No Yes No ? Yes (NTFS and HPFS volumes only) Win32, OS/2, POSIX DLL, KMD No No No
Windows NT 3.5 IA-32, DEC Alpha, MIPS No Yes No ? Yes (except on CDFS volumes) Win32, OS/2, POSIX DLL, KMD No No No
Windows NT 3.51 IA-32, DEC Alpha, MIPS, PowerPC No Yes No ? Yes (except on CDFS volumes) Win32, OS/2, POSIX DLL, KMD No No No
Windows NT 4.0 IA-32, DEC Alpha, MIPS, PowerPC No Yes Yes (if the Ion USB update is installed) Yes Yes Windows Update (if Internet Explorer 5 or later is installed) Win32, OS/2, POSIX DLL, KMD No No Yes
3.0a,
5.0 (unofficial)
Windows 2000 IA-32 No Yes Yes (USB 2.0 with update or SP4)[19] Yes Yes Windows Update, WSUS Win32, OS/2, POSIX DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF Yes No Yes
7.0,
9.0c (Feb 2010) (optional)
Windows XP IA-32 (NT5.1), Itanium (NT5.1/5.2), x64 (NT5.2) Yes Yes (Professional Edition only) Yes (USB 2.0 with update or SP1+)[20] Yes Yes Windows Update, WSUS Win32, .NET DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 Yes Yes (in SP2) Yes
9.0c
Windows Server 2003 IA-32, Itanium, x64 Yes Yes Yes (USB 2.0)[21] Yes Yes Windows Update, WSUS Win32 DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 Yes Yes (with SP1) Yes
9.0c
Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs IA-32 Yes No Yes Yes Yes Windows Update, WSUS Win32 DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 Yes Yes Yes
9.0c
Windows Vista IA-32, x64 Windows Marketplace Yes Yes Yes (USB 2.0) Yes Yes Windows Update, WSUS Win32, .NET, POSIX (only Enterprise and Ultimate) DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 Yes Yes Yes
10.1
11.0 (optional)
Windows Server 2008 IA-32, Itanium, x64 Yes Yes Yes (USB 2.0) Yes Yes Windows Update, WSUS Win32 DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 Yes Yes Yes
10.1
11.0 (optional)
Windows Home Server IA-32 ? Yes Yes (USB 2.0) ? Yes Windows Update Win32 DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 ? ? Yes
9.0c
Windows 7 IA-32, x64 Yes Yes Yes (USB 3.0) Yes Yes Windows Update, WSUS Win32, .NET DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 Yes Yes Yes
11.0
11.1 (optional)
Windows Server 2008 R2 Itanium, x64 Yes Yes Yes (USB 3.0) Yes Yes Windows Update, WSUS Win32, .NET DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 Yes Yes Yes
11.0
11.1 (optional)
Windows Home Server 2011 x64 ? Yes Yes (USB 3.0) ? Yes Windows Update Win32 DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 ? ? Yes
11.0
11.1 (optional)
Windows Server 2012 x64 Windows Store Yes Yes Yes (USB 3.0) Yes Yes Windows Store Windows Update, WSUS Win32, .NET, WinRT DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 Yes Yes Yes
11.1
Windows 8 IA-32, x64 Windows Store Yes Yes Yes (USB 3.0) Yes Yes Windows Store Windows Update, WSUS Win32, .NET, WinRT DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1 Yes Yes Yes
11.1
Windows 8.1 IA-32, x64 Windows Store Yes Yes Yes (USB 3.0) Yes Yes Windows Store, PowerShell Windows Update, WSUS, Windows Store Win32, .NET, WinRT DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1, UMDFv2 Yes Yes Yes
11.2
Windows Server 2012 R2 x64 Windows Store Yes Yes Yes (USB 3.0) Yes Yes Windows Store Windows Update, WSUS, Windows Store Win32, .NET, WinRT DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1, UMDFv2 Yes Yes Yes
11.2
Windows 10 IA-32, x64 Windows Store Yes Yes Yes (USB 3.1 and Thunderbolt 3) Yes Yes Windows Store, PowerShell Windows Update, WSUS, Windows Store Win32, .NET, WinRT, Linux DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1, UMDFv2 Yes Yes Yes
12
Windows Server 2016 x64 Windows Store Yes Yes Yes (USB 3.1 and Thunderbolt 3) Yes Yes Windows Store Windows Update, WSUS, Windows Store Win32, .NET, WinRT DLL, KMD, WDM, KMDF, UMDFv1, UMDFv2 Yes Yes Yes
12

