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First Pentium logo (1993)
General information
LaunchedMarch 22, 1993; 31 years ago (1993-03-22)
Discontinued2023; 1 year ago (2023)[1]
Marketed byIntel
Designed byIntel
Common manufacturer(s)
Max. CPU clock rate60 MHz to 4.4 GHz
FSB speeds50 MHz to 800 MT/s
DMI speeds2 GT/s to 16 GT/s
Architecture and classification
Technology node800 nm to Intel 7
Instruction setIA-32, x86-64
Physical specifications
  • 1-5
Products, models, variants
Brand name(s)
Successor(s)Core, Intel Processor
Pentium logos

Pentium is a discontinued series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel. The original Pentium was first released on March 22, 1993. The name "Pentium" is originally derived from the Greek word pente (πεντε), meaning "five", a reference to the prior numeric naming convention of Intel's 80x86 processors (8086–80486), with the Latin ending -ium since the processor would otherwise have been named 80586 using that convention.

Pentium was Intel's flagship processor line for over a decade until the introduction of the Intel Core line in 2006. Pentium-branded processors released from 2009 to 2023 were considered entry-level products that Intel rated as "two stars",[2][3] meaning that they were above the low-end Atom and Celeron series, but below the faster Intel Core lineup and workstation/server Xeon series. These later Pentium processors have little more than their name in common with earlier Pentiums.

The later Pentiums were based on both the architecture used in Atom and that of Core processors. In the case of Atom architectures, Pentiums were the highest performance implementations of the architecture. Pentium processors with Core architectures prior to 2017 were distinguished from the faster, higher-end i-series processors by lower clock rates and disabling some features, such as hyper-threading, virtualization and sometimes L3 cache.

In 2017, the Pentium brand was split up into two separate lines using the Pentium name:

In September 2022, Intel announced that the Pentium and Celeron brands were to be replaced with the new "Intel Processor" branding for low-end processors in laptops from 2023 onwards.[1] This also applied to desktops using Pentium processors, and they were discontinued around the same time laptops stopped using Pentium processors in favor of "Intel Processor" processors in 2023.


See also: List of Intel Pentium processors

During development, Intel generally identifies processors with codenames, such as Prescott, Willamette, Coppermine, Katmai, Klamath, or Deschutes. These usually become widely known,[4] even after the processors are given official names on launch.

The original Pentium-branded CPUs were expected to be named 586 or i586, to follow the naming convention of prior generations (286, i386, i486). However, as the firm wanted to prevent their competitors from branding their processors with similar names (as AMD had done with their Am486), Intel filed a trademark application on the name in the United States, but was denied because a series of numbers was considered to lack trademark distinctiveness.[5]

Following Intel's prior series of 8086, 80186, 80286, 80386, and 80486 microprocessors, the firm's first P5-based processor was released as the original Intel Pentium on March 22, 1993. Marketing firm Lexicon Branding was hired to coin a name for the new processor. The suffix -ium was chosen as it could connote a fundamental ingredient of a computer, like a chemical element,[6] while the prefix pent- could refer to the fifth generation of x86.[5]

Due to its success, the Pentium brand would continue through several generations of high-end processors. In 2006, the name briefly disappeared from Intel's technology roadmaps,[7][8] only to re-emerge in 2007.[9]

In 1998, Intel introduced the Celeron[10] brand for low-priced processors. With the 2006 introduction of the Intel Core brand as the company's new flagship line of processors, the Pentium series was to be discontinued. However, due to a demand for mid-range dual-core processors, the Pentium brand was repurposed to be Intel's mid-range processor series, between the Celeron and Core series, continuing with the Pentium Dual-Core line.[11][12][13]

In 2009, the "Dual-Core" suffix was dropped, and new x86 processors started carrying the plain Pentium name again.

In 2014, Intel released the Pentium 20th Anniversary Edition, to mark the 20th anniversary of the Pentium brand. These processors are unlocked and highly overclockable.

In 2017, Intel split the Pentium branding into two line-ups. Pentium Silver targets low-power devices and shares architecture with Atom and Celeron, while Pentium Gold targets entry-level desktops and uses existing architecture, such as Kaby Lake and Coffee Lake.

In September 2022, Intel announced that the Pentium and Celeron brands were to be replaced with the new "Intel Processor" branding for low-end processors in laptops from 2023 onwards.[1] This also applied to desktops using Pentium and Celeron processors, and both brands were discontinued as planned in 2023 in favor of "Intel Processor" branded processors.

Intel Pentium processor family
Brand Microarchitecture Desktop Laptop Server
Pentium OverDrive
P5 P5 (0.8 μm)
P54C (0.6 μm)
P54CS (0.35 μm)
Pentium MMX
Pentium OverDrive MMX
P55C (0.35 μm)
Tillamook (0.25 μm)
Pentium Pro P6 P6 (0.5 μm)
P6 (0.35 μm)
Pentium II
Pentium II Xeon
Pentium II OverDrive
Mobile Pentium II
Klamath (0.35 μm)
Deschutes (0.25 μm)
Tonga (0.25 μm)
Dixon (0.25 μm)
Dixon (0.18 μm)
Drake (0.25 μm)
Pentium III
Pentium III Xeon
Mobile Pentium III
Pentium III M
Katmai (0.25 μm)
Coppermine (180 nm)
Tualatin (130 nm)
Coppermine (180 nm)
Tualatin(130 nm)
Tanner (0.25 μm)
Cascades (180 nm)
Pentium 4
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition
NetBurst Willamette (180 nm)
Northwood (130 nm)
Gallatin (130 nm)
Prescott-2M (90 nm)
Prescott (90 nm)
Cedar Mill (65 nm)
Northwood (130 nm)
Prescott (90 nm)
Rebranded as Xeon
Pentium D
Pentium Extreme Edition
Smithfield (90 nm)
Presler (65 nm)
Pentium M P6 based Banias (130 nm)
Dothan (90 nm)
Pentium Dual-Core Yonah (65 nm)
Core Allendale (65 nm)
Wolfdale-3M (45 nm)
Merom-2M (65 nm)
Pentium Core Wolfdale-3M (45 nm) Penryn-3M (45 nm)
Nehalem Clarkdale (32 nm) Arrandale (32 nm)
Sandy Bridge Sandy Bridge (32 nm)
Ivy Bridge Ivy Bridge (22 nm)
Haswell Haswell (22 nm)
Broadwell Broadwell (14 nm)
Skylake Skylake (14 nm) Braswell; Goldmont
Kaby Lake Kaby Lake (14 nm) Goldmont Plus (Gemini Lake)
Coffee Lake Coffee Lake (14 nm)
Comet Lake Comet Lake (14 nm)

Pentium-branded processors

The die of a Pentium processor

P5 microarchitecture based

The original Intel P5 or Pentium and Pentium MMX processors were the superscalar follow-on to the 80486 processor and were marketed from 1993 to 1999. Some versions of these were available as Pentium OverDrive that would fit into older CPU sockets.


Main article: List of Intel Pentium processors

Core p Process Clock rates L1 cache FSB Socket Release date
P5 0.8 μm 60–66 MHz 16 KB 60–66 MHz Socket 4 March 1993
P54C 0.6 μm 75–120 MHz 16 KB 50–66 MHz Socket 5 October 1994
P54CS 0.35 μm 133–200 MHz 16 KB 60–66 MHz Socket 7 June 1995
P55C 0.35 μm 120–233 MHz 32 KB 60–66 MHz Socket 7 January 1997[14]
Tillamook 0.25 μm 166–300 MHz 32 KB 66 MHz Socket 7 August 1997

P6 microarchitecture based

A 100 MHz Pentium (ICOMP=815) processor manufactured in 1996

In parallel with the P5 microarchitecture, Intel developed the P6 microarchitecture and started marketing it as the Pentium Pro for the high-end market in 1995. It introduced out-of-order execution and an integrated second-level cache on dual-chip processor package. The second P6 generation replaced the original P5 with the Pentium II and rebranded the high-end version as Pentium II Xeon. It was followed by a third version named the Pentium III and Pentium III Xeon respectively. The Pentium II line added the MMX instructions that were also present in the Pentium MMX.

