A papal renunciation (Latin: renuntiatio) also called a papal abdication, occurs when the current pope of the Catholic Church voluntarily resigns his position. As a pope's time in office has conventionally lasted from his election until his death, a papal renunciation is an uncommon event. Before the 21st century, only five popes unambiguously resigned with historical certainty, all between the 10th and 15th centuries. Additionally, there are disputed claims of four popes having resigned, dating from the 3rd to the 11th centuries; a fifth disputed case may have involved an antipope.

Additionally, a few popes during the saeculum obscurum were "deposed", meaning driven from office by force. The history and canonical question here is complicated; generally, the official Vatican list of popes seems to recognize such "depositions" as valid renunciations if the pope acquiesced, but not if he did not. The later development of canon law has been in favor of papal supremacy, leaving no recourse to the removal of a pope involuntarily.[1]

The most recent pope to resign was Benedict XVI, who vacated the Holy See on 28 February 2013, the date of his effective resignation. He was the first pope to do so since Gregory XII in 1415.

Despite its common usage in discussion of papal renunciations,[2] the term abdication is not used in the official documents of the church for renunciation by a pope.

Modern procedure

In the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, the official laws on all matters are codified in the Latin edition of the 1983 Code of Canon Law. This regulates papal renunciations in canon 332 §2, where it states:

This corresponds to canon 221 of the 1917 Code of Canon Law, which in Latin is:

Both the 1983 code and the 1917 code make explicit that there is no particular individual or body of people to whom the pope must manifest his renunciation. This addresses a concern raised in earlier centuries, specifically by 18th-century canonist Lucius Ferraris, who held that the College of Cardinals or at least its Dean must be informed, since the cardinals must be absolutely certain that the pope has renounced the dignity before they can validly proceed to elect a successor.[2][8]

In 1996, Pope John Paul II, in his Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici gregis, anticipated the possibility of resignation when he specified that the procedures he set out in that document should be observed "even if the vacancy of the Apostolic See should occur as a result of the resignation of the Supreme Pontiff".[9]


The Catholic Encyclopedia notes the historically obscure renunciations of Pontian[10] (230–235) and Marcellinus (296–308), the historically postulated renunciation of Liberius (352–366),[2] and mentions that one (unspecified) catalogue of popes lists John XVIII as resigning office in 1009 and finishing his life as a monk.[11][12]

11th century

The first historically unquestionable[2] papal renunciation is that of Benedict IX in 1045. Benedict had also previously been deposed by Sylvester III in 1044, and though he returned to take up the office again the next year, the Vatican considers Sylvester III to have been a legitimate pope in the intervening months (meaning that Benedict IX must be considered to have validly resigned by acquiescing to the deposition in 1044). Then, in 1045, having regained the papacy for a few months, in order to rid the church of the scandalous Benedict, Gregory VI gave Benedict "valuable possessions"[2] to resign the papacy in his favour.[13] Gregory himself resigned in 1046 because the arrangement he had entered into with Benedict could have been considered simony. Gregory was followed by Clement II, and when Clement died, Benedict IX returned to be elected to the papacy for a third time, only to resign yet again before dying in a monastery. He was thus pope for three non-consecutive periods of time, and either resigned or was deposed three times.

Celestine V

A well-known renunciation of a pope is that of Celestine V, in 1294. After only five months as pope, he issued a solemn decree declaring it permissible for a pope to resign, and then did so himself. He lived two more years as a hermit and then prisoner of his successor Boniface VIII, and was later canonised. Celestine's decree, and Boniface concurring (not revoking it), ended any doubt among canonists about the possibility of a valid papal renunciation.[14]

Western Schism

Gregory XII (1406–1415) resigned in 1415 in order to end the Western Schism, which had reached the point where there were three claimants to the papal throne: Roman Pope Gregory XII, Avignon Antipope Benedict XIII, and Pisan Antipope John XXIII. Before resigning, he formally convened the already existing Council of Constance and authorized it to elect his successor.

Benedict XVI

Main article: Resignation of Pope Benedict XVI

Benedict XVI's renunciation of the papacy took effect on 28 February 2013 at 20:00 (8:00 pm) CET (19:00 UTC), after being announced on the morning of 11 February by the Vatican.[15][16][17] He was the first pope to relinquish the office since Gregory XII resigned to end the Western Schism in 1415[18] and the first to do so on his own initiative since Celestine V in 1294.[19] His action was unexpected,[20] given that the modern era popes have held the position from election until death.[20] He said he was motivated by his declining health due to old age.[21] The conclave to select his successor began on 12 March 2013[22] and elected Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, who took the name Francis.