Windows Phone

Name Architecture Integrated firewall SMP support USB support UDMA support Package management APIs
Windows Phone 8 ARMv7 Yes Yes Yes (USB 2.0) Yes Windows Phone Store Silverlight
Windows Phone 8.1 ARMv7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Windows Phone Store Silverlight
WinRT
Windows 10 Mobile ARMv7 Yes Yes Yes Yes Microsoft Store

Supported file systems

Various versions of Windows support various file systems, including:FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, HPFS, or NTFS, along with network file systems shared from other computers, and the ISO 9660 and UDF file systems used for CDs, DVDs, and other optical disc drives such as Blu-ray. Each file system is usually limited in application to certain media, for example CDs must use ISO 9660 or UDF, and as of Windows Vista, NTFS is the only file system which the operating system can be installed on. Windows Embedded CE 6.0, Windows Vista Service Pack 1, and Windows Server 2008 onwards support exFAT, a file system more suitable for USB flash drives.

Windows 9x

FAT12 FAT16 FAT32 HPFS ISO 9660 NTFS UDF
Windows 95 Yes Yes Yes (OSR2 or above) Network Drive Yes Network Drive No
Windows 98 Yes Yes Yes Network Drive Yes Network Drive Yes (1.5, read)
Windows Me Yes Yes Yes Network Drive Yes Network Drive Yes (1.5, read)

Windows NT

FAT12 FAT16 FAT32 HPFS ISO 9660 NTFS exFAT UDF ReFS
Windows NT 3.1, 3.5, 3.51 Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes v1.0/v1.1 No ? No
Windows NT 4.0 Yes Yes No Partial Yes Yes v1.2 No ? No
Windows 2000 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v3.0 No Yes No
Windows XP Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v3.1 Optional Yes (2.01) No
Windows Server 2003 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v3.1 Optional Yes No
Windows Vista Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes Yes (2.6) No
Windows Server 2008 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes Yes No
Windows 7 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes Yes (2.6) Yes
Windows Server 2008 R2 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes Yes (2.6) Yes
Windows Server 2012 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes Yes (2.6) Yes
Windows 8 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes Yes (2.6) No
Windows 8.1 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes Yes (2.6) Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes Yes (2.6) Yes
Windows 10 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes Yes (2.6) Yes
Windows Server 2016 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes v5 Yes Yes (2.6) Yes

Windows Phone

FAT12 FAT16 FAT32 HPFS ISO 9660 NTFS UDF (More Info) ReFS
Windows Phone 8 ? Yes Yes No ? Yes v5 ? No
Windows Phone 8.1 ? Yes Yes No ? Yes v5 ? No
Windows 10 Mobile ? Yes Yes No ? Yes v5 ? ?

Hardware requirements

Installing Windows requires an internal or external optical drive, or a USB flash drive. A keyboard and mouse are the recommended input devices, though some versions support a touchscreen. For operating systems prior to Vista, an optical drive must be capable of reading CD media, while in Windows Vista onwards, such a drive must be DVD-compatible. The drive may be detached after installing Windows.

Windows 9x

CPU RAM Free disk space
Windows 95 386 MB 120 MB
Windows 98 486 DX2 66 MHz 16 MB 300 MB
Windows Me (Millennium Edition) Pentium 150 MHz 32 MB 400 MB