Versions of these processors for the laptop market were initially named Mobile Pentium II and Mobile Pentium III, later versions were named Pentium III-M. Starting with the Pentium II, the Celeron brand was used for low-end versions of most Pentium processors with a reduced feature set such as a smaller cache or missing power management features.

Pentium Pro

Main articles: Pentium Pro and List of Intel Pentium Pro processors

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache FSB Socket Release date
P6 0.5 μm 150 MHz 256 KB 60–66 MHz Socket 8 November 1995
P6 0.35 μm 166–200 MHz 256–1024 KB 60–66 MHz Socket 8

Pentium II

Main articles: Pentium II and List of Intel Pentium II processors

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache FSB Socket Release date
Klamath 0.35 μm 233–300 MHz 512 KB 66 MHz Slot 1 May 1997
Deschutes 0.25 μm 266–450 MHz 512 KB 66–100 MHz Slot 1 January 1998
Tonga 0.25 μm 233–300 MHz 512 KB 66 MHz MMC-2 April 1998
Dixon 0.25 μm 266–366 MHz 256 KB 66 MHz MMC-2 January 1999

Pentium III

Main articles: Pentium III and List of Intel Pentium III processors

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache FSB Socket Release date
Katmai 0.25 μm 450–600 MHz 512 KB 100–133 MHz Slot 1 February 1999
Coppermine 0.18 μm 400 MHz–1.13 GHz 256 KB 100–133 MHz Slot 1, Socket 370, BGA2, μPGA2 October 1999
Tualatin 0.13 μm 700 MHz–1.4 GHz 512 KB 100–133 MHz Socket 370, BGA2, μPGA2 July 2001

NetBurst microarchitecture based

In 2000, Intel introduced a new microarchitecture named NetBurst, with a much longer pipeline enabling higher clock frequencies than the P6-based processors. Initially, these were named Pentium 4, and the high-end versions have since been named simply Xeon. As with Pentium III, there are both Mobile Pentium 4 and Pentium 4 M processors for the laptop market, with Pentium 4 M denoting the more power-efficient versions. Enthusiast versions of the Pentium 4 with the highest clock rates were named Pentium 4 Extreme Edition.

The Pentium D was the first multi-core Pentium, integrating two Pentium 4 chips in one package and was available as the enthusiast Pentium Extreme Edition.

Pentium 4

Main articles: Pentium 4 and List of Intel Pentium 4 processors

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache FSB rates Socket Release date
Willamette 180 nm 1.3–2.0 GHz 256 KB 400 MT/s Socket 423, Socket 478 November 2000
Northwood 130 nm 1.6–3.4 GHz 512 KB 400 MT/s–800 MT/s Socket 478 January 2002
Gallatin 130 nm 3.2–3.46 GHz 512 KB + 2 MB L3 800–1066 MT/s Socket 478, LGA 775 November 2003
Prescott 90 nm 2.4–3.8 GHz 1 MB 533 MT/s–800 MT/s Socket 478, LGA 775 February 2004
Prescott-2M 90 nm 2.8–3.8 GHz 2 MB 800–1066 MT/s LGA 775 February 2005
Cedar Mill 65 nm 3.0–3.6 GHz 2 MB 800 MT/s LGA 775 January 2006

Pentium D

Main articles: Pentium D and List of Intel Pentium D processors

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache FSB rates Socket Release date
Smithfield 90 nm 2.66–3.2 GHz 2 MB 533–800 MT/s LGA 775 May 2005
Smithfield XE 90 nm 3.2 GHz 2 MB 800 MT/s LGA 775 May 2005
Presler 65 nm 2.8–3.6 GHz 4 MB 800 MT/s LGA 775 January 2006
Presler XE 65 nm 3.46–3.73 GHz 4 MB 1066 MT/s LGA 775 January 2006

Pentium M microarchitecture based

In 2003, Intel introduced a new processor based on the P6 microarchitecture named Pentium M, which was much more power-efficient than the Mobile Pentium 4, Pentium 4 M, and Pentium III M. Dual-core versions of the Pentium M were developed under the code name Yonah and sold under the marketing names Core Duo and Pentium Dual-Core. Unlike Pentium D, it integrated both cores on one chip. From this point, the Intel Core brand name was used for the mainstream Intel processors, and the Pentium brand became a low-end version between Celeron and Core. All Pentium M based designs including Yonah are for the mobile market.

