The Economic Survey of India is an annual document of the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. The Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance presents the Survey in the Parliament every year, just before the Union Budget. It is prepared under the guidance of the Chief Economic Adviser of India.[1] This document is presented to both Houses of Parliament during the Budget Session.

The first Economic Survey of India was presented in 1950-51 as part of the Union Budget. After 1964 it was separated from the Budget and presented each year during the Budget Session before the presentation of the budget.[2] The document is non-binding. Nevertheless, is constructed and presented each year due to its significance.[2]


The document is the Ministry's view[clarification needed] on the state of the economy of the country. This document of the Ministry, the Economic Survey of India reviews the developments in the Indian economy over the past financial year, summarizes the performance on major development programs, and highlights the policy initiatives of the government and the prospects of the economy in the short to medium term.[1]

Unlike the traditional Economic Survey, the Economic Survey of India for 2016–17, prepared by Chief Economic Adviser Arvind Subramanian,[3] did not have the detailed financial statistics of the Government of India.[4]

Current edition

Economic survey of India 2022

The Survey has been tabled by the Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on January 31 that details the state of the economy ahead of the government's Budget for the fiscal year beginning April 1, 2022. The survey acknowledges the support from the Ministers of State for Finance Shri Pankaj Chaudhary and Bhagwat Kishanrao Karad, Finance Secretary T. V. Somanathan, Secretary DEA Ajay Seth and Revenue Secretary Tarun Bajaj.

The Economic Survey 2021-22 details the state of different sectors of the economy as well as reforms that should be undertaken to accelerate growth.

The gross domestic product (GDP) contracted by 7.3 percent in 2020–21. As per the Survey, India's economic response to devastation caused by pandemic has been supply-side reforms rather than demand management.

Economic Survey 2021-22 warned India to be wary of imported inflation. The Survey said as the wholesale price-based inflation (WPI) during the current financial year, in contrast to the trends observed in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation, has shown an increasing trend, and remained high. The Survey calls for improving productivity of small and marginal farmers through small holding farm technologies. The Survey states that climate finance will remain critical to successful climate action for India to achieve its Net Zero Carbon Emission target by 2070. Crop diversification towards oilseeds, pulses and horticulture needs to be given priority, the Survey mentions. Encouraging farmers to shift from cultivation of rice and wheat to pulses and oilseeds would help ensure that the country is self-reliant in pulses and oilseeds and also assist in reducing import dependence.

The Economic Survey also warned that the new restrictions introduced across the globe due to the spread of the Omicron variant of coronavirus pose a threat to tourism as well as domestic passenger traffic in the near term. Vaccination is not merely a health response but is critical for opening up the economy, particularly contact-intensive services. Therefore, it should be treated for now as a macro-economic indicator.

Principal Economic Advisor Sanjeev Sanyal, while addressing the press, said agriculture sector, "not surprisingly, was least affected by lockdowns of various kinds". This sector grew in even 2020-21 and again in 2021–22. Industrial sector, on other hand, did go through a contraction and now it is about 4.1 percent above pre-pandemic levels, he added. India's overall GVA grew by 8.6 percent on year in 2021–22, after contracting 6.2% in 2020–21, PEA Sanjeev Sanyal said. Sanyal added that India now has $636 billion worth of forex reserves, one of the highest in the world, and equivalent to 13.2 months of imports. The principal economic advisor further said that India's spending on social services has risen to around Rs 20 lakh crore in 2021–22, whereas, the spending on education and health has risen to Rs 6.97 lakh crore and Rs 4.72 lakh crore in the same period, respectively.

Previous editions

Economic Survey of India 2020

The Economic Survey 2019–20 was tabled during the Budget Session of the Parliament on 31 January 2020 by Nirmala Sitharaman, Minister of Finance.[5] The survey was prepared under Krishnamurthy Subramanian, the Chief Economic Advisor (CEA) to the Government of India. The survey is also presented by the CEA during a press meet after it is tabled in Parliament.[6][7][8]

This year the survey was printed in lavender, the same colour as the 100-rupee note, symbolizing the integration of old and new.[9] The broad theme for the survey is "Ethical Wealth Creation". The document outlines strategies for making India a $5 trillion economy by 2024–25.[10][11] This includes strengthening the invisible hand of the Indian economy through trust in pro-business government intervention and trust in the markets;[12] while at the same time moving away from "pro-crony" policy and focusing on ethical wealth creation.[8][13]

The survey covers the economic performance India in 2019–20 including fiscal developments, external sector developments, monetary management and financial intermediation, inflation, sustainable development and climate change, agriculture and food management, industry and infrastructure, services sector, social infrastructure, employment and human development. Some of the key points raised by the survey were the need for grassroots entrepreneurship, pro-business and pro-market differentiation, policies that do not undermine the markets, job and growth creation, improving the ease of doing business in India, creation of early warning health system for the NBFC sector, privatization and thalinomics.[14]

Ethical wealth creation

The importance of "Ethical Wealth Creation" as a basis for the economy is emphasized upon. Reference to the Arthashastra, Tirukkural and The Wealth of Nations is made.[15][16][17] Through these texts, the Survey documents that ideas of wealth creation are rooted in India's rich traditions. The Survey notes that India's past dominance in economic matters was not by chance, but design.[13]


Some of the key points of the Economic Survey 2019–20 are:[5]

The survey also had quotes from Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, Rigveda, Arthashastra and Tirukkural.[15][16][17] Data for the survey relied on information from sources such as Bloomberg, IIM(B), Forbes, IMF, World Bank, RBI, Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India, the United Nations, and Wikipedia, among others.[21][22]