Windows NT

Version CPU RAM Free disk space Video adapter and monitor
Minimum Recommended
Windows NT 3.51 Workstation 386, 25 MHz 8 MB 16 MB 90 MB VGA (640x480)
Windows NT 4.0 Workstation 486, 33 MHz 12 MB ? 110 MB
Windows 2000 Professional 133 MHz 32 MB 128 MB 650 MB
Windows XP 233 MHz 64 MB 128 MB 1.5 GB Super VGA (800x600)
Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs 500 MB
Windows XP 64-Bit Edition 700 MHz Itanium[22] 1 GB[22] ? 6 GB[22]
Windows Server 2003 1 GHz (x86) or 1.4 GHz (x64) 128 MB 256 MB 2 GB (x86)
4 GB (x64)
Windows Vista 800 MHz 384 MB (Starter)
512 MB (others)[23][dubious ]
2 GB 15 GB
(~6.5 GB for OS)
Super VGA (800x600)
WDDM & DirectX 9 for Aero
Windows Server 2008 1 GHz (x86) or 1.4 GHz (x64) 2 GB 10 GB
Windows 7 1 GHz 1 GB (x86)
2 GB (x64)
4 GB 16 GB (x86)
20 GB (x64)
(~6.5 GB for OS)
Windows Server 2012 1.4 GHz (x86-64) 512 MB 1 GB 10 GB Super VGA (800x600), 32-bit color
Windows 8 1 GHz 1 GB (x86)
2 GB (x64)
4 GB 16 GB (x86)
20 GB (x64)
(~6.5 GB for OS)
Super VGA (800x600), 32-bit color
1024 x 768 for Windows Store apps
1366 x 768 to snap apps
Windows 8.1
Windows 10 1 GHz or faster processor or SoC 1 GB (x86)
2 GB (x64)
4 GB 16 GB (x86)
20 GB (x64)
Super VGA (800x600), 32-bit color
Windows Server 2016 1.4 GHz 64-bit processor 512 MB ECC memory
2 GB with Desktop Experience installed[24]
depends on role 32 GB
(~10 GB for OS)
XGA (1024 x 768)
Windows Server 2019 1.4 GHz 64-bit processor 512 MB ECC memory
2 GB with Desktop Experience installed[24]
depends on role 32 GB XGA (1024 x 768)
Windows Server 2022 1.4 GHz 64-bit processor 512 MB ECC memory
2 GB with Desktop Experience installed[25]
depends on role 32 GB Super VGA (1024 x 768)
Windows 11 64-bit 1 GHz or faster processor or SoC with two or more cores 4 GB 64 GB
(~10 GB for OS)
720p greater than 9" diagonally, 32-bit color

Windows Phone

Version CPU RAM Free disk space Video adapter and monitor
Minimum Recommended
Windows Phone 7 0.8 GHz 256 MB 4 GB Wide VGA (800 × 480)
Windows Phone 8 1 GHz 512 MB 8 GB Wide VGA (800 × 480)
Windows Phone 8.1 1 GHz 512 MB 4 GB Wide VGA (800 × 480)
Windows 10 Mobile 1 GHz 1 GB 2 GB 8 GB Wide VGA (800 × 480)

Physical memory limits

Maximum limits on physical memory (RAM) that Windows can address vary depending on both the Windows version and between IA-32 and x64 versions.[26][27]

Windows

Operating system Limit on Real Mode Limit on Standard Mode Limit on Enhanced Mode
Windows 1.0x 640 KB
Windows 2.0x 640 KB 16MB
Windows 2.1x 640 + 64 KB 16MB
Windows 3.0x 640 + 64 KB 16MB 16MB
Windows 3.1x 256MB[28] 256MB[28]
Windows 95 944MB[29]
Windows 98 1GB
Windows ME 1.5GB