Pentium M

Main articles: Pentium M and List of Intel Pentium M processors

Core Process Clock rates L1 cache L2 cache FSB Socket Release date
Banias 130 nm 0.9–1.7 GHz 64 KB 1 MB 400 MT/s Socket 479 March 2003
Dothan 90 nm 1.00–2.26 GHz 64 KB 2 MB 400–533 MT/s FC-uBGA June 2004

Pentium Dual-Core

Main articles: Pentium Dual-Core and List of Intel Pentium processors

Core Process Clock rates L1 cache L2 cache FSB rates Socket Release date
Yonah 65 nm 1.6–1.86 GHz 64 KB 1 MB 533 MT/s Socket M January 2007

Core microarchitecture based

The Pentium Dual-Core name continued to be used when the Yonah design was extended with 64-bit support, now named the Core microarchitecture. This eventually replaced all NetBurst-based processors across the four brands Celeron, Pentium, Core, and Xeon. Pentium Dual-Core processors based on the Core microarchitecture use the Allendale and Wolfdale-3M designs for desktop processors and Merom-2M for mobile processors.

Pentium Dual-Core

Main articles: Pentium Dual-Core and List of Intel Pentium processors § Core based Pentiums

Pentium Dual Core logo
Core Process Clock rates L1 cache L2 cache FSB rates Socket Release date
Merom-2M 65 nm 1.46–2.16 GHz 64 KB 1 MB 533–667 MT/s Socket P Q4 2007
Allendale 65 nm 1.6–2.4 GHz 64 KB 1 MB 800 MT/s Socket 775 June 2007
Wolfdale-3M 45 nm 2.2–2.7 GHz 64 KB 2 MB 800 MT/s Socket 775 August 2008

Pentium (2009)

Main article: List of Intel Pentium processors § Core based Pentiums

Core Process Clock rates L1 cache L2 cache FSB rates Socket Release date
Wolfdale-3M 45 nm 2.8–3.2 GHz 64 KB 2 MB 1066 MT/s Socket 775 May 2009
Penryn-3M 45 nm 2.0–2.3 GHz 64 KB 1 MB 800 MT/s Socket P January 2009
Penryn-3M ULV 45 nm 1.3–1.5 GHz 64 KB 2 MB 800 MT/s BGA 956 September 2009
Penryn-L ULV 1 45 nm 1.3–1.4 GHz 64 KB 2 MB 800 MT/s BGA 956 May 2009
Codename Brand name Model (list) Cores L2 cache Socket TDP
Allendale Pentium Dual-Core E2xxx 2 1 MB LGA 775 65 W
Merom-2M Mobile Pentium Dual-Core T2xxx
2 1 MB Socket P 35 W
Wolfdale-3M Pentium Dual-Core E2xxx 2 1 MB LGA 775 65 W
E5xxx 2 MB
Pentium E6xxx
Penryn-3M Mobile Pentium T4xxx 2 1 MB Socket P 35 W
SU4xxx 2 MB μFC-BGA 956 10 W
Penryn-L SU2xxx 1 5.5 W

In 2009, Intel changed the naming system for Pentium processors, renaming the Wolfdale-3M based processors to Pentium, without the Dual-Core name, and introduced new single- and dual-core processors based on Penryn under the Pentium name.

The Penryn core is the successor to the Merom core and Intel's 45 nm version of their mobile series of Pentium processors. The FSB frequency is increased from 667 MHz to 800 MHz, and the voltage is lowered. Intel released the first Penryn Core, the Pentium T4200, in December 2008. In June 2009, Intel released the first single-core processor to use the Pentium name, a Consumer Ultra-Low Voltage (CULV) Penryn core named Pentium SU2700.