Economic Survey of India 2021

The Economic Survey 2020–21 was tabled during the Budget Session of the Parliament on 29 January 2021 by Nirmala Sitharaman, Minister of Finance.[23] The survey was prepared under Krishnamurthy Subramanian, the Chief Economic Advisor (CEA) to the Government of India.[23] The CEA also presents the survey during a press meet after it is tabled in Parliament.[24]

The 2020-21 survey has been conducted in the background of the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in India. A foundational theme of a survey as a result of the pandemic has been "Saving Lives and Livelihoods". The survey goes on to outline epidemiological and economic research related to lockdowns and minimizing losses when uncertainty is very high, in this case the loss being the loss of human life.[25] The survey also notes how a "healthcare crisis can get transformed into an economic and social crisis".[26]

Some of the key points of the Economic Survey 2020–21 are:

The survey has quotes and explanatory anecdotes from Mahabharata, Rabindranath Tagore, Raghuvansham, A.P.J.Abdul Kalam, Mohandas K. Gandhi, The Jungle Book (look for the bare necessities, the simple bare necessities), a recent India versus Australia cricket match, Tirukkuṟaḷ, 3 Idiots, Malgudi Days and Martin Luther King Jr.[32][29]

See also


  1. ^ a b "What is Economic Survey?". The Financial Express. 30 June 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  2. ^ a b PTI (30 January 2020). "What is Economic Survey and Why is it Important?". News18. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  3. ^ "Arvind Subramanian, the Man Who Revamped Economic Survey". News18. 20 June 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  4. ^ "Energy News Monitor". XIII (48). ORF. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2018. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. ^ a b c d e f PIB Delhi (31 January 2020). "Economic Survey of India". Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  6. ^ a b Agarwal, Nikhil (31 January 2020). "Krishnamurthy suggests a Chinese formula to create jobs". Livemint. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  7. ^ "Economic Survey 2020 Live Updates: Banks likely to remain risk averse unless IBC process speeds". Business Today. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Highlights of CEA Subramanian press meet on Economic Survey: from 'wealth creation' to 'Thalinomics'". The Hindu. 31 January 2020. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  9. ^ "Economic Survey Highlights: The good, the bad and the ugly". The Economic Times. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  10. ^ Srivats, K. R. (31 January 2020). "Economic Survey sets the tone for Budget 2020". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  11. ^ a b c "Economic Survey 2019-20 highlights". Livemint. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  12. ^ Xavier, John (31 January 2020). "Economic Survey 2019-20 highlights: Back to Adam Smith's Invisible Hand". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  13. ^ a b c Ministry of Finance (31 January 2020). "Theme of the Economic Survey 2019-20 - Enable Markets, Promote 'Pro-Business' Policies and Strengthen 'Trust' in the Economy". Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  14. ^ Ministry of Finance (31 January 2020). "Key Highlights of Economic Survey 2019-20". Press Information Bureau. Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  15. ^ a b "Economic Survey 2020 draws heavy references from Kautilya's Arthashashtra". Business Today. New Delhi: 31 January 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  16. ^ a b "When Economic Survey quoted Arthashastra, Thirukural". Outlook. New Delhi: 31 January 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  17. ^ a b TNN (1 February 2020). "Gita, Veda, Thirukkural, Adam Smith...survey of great thoughts". The Times of India. New Delhi: Times Publications. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  18. ^ a b "Economic Survey 2020 Live: India GDP to grow at 6-6.5% next year, Economic Survey says". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  19. ^ "Economic Survey 2020: Veg thali affordability improves by 29%; non-veg by 18% during 2006-07 to 2019-20". The Times of India. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  20. ^ a b c "5 things about India you probably didn't know before today's Economic Survey". The Economic Times. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  21. ^ Press Trust of India (31 January 2020). "Economic Survey sources data from Wikipedia, other private entities". India Today. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  22. ^ "Economic Survey 2019-20 sources data from Wikipedia, other private entities". The Hindu. 31 January 2020.
  23. ^ a b "Economic Survey: GDP growth seen rebounding at 11% in 2021-22". mint. 29 January 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  24. ^ Ghosh, Poulomi, ed. (29 January 2021). "Budget 2021: Economic Survey 2020-21 to be presented today". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  25. ^ "Economic Survey of India 2020-21: Saving Lives and Livelihoods Amidst a Once-in-a-Century Crisis (Chapter 1)" (PDF). Ministry of Finance, Government of India. 29 January 2021.
  26. ^ "Economic Survey 2021-21: Healthcare takes centre stage, finally (Chapter 5)" (PDF). Ministry of Finance, Government of India. 29 January 2021. p. 174.
  27. ^ Noronha, Peter, ed. (29 January 2021). "Economic Survey Launches Bare Necessities Index". Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  28. ^ Chakraborty, Chiranjivi (29 January 2021). "Economic Survey 2021: India's V-shape recovery supported by vaccine drive". The Economic Times. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  29. ^ a b c "Economic Survey 2021 updates | India's GDP is estimated to contract by 7.7%". The Hindu. 29 January 2021. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  30. ^ Gill, Prabhjote (29 January 2021). "India's Chief Economic Advisor trains his guns on global rating agencies". Business Insider. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  31. ^ a b c "Economic Survey: India needs to up its gross expenditure on R&D from 0.7% to 2% of GDP". The Economic Times. 29 January 2021. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
  32. ^ Shaikh, Mohammed (29 January 2021). "Economic Survey 2021 Quotes From 'The Jungle Book' To Highlight Progress In Access To 'bare Necessities'". Moneycontrol. Retrieved 29 January 2021.