List of papal renunciations

Pontificate Portrait Regnal name Personal name Reason for renunciation Notes
Alleged resignations
21 July 230
– 28 September 235
(5 years+)
St Pontian Pontianus Exiled by Roman authorities Renunciation documented only in the Liberian Catalogue, which records his renunciation as 28 September 235, the earliest exact date in papal history[23][24]
30 June 296
– 25 October 304
(7 years+)
St Marcellinus Marcellinus Said to have been tainted by offerings to the pagan gods during the Diocletian persecution Renunciation is documented only in the Liberian Catalogue.
17 May 352
– 24 September 366
(14 years+)
Liberius Liberius Banished by Emperor Constantius II[2] Renunciation is speculated to explain the succession of Antipope Felix II,[2] although Liber Pontificalis argues that Liberius retained office in exile.
January 1004
– July 1009
(5 years+)
John XVIII Fasanius Abdicated and retired to a monastery Renunciation documented only in one catalog of popes
20 January 1045
– 10 February 1045
(1 month)
Sylvester III Giovanni dei Crescenzi–Ottaviani Driven out of office by the return of Benedict IX Some claim he was never pope, but an antipope. The official Vatican list includes him however, which assumes Benedict IX acquiesced to his first deposition and that the new election was valid. Sylvester returned to his old bishopric, seemingly accepting the deposition.
Reliable resignations
22 May 964
– 23 June 964
(1 month)
Benedict V Benedict Grammaticus Deposed by the Emperor Otto Deposed in favor of the antipope Leo VIII, who then became a valid pope. Benedict's abdication is considered valid. Retained the rank of deacon. Lived out the rest of his life in Hamburg under the care of Adaldag, Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen.
Oct 1032–Sept 1044
April 1045–May 1045
Nov 1047–July 1048
Benedict IX Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Deposed briefly from his first term as pope, bribed to resign his second term after several reputed scandals, and also resigned his third term Earliest renunciation recognized in the ordering of popes. He was pope on three occasions between 1032 and 1048.[25] One of the youngest popes, he was the only man to have been pope on more than one occasion and the only man ever to have sold the papacy
April/May 1045
– 20 December 1046
Gregory VI Johannes Gratianus Accused of simony for bribing Benedict IX to resign Abdicated or deposed at the Council of Sutri
5 July 1294
– 13 December 1294
(161 days)
St Celestine V, O.S.B. Pietro da Morrone Lack of competence for the office With no administrative experience, Celestine fell under the control of secular politicians. To protect the church, he resigned. He was the first pope to establish canons for renunciation.
30 November 1406
– 4 July 1415
(8 years, 216 days)
Gregory XII Angelo Correr To end the Western Schism Abdicated during the Council of Constance which had been called by his opponent, Antipope John XXIII
19 April 2005
– 28 February 2013
(7 years, 315 days)
Benedict XVI Joseph Ratzinger
Physical infirmity due to advanced age (85 at the time)
Became Pope emeritus upon renunciation.

Conditional renunciations not put into effect

Before setting out for Paris to crown Napoleon in 1804, Pope Pius VII (1800–1823) signed a document of renunciation to take effect if he were imprisoned in France.[2]

During World War II, Pope Pius XII drew up a document ordering that his resignation take effect immediately if he were kidnapped by the Nazis, as was thought likely in August 1943. It was thought that the College of Cardinals would evacuate to a neutral country, perhaps Portugal, and elect his successor.[26]

According to longtime curial official Cardinal Giovanni Battista Re, Pope Paul VI handwrote two letters in the late 1960s or 1970, well before his death, in anticipation of an incapacitating illness. One letter was addressed to the College of Cardinals, the other to the Secretary of State, whose name was not specified. Pope John Paul II showed them to Re, and they were shown to Pope Benedict XVI in 2003.[27][28] In 2018, Paul's letter dated 2 May 1965 and addressed to the dean of the College of Cardinals was published. He wrote that "In case of infirmity, which is believed to be incurable or is of long duration and which impedes us from sufficiently exercising the functions of our apostolic ministry; or in the case of another serious and prolonged impediment", he renounced his office "both as bishop of Rome as well as head of the same holy Catholic Church".[29][30]

Pope John Paul II wrote a letter in 1989 offering to resign if he became incapacitated. The first said that if ill health or some other unforeseen difficulty prevented him from "sufficiently carrying out the functions of my apostolic ministry … I renounce my sacred and canonical office, both as bishop of Rome as well as head of the holy Catholic Church." In 1994 he wrote a document that he apparently planned to read aloud, which explained that he had determined he could not resign merely because of age, as other bishops are required to do, but only "in the presence of an incurable illness or an impediment", and that he would therefore continue in office.[31][32] He prayed in his will, written in 2000, that God "would help me to recognise how long I must continue this service", suggesting that renunciation was possible.[33] In the weeks before his death in 2005, there was press speculation that John Paul might resign because of his failing health.[34]


Canon law makes no provision for a pope being incapacitated by reason of health, either temporarily or permanently; nor does it specify what body has the authority to certify that the pope is incapacitated.[35] It does state that "When the Roman See is vacant, or completely impeded, no innovation is to be made in the governance of the universal Church."[36][37]

See also


  1. ^ Beam, Christopher (17 March 2010). "You're defrocked! Can the pope be fired?". Slate. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Abdication" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ "Codex Iuris Canonici - Liber II (Cann. 204-746)". www.vatican.va. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  4. ^ The Latin uses the verb renuntiare, to renounce, but the English says resign. Also the Latin says munus, "duty", and the English says "office", which is a close synonym.
  5. ^ CIC 1983, c. 332.
  6. ^ This translation uses the word "resign", with the added words "his office", though the Latin uses renuntiare and renuntiatio and omits words for "his office".
  7. ^ CIC 1917 Can. 221. Si contingat ut Romanus Pontifex renuntiet, ad eiusdem renuntiationis validitatem non est necessaria Cardinalium aliorumve acceptatio.
  8. ^ New Commentary on the Code of Canon Law (Canon Law Society of America, Paulist Press, 2002 ISBN 0-8091-4066-7, ISBN 978-0-8091-4066-4), p. 438
  9. ^ Pope John Paul II (22 February 1996). "Universi Dominici Gregis". The Holy See. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. para. 77. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  10. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Pontian" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  11. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI, (HarperCollins Publishers, 2000), 168.
  12. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John XVIII (XIX)" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  13. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope Benedict IX" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  14. ^ "Pope St. Celestine V" . Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913.
  15. ^ Cullinane, Susannah (12 February 2013). "Pope Benedict XVI's resignation explained". CNN. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  16. ^ Davies, Lizzy; Hooper, John; Connelly, Kate (11 February 2013). "Pope Benedict XVI resigns due to age and declining health". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  17. ^ "BBC News - Benedict XVI: 10 things about the Pope's retirement". Bbc.co.uk. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  18. ^ Messia, Hada (11 February 2013). "Pope Benedict to resign at the end of the month, Vatican says". CNN. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  19. ^ Father Raymond J. de Souza (12 February 2013). "The Holy Father takes his leave". The National Post. Archived from the original on 7 March 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  20. ^ a b "Pope Benedict XVI in shock resignation". BBC News. BBC. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
  21. ^ "Pope Benedict in shock resignation". BBC.co.uk. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 11 February 2013. I declare that I renounce the ministry of Bishop of Rome, Successor of Saint Peter, entrusted to me by the cardinals on 19 April 2005, in such a way, that as from 28 February 2013, at 20:00 hours, the See of Rome, the See of Saint Peter, will be vacant and a conclave to elect the new Supreme Pontiff will have to be convoked by those whose competence it is.
  22. ^ "Conclave to begin Tuesday March 12th". Vatican Radio. 8 March 2013.
  23. ^ Mcbrien, Richard P. (2006). The Pocket Guide to the Popes. HarperCollins. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-06-113773-0. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
  24. ^ "The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 13: Bishops of Rome". pp. from Theosodr Mommsen, MGH Chronica Minora I (1892), pp. 73–76. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
  25. ^ Coulombe, Charles A., Vicars of Christ: A History of the Popes, (Citadel Press, 2003), 198.
  26. ^ Squires, Nick and Simon Caldwell (22 April 2009). "Vatican planned to move to Portugal if Nazis captured wartime Pope". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  27. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (27 August 2017). "The autographed letters with Paul VI's preventive resignation". La Stampa. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  28. ^ Allen Jr., John L. (27 August 2017). "On popes and the problem with preemptive resignation". CRUX. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  29. ^ Wooden, Cindy (16 May 2018). "Pope Paul VI prepared 'resignation letter'". The Tablet. Catholic News Service. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  30. ^ "Resignation letter prepared by Blessed Paul VI published". National Catholic Reporter. 16 May 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  31. ^ Wooden, Cindy (26 January 2010). "Pope John Paul practiced self-mortification". National Catholic Reporter. Catholic News Service. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  32. ^ Oder, Slawomir; Gaeta, Saverio (2010). Why He Is a Saint: The Life and Faith of Pope John Paul II and the Case for Canonization. Rizzoli International Publications.
  33. ^ "Pope 'considered standing down'". BBC News. 7 April 2005. Retrieved 28 August 2017.
  34. ^ Johnston, Bruce; Jonathan Petre (8 February 2005). "Cardinal hints that ailing Pope may resign". The Telegraph.
  35. ^ The Code of Canon Law Annotated. Montréal: Wilson & Lafleur Limitée. 1993. p. note on canon 335. ISBN 2891272323.
  36. ^ Codex Iuris Canonici Art. 1 DE ROMANO PONTIFICE Can. 332 - § 2. Si contingat ut Romanus Pontifex muneri suo renuntiet, ad validitatem requiritur ut renuntiatio libere fiat et rite manifestetur, non vero ut a quopiam acceptetur. The Roman Pontiff (Code of Canon Law, canons 331-335), Vatican-supplied English translation.
  37. ^ Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 47)

Works cited