For elements that are solid at standard temperature and pressure the first table gives the crystalline structure of the most thermodynamically stable form(s) in those conditions. Each element is shaded by a color representing its respective Bravais lattice, except that all orthorhombic lattices are grouped together.
Crystal structure of elements in the periodic table at standard temperature and pressure^{[1]}  

1 H 
2 He  
3 Li W 
4 Be Mg 
5 B βB 
6 C gC 
7 N 
8 O 
9 F 
10 Ne  
11 Na W 
12 Mg Mg 
13 Al Cu 
14 Si dC 
15 P bP 
16 S αS 
17 Cl 
18 Ar  
19 K W 
20 Ca Cu 
21 Sc Mg 
22 Ti Mg 
23 V W 
24 Cr W 
25 Mn αMn 
26 Fe W 
27 Co Mg 
28 Ni Cu 
29 Cu Cu 
30 Zn Mg 
31 Ga αGa 
32 Ge dC 
33 As αAs 
34 Se γSe 
35 Br 
36 Kr  
37 Rb W 
38 Sr Cu 
39 Y Mg 
40 Zr Mg 
41 Nb W 
42 Mo W 
43 Tc Mg 
44 Ru Mg 
45 Rh Cu 
46 Pd Cu 
47 Ag Cu 
48 Cd Mg 
49 In In 
50 Sn βSn 
51 Sb αAs 
52 Te γSe 
53 I Cl 
54 Xe  
55 Cs W 
56 Ba W 
71 Lu Mg 
72 Hf Mg 
73 Ta W 
74 W W 
75 Re Mg 
76 Os Mg 
77 Ir Cu 
78 Pt Cu 
79 Au Cu 
80 Hg 
81 Tl Mg 
82 Pb Cu 
83 Bi αAs 
84 Po αPo 
85 At 
86 Rn  
87 Fr 
88 Ra W 
103 Lr 
104 Rf 
105 Db 
106 Sg 
107 Bh 
108 Hs 
109 Mt 
110 Ds 
111 Rg 
112 Cn 
113 Nh 
114 Fl 
115 Mc 
116 Lv 
117 Ts 
118 Og  
57 La αLa 
58 Ce αLa 
59 Pr αLa 
60 Nd αLa 
61 Pm αLa 
62 Sm αSm 
63 Eu W 
64 Gd Mg 
65 Tb Mg 
66 Dy Mg 
67 Ho Mg 
68 Er Mg 
69 Tm Mg 
70 Yb Cu  
89 Ac Cu 
90 Th Cu 
91 Pa αPa 
92 U αU 
93 Np αNp 
94 Pu αPu 
95 Am αLa 
96 Cm αLa 
97 Bk αLa 
98 Cf αLa 
99 Es Cu 
100 Fm 
101 Md 
102 No 
Legend: 

Primitive monoclinic structures: αPu

Orthorhombic structures: bP, αGa, Cl, αU, αS, αNp

Bodycentered tetragonal structures: In, βSn, αPa

Rhombohedral structures: βB, αAs, αSm

Hexagonal structures: Mg, αLa, gC, γSe

Primitive cubic structures: αPo

Bodycentered cubic structures: W, αMn

Facecentered cubic structures: dC, Cu

Not solid at standard temperature and pressure or uncertain

The second table gives the most stable structure of each element at its melting point. (H, He, N, O, F, Ne, Cl, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn are gases at STP; Br and Hg are liquids at STP.) Note that helium does not have a melting point at atmospheric pressure, but it adopts a magnesiumtype hexagonal closepacked structure under high pressure.
Crystal structures of elements at their melting points at atmospheric pressure  

