This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Group 10 element" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Group 10 in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
group 9  group 11
IUPAC group number 10
Name by element nickel group
CAS group number
(US, pattern A-B-A)
part of VIIIB
old IUPAC number
(Europe, pattern A-B)
part of VIII

↓ Period
4
Image: A piece of nickel, about 3 cm in size
Nickel (Ni)
28 Transition metal
5
Image: Palladium crystal
Palladium (Pd)
46 Transition metal
6
Image: Platinum nugget
Platinum (Pt)
78 Transition metal
7 Darmstadtium (Ds)
110 unknown chemical properties

Legend

primordial element
synthetic element
Atomic number color:
black=solid

Group 10, numbered by current IUPAC style, is the group of chemical elements in the periodic table that consists of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and darmstadtium (Ds). All are d-block transition metals. All known isotopes of darmstadtium are radioactive with short half-lives, and are not known to occur in nature; only minute quantities have been synthesized in laboratories.

Like other groups, the members of this group show patterns in electron configuration, especially in the outermost shells, although for this group they are particularly weak, with palladium being an exceptional case. The relativistic stabilization of the 7s orbital is the explanation to the predicted electron configuration of darmstadtium, which, unusually for this group, conforms to that predicted by the Aufbau principle.

Chemistry

Z Element No. of electrons per shell Electronic configuration
28 nickel 2, 8, 16, 2 [Ar]      3d8 4s2
46 palladium 2, 8, 18, 18 [Kr]      4d10
78 platinum 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1 [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
110 darmstadtium 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 16, 2 (predicted) [Rn] 5f14 6d8 7s2 (predicted)[1]

Darmstadtium has not been isolated in pure form, and its properties have not been conclusively observed; only nickel, palladium, and platinum have had their properties experimentally confirmed. All three elements are typical silvery-white transition metals, hard, and refractory, with high melting and boiling points.

Properties

Physical properties

Group 10 metals are white to light grey in color, and possess a high luster, a resistance to tarnish (oxidation) at STP, are highly ductile, and enter into oxidation states of +2 and +4, with +1 being seen in special conditions. The existence of a +3 state is debated, as the state could be an illusory state created by +2 and +4 states. Theory suggests that group 10 metals may produce a +6 oxidation state under precise conditions, but this remains to be proven conclusively in the laboratory other than for platinum.

Physical properties of the group 10 elements[2]
Z Element Physical form Molecular weight Density (g/cm3) Melting point (°C) Boiling point (°C) Heat capacity/Cp(c)

(J mol−1 K−1)

Electron affinity (eV) Ionization energy (eV)
28 nickel white metal; cubic
58.693
8.90
1455
2913
26.1
1.156
7.6399
46 palladium silver-white metal; cubic
106.42
12.0
1554.8
2963
26.0
0.562
8.3369
78 platinum silver-gray metal; cubic
195.048
21.5
1768.2
3825
25.9
2.128
8.9588

Occurrence and production

Nickel occurs naturally in ores, and it is the earth's 22nd most abundant element. Two prominent groups of ores from which it can be extracted are laterites and sulfide ores.[3] Indonesia holds the world's largest nickel reserve, and is also its largest producer.[4]

History

Discoveries of the elements

Nickel

The use of nickel, often mistaken for copper, dates as far back as 3500 BCE. Nickel has been discovered in a dagger dating to 3100 BCE, in Egyptian iron beads, a bronze reamer found in Syria dating to 3500–3100 BCE, as copper-nickel alloys in coins minted in Bactria, in weapons and pots near the Senegal river, and as agricultural tools used by Mexicans in the 1700s.[5][6] There is evidence to suggest that the use of nickel in antiquity came from meteoric iron, such as in the Sumerian name for iron an-bar ("fire from heaven") or in Hittite texts that describe iron's heavenly origins. Nickel was not formally named as an element until A. F. Cronstedt isolated the impure metal from "kupfernickel" (Old Nick's copper) in 1751.[2] In 1804, J. B. Richter determined the physical properties of nickel using a purer sample, describing the metal as ductile and strong with a high melting point. The strength of nickel-steel alloys were described in 1889 and since then, nickel steels saw extensive use first for military applications and then in the development of corrosion- and heat-resistant alloys during the 20th century.

