|• President of the Departmental Council||François Durovray (LR)|
|• Total||1,804 km2 (697 sq mi)|
|• Density||720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries and lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km2|
Essonne (French pronunciation: [ɛsɔn] (listen)) is a department of France in the southern Île-de-France region. It is named after the river Essonne. In 2019, it had a population of 1,301,659 across 194 communes.
Essonne was formed on 1 January 1968 when Seine-et-Oise was split into smaller departments. Its prefecture is Évry-Courcouronnes. Its INSEE and postcode number is 91.
The Essonne department was created on 1 January 1968,[why?] from the southern portion of the former department of Seine-et-Oise.
In June 1963, Carrefour S.A. opened the first hypermarket in the Paris region at Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois (although the word "hypermarché" was first used only in 1966). Based on the ideas put forward by the American logistics pioneer Bernardo Trujillo, the centre offered on a single 2,500 m2 (26,909.78 sq ft) site a hitherto unknown combination of wide choice and low prices, supported by 400 car parking spaces.
In 1969, the communes of Châteaufort and Toussus-le-Noble were separated from Essonne and added to the department of Yvelines.
Essonne belongs to the region of Île-de-France.
It has borders with the departments of:
All of northern Essonne department belongs to the Parisian agglomeration and is very urbanized. The south remains rural.
The most populous commune is Évry-Courcouronnes, the prefecture. As of 2019, the 5 most populous communes are:
In descending order, the other communes over 25,000 population are: Athis-Mons, Palaiseau, Vigneux-sur-Seine, Viry-Châtillon, Ris-Orangis, Yerres, Draveil, Grigny, Brétigny-sur-Orge, Étampes, Brunoy and Les Ulis. Milly-la-Forêt is a notable example of its more rural communes.
See also: Departmental Council of Essonne
The department's most high-profile political representative has been Manuel Valls, Prime Minister of France from 31 March 2014 to 6 December 2016. He visited its main town Évry to deliver remarks following the Charlie Hebdo massacre of January 2015. The president of the Departmental Council is François Durovray, elected in 2015.
|Election||Winning Candidate||Party||%||2nd Place Candidate||Party||%|
|2022||Emmanuel Macron||LREM||65.43||Marine Le Pen||FN||34.57|
|2017||Emmanuel Macron||LREM||72.18||Marine Le Pen||FN||27.82|
|2012||François Hollande||PS||53.43||Nicolas Sarkozy||UMP||46.57|
|2007||Nicolas Sarkozy||UMP||52.08||Ségolène Royal||PS||47.92|
|2002||Jacques Chirac||RPR||84.96||Jean-Marie Le Pen||FN||15.04|
|1995||Jacques Chirac||RPR||53.30||Lionel Jospin||PS||15.04|
|Essonne's 1st constituency||Francis Chouat||La République En Marche!|
|Essonne's 2nd constituency||Franck Marlin||The Republicans|
|Essonne's 3rd constituency||Laëtitia Romeiro Dias||La République En Marche!|
|Essonne's 4th constituency||Marie-Pierre Rixain||La République En Marche!|
|Essonne's 5th constituency||Cédric Villani||Ecology Democracy Solidarity|
|Essonne's 6th constituency||Amélie de Montchalin||La République En Marche!|
|Essonne's 7th constituency||Robin Reda||The Republicans|
|Essonne's 8th constituency||Nicolas Dupont-Aignan||Debout la France|
|Essonne's 9th constituency||Marie Guévenoux||La République En Marche!|
|Essonne's 10th constituency||Pierre-Alain Raphan||La République En Marche!|
Population development since 1876:
|Born in metropolitan France||Born outside metropolitan France|
|Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth1||EU-15 immigrants2||Non-EU-15 immigrants|
|1 This group is made up largely of former French settlers, such as Pieds-Noirs in Northwest Africa, followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), as well as to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France in 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics.|
2 An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.
Essonne is twinned with: