A doctor of both laws, from the Latin doctor utriusque juris, juris utriusque doctor, or doctor juris utriusque ("doctor of both laws") (abbreviations include: JUD, IUD, DUJ, JUDr., DUI, DJU, Dr.iur.utr., Dr.jur.utr., DIU, UJD and UID), is a scholar who has acquired a doctorate in both civil and church law. The degree was common among Roman Catholic and German scholars[1] of the Middle Ages and early modern times. Today the degree is awarded by the Pontifical Lateran University after a period of six years of study, by the University of Würzburg, and by the University of Fribourg, as well as the University of Cologne.[2]

Between approximately the twelfth through the eighteenth centuries European students of law mastered the Ius commune, a pan-European legal system that held sway during that span. It was composed of canon (church) law and Roman and feudal (civil) law, resulting in the degree of "Doctor of both laws".[3] or of "Licentiatus of both laws".

Doctors of Civil and Canon Law

See also


  1. ^ Gottfried Leibniz held the degree. Armgardt, Matthias. Leibniz as a legal scholar. Fundamina (Pretoria) vol.20 n.1 Pretoria Jan. 2014. Accessed 7 May 2016.
  2. ^ Promotionsordnung der Rechtswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität zu Köln vom 26. Oktober 2010 §1 II
  3. ^ Pennington, Kenneth. Course Description: Roman Law and the Ius Commune Archived 25 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Official Biography. "Bishop Fitzgerald". Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-26.