Palladium

Palladium was isolated by William Hyde Wollaston in 1803 while he was working on refining platinum metals.[7] Palladium was in a residue left behind after platinum was precipitated out of a solution of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid as (NH4)PtCl6.[8] Wollaston named it after the recently discovered asteroid 2 Pallas and anonymously sold small samples of the metal to a shop, which advertised it as a "new noble metal" called "Palladium, or New Silver".[9] This raised doubts about its purity, source, and the identity of its discoverer, causing controversy. He eventually identified himself and read his paper on the discovery of palladium to the Royal Society in 1805.[10]

Platinum

Prior to its formal discovery, platinum was used in jewelry by native Ecuadorians of the province of Esmeraldas.[11] The metal was found in small grains mixed with gold in river deposits, which the workers sintered with gold to form small trinkets such as rings. The first published report of platinum was written by Antonio de Ulloa, a Spanish mathematician, astronomer, and naval officer who observed "platina" (little silver) in the gold mines of Ecuador during a French expedition in 1736.[12] Miners found the "platina" difficult to separate from gold, leading to the abandonment of those mines. Charles Wood (ironmaster) brought samples of the metal to England in 1741 and investigated its properties, observing its high melting point and its presence as small white grains in black metallic sand. Interest in the metal grew after Wood's findings were reported to the Royal Society. Henrik Theophil Scheffer, a Swedish scientist, referred to the precious metal as "white gold" and the "seventh metal" in 1751, reporting its high durability, high density, and that it melted easily when mixed with copper or arsenic. Both Pierre-François Chabaneau (during the 1780s) and William Hyde Wollaston (during the 1800s) developed a powder metallurgy technique to produce malleable platinum, but kept their process a secret.[11] However, their platinum ingots were brittle and tended to crack easily, likely due to impurities. In the 1800s, furnaces capable of sustaining high temperatures were invented, which eventually replaced powder metallurgy and introduced melted platinum to the market.

Applications

The group 10 metals share several uses. These include:

Biological role and toxicity

Nickel has an important role in the biochemistry of organisms, as part of the active center of enzymes. None of the other group 10 elements have a known biological role, but platinum compounds have widely been used as anticancer drugs.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria, "Transactinide Elements and Future Elements", The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 1652–1752, ISBN 978-1-4020-3555-5, retrieved 2022-10-09
  2. ^ a b CRC handbook of chemistry and physics : a ready-reference book of chemical and physical data. William M. Haynes, David R. Lide, Thomas J. Bruno (97th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida. 2017. ISBN 978-1-4987-5429-3. OCLC 957751024.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  3. ^ Lancashire, Robert J. "Chemistry of Nickel". LibreTexts. LibreTexts. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  4. ^ "Reserves of nickel worldwide as of 2020, by country (in million metric tons)". Statista. Statista. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
  5. ^ Rosenberg, Samuel J. (1968). Nickel and Its Alloys. National Bureau of Standards. Archived from the original on May 23, 2012.
  6. ^ Rickard, T. A. (1941). "The Use of Meteoric Iron". The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 71 (1/2): 55–66. doi:10.2307/2844401. ISSN 0307-3114.
  7. ^ Chemistry of the Platinum Group Metals: Recent Developments. F. R. Hartley. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 1991. ISBN 0-444-88189-1.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  8. ^ Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A (1997). Chemistry of the elements (2nd ed.). Boston, Mass.: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-585-37339-6. OCLC 48138330.
  9. ^ Usselman, Melvyn C. (1978-11-01). "The Wollaston/Chenevix controversy over the elemental nature of palladium: A curious episode in the history of chemistry". Annals of Science. 35 (6): 551–579. doi:10.1080/00033797800200431. ISSN 0003-3790.
  10. ^ Wollaston, William Hyde (1805-01-01). "XXII. On the discovery of palladium; with observations on other substances found with plantina". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 95: 316–330. doi:10.1098/rstl.1805.0024.
  11. ^ a b Chaston, J. C. (1980). "The Powder Metallurgy of Platinum". Platinum Metals Review. 24 (2): 70–79 – via Johnson Matthey Technology Review.
  12. ^ Hunt, L. B. (1980). "Swedish Contributions to the Discovery of Platinum". Platinum Metals Review. 24 (1): 31–39 – via Johnson Matthey Technology Review.