In September 2009, Intel introduced the Pentium SU4000 series together with the Celeron SU2000 and Core 2 Duo SU7000 series, which are dual-core CULV processors based on Penryn-3M and using 800 MHz FSB. The Pentium SU4000 series has 2 MB L2 cache but is otherwise basically identical to the other two lines.

Nehalem microarchitecture based

Main article: List of Intel Pentium processors

The Nehalem microarchitecture was introduced in late 2008 as a successor to the Core microarchitecture, and in early 2010, a new Pentium G6950 processor based on the Clarkdale design was introduced based on the Westmere refresh of Nehalem, which were followed by the mobile P6xxx based on Arrandale a few months later.

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache L3 cache I/O bus Socket Release date
Clarkdale 32 nm 2.8 GHz 512 KB 3 MB DMI Socket 1156 January 2010
Arrandale 32 nm 1.2–1.86 GHz 512 KB 3 MB DMI Socket 988
Q2 2010
Codename Brand name L3 cache Socket TDP Features
Clarkdale Pentium G6xxx 3 MB LGA 1156 73 W Integrated GPU
Arrandale Pentium P6xxx 3 MB LGA 1156 35 W Integrated GPU
Pentium U5xxx BGA 18 W

On January 7, 2010, Intel launched a new Pentium model using the Clarkdale chip in parallel with other desktop and mobile CPUs based on their new Westmere microarchitecture. The first model in this series is the Pentium G6950. The Clarkdale chip is also used in the Core i3-5xx and Core i5-6xx series and features a 32 nm process (as it is based on the Westmere microarchitecture), integrated memory controller and 45 nm graphics controller and a third-level cache. In the Pentium series, some features of Clarkdale are disabled, including AES-NI, hyper-threading (versus Core i3), and the graphics controller in the Pentium runs at 533 MHz, while in the Core i3 i3-5xx series they run at 733 MHz, and Dual Video Decode that enables Blu-ray picture-in picture hardware acceleration, and support for Deep Color and xvYCC.[citation needed] The memory controller in the Pentium supports DDR3-1066 max, the same as the Core i3 i3-5xx series.[15] The L3 cache is also 1 MB less than in the Core i3-5xx series.

Sandy Bridge microarchitecture based

The Sandy Bridge microarchitecture was released in the Pentium line on May 22, 2011.

Codename Brand namea L3 cacheb Socket TDP Featuresc,d
Sandy Bridge Pentium 3xx 3 MB LGA 1155 15 W hyper-threading, ECC
Pentium 9x7 2 MB BGA1023 17 W Integrated GPU
Pentium B9x0 2 MB rPGA988B 35 W Integrated GPU
Pentium G6xxT[16] 3 MB,
8-way set associative,
64 byte line size
LGA 1155 35 W Integrated GPUe
Pentium G6xx[17] 65 W
Pentium G8xx[18][19] 3 MB,
12-way set associative,
64 byte line size
Sandy Bridge-EN Pentium 140x 5 MB LGA 1356 40–80 W ECC, AVX, TXT, Intel VT-d, AES-NI

Ivy Bridge microarchitecture based

Currently, there exist Ivy Bridge models G2010, G2020, G2120, G2030, and G2130. All are dual-core and have no hyper-threading or Turbo Boost.

Codename Brand name L3 cache Socket TDP Notes
Ivy Bridge G2010, G2020, G2030, G2120,[20] G2130 3 MB LGA 1155 55 W w/o hyper-threading

Haswell microarchitecture based

Main article: Haswell (microarchitecture)

Several Haswell-based Pentium processors were released in 2013, among them the G3258 "Anniversary Edition", first released in 2014 by Intel to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the line. As with prior-generation Pentium processors, Haswell and Haswell Refresh-based parts have two cores only, lack support for hyper-threading, and use the LGA1150 socket form factor.

Broadwell microarchitecture based

Broadwell-based Pentiums[specify] were launched in Q1 2015 using a 14 nm process (e.g. the dual-core 1.9 GHz Intel Pentium 3805U with 2 MB cache). They used the FCBGA1168 socket.