Windows NT

Operating system Limit on IA-32 Limit in IA-64 Limit on x64 Limit on ARM32 Limit on ARM64
Windows NT 3.1 4 GB
Windows NT 3.5 4 GB
Windows NT 3.51 4 GB
Windows NT 4.0 4 GB
Windows 2000 Professional/Server 4 GB
Windows 2000 Advanced Server 8 GB
Windows 2000 Datacenter 32 GB
Windows XP Starter 512 MB
Windows XP Home 4 GB
Windows XP Professional 4 GB 128 GB 128 GB
Windows Server 2003 RTM Web 2 GB
Windows Server 2003 RTM Standard/Small Business 4 GB
Windows Server 2003 RTM Enterprise/Datacenter 64 GB 512 GB
Windows Compute Cluster Server 2003 32 GB
Windows Server 2003 R1/SP1 Standard 4 GB 32 GB
Windows Server 2003 R1/SP1 Enterprise/Datacenter 64 GB 1 TB 1 TB
Windows Server 2003 R1/SP2 Standard 4GB 32 GB
Windows Server 2003 R1/SP2 Enterprise/Datacenter 64 GB 2 TB 1 TB
Windows Server 2003 R2/SP1 Standard 4 GB 32 GB
Windows Server 2003 R2/SP1 Enterprise/Datacenter 64 GB 1 TB
Windows Vista Starter 1 GB
Windows Vista Home Basic 4 GB 8 GB
Windows Vista Home Premium 4 GB 16 GB
Windows Vista Business/Enterprise/Ultimate 4 GB 128 GB
Windows Home Server 4 GB
Windows Server 2008 Web Server/Standard/Small Business 4 GB 32 GB
Windows HPC Server 2008 128 GB
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise/Datacenter 64 GB 1 TB
Windows Server 2008 for Itanium–Based Systems 2 TB
Windows 7 Starter 2 GB
Windows 7 Home Basic 4 GB 8 GB
Windows 7 Home Premium 4 GB 16 GB
Windows 7 Professional/Enterprise/Ultimate 4 GB 192 GB
Windows Server 2008 R2 Foundation 8 GB
Windows Server 2008 R2 Web Server/Standard 32 GB
Windows HPC Server 2008 R2 128 GB
Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise/Datacenter 2 TB
Windows Server 2008 R2 for Itanium–Based Systems 2 TB
Windows 8 (Core) 4 GB 128 GB
Windows 8 Pro/Enterprise 4 GB 512 GB
Windows RT 4 GB
Windows Server 2012 Standard/Datacenter 4 TB
Windows Storage Server 2012 Standard 4 TB
Windows Storage Server 2012 Workgroup 32 GB
Hyper-V Server 2012 4 TB
Windows 8.1 (Core) 4 GB 128 GB
Windows 8.1 Pro/Enterprise 4 GB 512 GB
Windows RT 8.1 4 GB
Windows 10 Mobile 4 GB
Windows 10 Home 4 GB 128 GB 4 GB 128 GB
Windows 10 Pro 4 GB 2 TB 4 GB 2 TB
Windows 10 Pro for Workstations 4 GB 6 TB 4 GB 6 TB
Windows 10 Education 4 GB 2 TB 4 GB 2 TB
Windows 10 Enterprise 4 GB 6 TB 4 GB 6 TB
Windows Server 2016 Essentials 64 GB
Windows Server 2016 Standard 24 TB
Windows Server 2016 Datacenter 24 TB
Windows Server 2019 Essentials 64 GB
Windows Server 2019 Standard 24 TB
Windows Server 2019 Datacenter 24 TB
Windows Server 2022 Essentials 64 GB
Windows Server 2022 Standard 24 TB
Windows Server 2022 Datacenter 24 TB
Windows 11 Home 128 GB 128 GB
Windows 11 Pro 2 TB 2 TB
Windows 11 Pro for Workstations 6 TB 6 TB
Windows 11 Education 2 TB 2 TB
Windows 11 Enterprise 6 TB 6 TB

Security features

Resource access control Subsystem isolation mechanisms Integrated firewall Encrypted file systems Defender Windows Hello
Windows 2000 ACLs TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes (NTFS only) No No
Windows XP ACLs Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall (from SP2), TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes (NTFS only) Optional No
Windows Server 2003 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes Optional No
Windows Vista ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes Yes No
Windows Server 2008 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes Yes No
Windows 7 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes Yes No
Windows Server 2012 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes Yes No
Windows 8 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes Yes No
Windows Server 2012 R2 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes Yes No
Windows 8.1 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes Yes No
Windows 10 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2016 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall, TCP/IP Filtering, IPSec Yes Yes Yes