Skylake microarchitecture based

Skylake-based Pentium processors support up to 64 GB RAM. Features like Turbo Boost, Intel vPro, Hyper-Threading are not available. Supports AES-NI and RDRAND.[21]

Integrated graphics are provided by Intel HD Graphics 510, utilizing a maximum of 1.7 GB of memory, for resolutions up to 4096×2304 @ 60 Hz using Display Port supporting up to 3 displays.[22]

Kaby Lake microarchitecture based

In Q1 2017 Intel released the Kaby Lake-based Pentium G4560; it is the first Pentium-branded CPU since the NetBurst-based Pentium 4 to support hyper-threading, a feature available in some "Core"-branded products. Features include a clock speed of 3.5 GHz with four threads, 3 MB of L3 cache and Intel HD 610 integrated graphics.

Coffee Lake microarchitecture based

All Coffee Lake Pentium processors support Hyper-threading,[23] and integrated Intel UHD Graphics.

Comet Lake microarchitecture based

All Comet Lake Pentium processors support Hyper-threading, and integrated Intel UHD 610 Graphics.

Pentium-compatible Intel processors

Due to its prominence, the term "Pentium-compatible" is often used to describe any x86 processor that supports the IA-32 instruction set and architecture. Even though they do not use the Pentium name, Intel also manufactures other processors based on the Pentium series for other markets. Most of these processors share the core design with one of the Pentium processor lines, usually differing in the amount of CPU cache, power efficiency or other features. The notable exception is the Atom line, which is an independent design.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Warren, Tom (September 16, 2022). "Intel Processor will replace Pentium and Celeron in 2023 laptops". The Verge. Retrieved December 22, 2022.
  2. ^ "Processor Names and Numbers". Intel. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  3. ^ "Intel Processors". Intel. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  4. ^ "Names of processors". IA State.
  5. ^ a b Colapinto, John (October 3, 2011). "Famous names". The New Yorker. pp. 38–43. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  6. ^ Burgess, John (October 20, 1992). "Intel's fifth-generation chip no longer goes by the numbers". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 22, 2022.
  7. ^ Huynh, Anh Tuan (September 20, 2006). "Intel "Conroe-L" Details Unveiled". DailyTech. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
  8. ^ Thatcher, Michelle; Brown, Rich (April 23, 2008). "The multicore era is upon us". CNET. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  9. ^ "Intel to unify product naming scheme". TG Daily. August 6, 2007. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved August 12, 2007.
  10. ^ "Microprocessor Hall of Fame". Intel. Archived from the original on July 6, 2007. Retrieved August 11, 2007.
  11. ^ Brown, Rich; Thatcher, Michelle (April 23, 2008). "The multicore era is upon us: How we got here – Where we stand today". CNET Asia. Archived from the original on September 15, 2009. Retrieved April 18, 2009.
  12. ^ Shilov, Anton. "Intel Readies Pentium E2000-Series Processors". X-bit Labs. Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
  13. ^ "Intel to unify product naming scheme". TG Daily. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved August 15, 2007.
  14. ^ "Intel introduces The Pentium Processor With MMX Technology". Intel. Retrieved March 9, 2012.
  15. ^ "Intel Core i3-350M Processor (3M Cache, 2.26 GHz) Product Specifications".
  16. ^ "CPU ID: SR05T Intel Pentium Dual-Core G620T". Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  17. ^ "SR05R Intel Pentium Dual-Core G620". Retrieved August 6, 2011.
  18. ^ "SR05P Intel Pentium Dual-Core G840". Retrieved August 6, 2011.
  19. ^ "SR05Q (Intel Pentium Dual-Core G850)". Retrieved August 6, 2011.
  20. ^ "Intel Pentium Processor G2120 (3M Cache, 3.10 GHz) Product Specifications".
  21. ^ "Intel® Pentium® Processor G4400 (3M Cache, 3.30 GHZ) Product Specifications".
  22. ^ "Intel Pentium G4400 Processor Review - Budget Skylake". April 12, 2016.
  23. ^ "Intel Pentium Gold G5420 Processor (4M Cache, 3.80 GHz) Product Specifications". Retrieved September 25, 2020.