Features

Version Shell Visual styles Browser Web server Windows Media Player Command-line interpreter
Windows 1.0 MS-DOS executive (Unnamed)
Windows 2.0 MS-DOS executive (Unnamed)
Windows 3.0 Program Manager (Unnamed) 3.0 (Multimedia Extension edition only)
Windows 3.1x Program Manager (Unnamed) 3.1
Windows 95 Windows shell Classic Internet Explorer 1 in OEM RTM
Internet Explorer 2 in OSR1
Internet Explorer 3 in OSR2 and OSR2.1
Internet Explorer 4 in OSR2.5
4.0 COMMAND.COM
Windows NT 4.0 Windows shell Classic Internet Explorer 2
Internet Explorer 3 (in some localized editions)
PWS 4.0 COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe
Windows 98 Windows shell Classic Internet Explorer 4.01 PWS 4.0 COMMAND.COM
Windows 98 SE Windows shell Classic Internet Explorer 5 PWS 4.0 COMMAND.COM
Windows 2000 Windows shell Classic Internet Explorer 5.01 IIS 5.0 5.0 and 6.4 (side by side) COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe
Windows Me Windows shell Classic Internet Explorer 5.5 6.4 and 7.0 (side by side) COMMAND.COM
Windows XP Windows shell Luna (default), Classic Internet Explorer 6 IIS 5.1 5.1, 6.4 and 8 (in RTM)
5.1, 6.4 and 9 (in SP2)
COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe,
PowerShell (optional)
Windows Server 2003 Windows shell Classic (default), Luna Internet Explorer 6 IIS 6.0 9 (in RTM), 10 (in SP1) COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe,
PowerShell (optional)
Windows Vista Windows shell Aero (default), Classic Internet Explorer 7 IIS 7 11 COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe,
PowerShell (optional)
Windows Server 2008 Windows shell, Server Core Classic (default), Aero (via "Desktop Experience") Internet Explorer 7 IIS 7 11 (enabled by installing "Desktop Experience") COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe,
PowerShell (optional)
Windows 7 Windows shell Aero (default), Classic Internet Explorer 8 IIS 7.5 12 COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe,
PowerShell 2.0
Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows shell, Server Core Classic (default), Aero (via "Desktop Experience") Internet Explorer 8 IIS 7.5 12 (via "Desktop Experience") cmd.exe,
PowerShell 2.0
Windows Server 2012 Windows shell, Server Core Metro Internet Explorer 10 IIS 8 12 (via "Desktop Experience") cmd.exe,
PowerShell 3.0
Windows 8 Windows shell Metro Internet Explorer 10 IIS 8 12 COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe,
PowerShell 3.0
Windows Server 2012 R2 Windows shell, Windows server core Metro Internet Explorer 11 IIS 8.5 12 (via "Desktop Experience") cmd.exe,
PowerShell 4.0
Windows 8.1 Windows shell Metro Internet Explorer 11 IIS 8.5 12 COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe,
PowerShell 4.0
Windows 10 Windows shell Metro Internet Explorer 11
Microsoft Edge
IIS 10.0 12 COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe,
PowerShell 5.0
Windows Server 2016 Windows shell, Windows server core Metro Internet Explorer 11
Microsoft Edge
IIS 10.0 12 (via "Desktop Experience") cmd.exe,
PowerShell 5.1
Windows Server 2019 Windows shell, Windows server core Metro Internet Explorer 11
Microsoft Edge
IIS 10.0 12 (via "Desktop Experience") cmd.exe,
PowerShell 5.1
Windows Server 2022 Windows shell, Windows server core Metro Internet Explorer 11
Microsoft Edge
IIS 10.0 12 (via "Desktop Experience") cmd.exe,
PowerShell 5.1
Windows 11 Windows shell Mica Internet Explorer 11(Hidden)
Microsoft Edge
IIS 10.0 12 (2022) COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe,
PowerShell v.1

Timeline

Main article: Timeline of Microsoft Windows

Windows 1.0Windows 2.0Windows 2.1xWindows 3.0Windows 3.1xWindows 3.1xWindows NT 3.1Windows NT 3.5Windows NT 3.51Windows 95Windows NT 4.0Windows 98Windows NT 4.0Windows 2000Pocket PC 2000Windows MePocket PC 2002Windows XPWindows XPWindows Server 2003Windows Mobile 2003Windows Mobile 5.0Windows Embedded IndustryWindows Server 2003 R2Windows Mobile 6.0Windows VistaWindows Home ServerWindows Mobile 6.1Windows Server 2008Windows Embedded IndustryWindows Mobile 6.5Windows 7Windows Server 2008 R2Windows MultiPoint ServerWindows Phone 7Windows Home Server 2011Windows MultiPoint ServerWindows Embedded IndustryWindows Server 2012Windows 8Windows Phone 8Windows MultiPoint ServerWindows Embedded 8 IndustryWindows 8.1Windows Embedded 8.1 IndustryWindows Server 2012 R2Windows Phone 8.1Windows 10 (original release)Windows 10 (original release)Windows IoTWindows 10, version 1511Windows 10 Mobile version historyWindows 10, version 1607Windows 10 Mobile version historyWindows 10, version 1607Windows IoTWindows Server 2016Windows 10, version 1703Windows 10 Mobile version historyWindows 10, version 1709Windows 10 Mobile version historyWindows 10, version 1803Windows 10, version 1809Windows 10, version 1809Windows IoTWindows Server 2019Windows IoTWindows 10, version 1903Windows 10, version 1909Windows 10, version 2004Windows 10, version 20H2Windows 10, version 21H1Windows Server 2022Windows IoTWindows 11, version 21H2Windows 10, version 21H2Windows 10, version 21H2Windows IoTWindows 11, version 22H2Windows 10, version 22H2Windows 11, version 23H2


See also

Other lists

Windows clones and emulators

References

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