1 H 13 K Mg 
2 He *  
3 Li 453 K W 
4 Be 1560 K W 
5 B 2349 K βB 
6 C 3800 K gC 
7 N 63 K βN 
8 O 54 K γO 
9 F 53 K γO 
10 Ne 24 K Cu  
11 Na 370 K W 
12 Mg 923 K Mg 
13 Al 933 K Cu 
14 Si 1687 K dC 
15 P 883 K bP 
16 S 393 K βS 
17 Cl 171 K Cl 
18 Ar 83 K Cu  
19 K 336 K W 
20 Ca 1115 K W 
21 Sc 1814 K W 
22 Ti 1941 K W 
23 V 2183 K W 
24 Cr 2180 K W 
25 Mn 1519 K W 
26 Fe 1811 K W 
27 Co 1768 K Cu 
28 Ni 1728 K Cu 
29 Cu 1357 K Cu 
30 Zn 692 K Mg 
31 Ga 302 K αGa 
32 Ge 1211 K dC 
33 As 1090 K bP 
34 Se 494 K γSe 
35 Br 265 K Cl 
36 Kr 115 K Cu  
37 Rb 312 K W 
38 Sr 1050 K W 
39 Y 1799 K W 
40 Zr 2128 K W 
41 Nb 2750 K W 
42 Mo 2896 K W 
43 Tc 2430 K Mg 
44 Ru 2607 K Mg 
45 Rh 2237 K Cu 
46 Pd 1828 K Cu 
47 Ag 1234 K Cu 
48 Cd 594 K Mg 
49 In 429 K In 
50 Sn 505 K βSn 
51 Sb 903 K αAs 
52 Te 722 K γSe 
53 I 386 K Cl 
54 Xe 161 K Cu  
55 Cs 301 K W 
56 Ba 1000 K W 
71 Lu 1925 K Mg 
72 Hf 2506 K W 
73 Ta 3290 K W 
74 W 3695 K W 
75 Re 3459 K Mg 
76 Os 3306 K Mg 
77 Ir 2719 K Cu 
78 Pt 2041 K Cu 
79 Au 1337 K Cu 
80 Hg 234 K αHg 
81 Tl 557 K W 
82 Pb 600 K Cu 
83 Bi 544 K αAs 
84 Po 527 K βPo 
85 At 575 K? ? 
86 Rn 202 K ?  
87 Fr 281 K? ? 
88 Ra 973 K W 
103 Lr 1900 K? ? 
104 Rf ? 
105 Db ? 
106 Sg ? 
107 Bh ? 
108 Hs ? 
109 Mt ? 
110 Ds ? 
111 Rg ? 
112 Cn ? 
113 Nh ? 
114 Fl ? 
115 Mc ? 
116 Lv ? 
117 Ts ? 
118 Og ?  
57 La 1193 K W 
58 Ce 1068 K W 
59 Pr 1208 K W 
60 Nd 1297 K W 
61 Pm 1315 K W 
62 Sm 1345 K W 
63 Eu 1099 K W 
64 Gd 1585 K W 
65 Tb 1629 K W 
66 Dy 1680 K W 
67 Ho 1734 K Mg 
68 Er 1802 K Mg 
69 Tm 1818 K Mg 
70 Yb 1097 K W  
89 Ac 1323 K Cu 
90 Th 2115 K W 
91 Pa 1841 K W 
92 U 1405 K W 
93 Np 917 K W 
94 Pu 912 K W 
95 Am 1449 K W 
96 Cm 1613 K Cu 
97 Bk 1259 K Cu 
98 Cf 1173 K Cu 
99 Es 1133 K Cu 
100 Fm 1800 K? ? 
101 Md 1100 K? ? 
102 No 1100 K? ? 
Legend: 

Primitive monoclinic structures: βS

Orthorhombic structures: bP, αS, Cl, αGa

Bodycentered tetragonal structures: In, βSn

Rhombohedral structures: βB, αAs, αHg, αPo

Primitive Hexagonal structures: Mg, gC, βN, γSe

Primitive cubic structure: γO

Bodycentered cubic structure: W

Facecentered cubic structures: Cu, dC

unknown or uncertain

Predictions are given for elements 85–87, 100–113 and 118; all but radon^{[2]} have not been produced in bulk. Probably Cn and Fl are liquids at STP. Calculations have difficulty replicating the experimentally known bcc structures of the stable alkali metals, and the same problem affects Fr (87);^{[3]} nonetheless, it is probably also bcc.^{[4]} The latest predictions for Fl (114) could not distinguish between facecentred cubic and hexagonal closepacked structures, which were predicted to be close in energy.^{[5]} No predictions are available for elements 115–117.
Predicted crystal structures of highly unstable elements  

1 H 
2 He  
3 Li 
4 Be 
5 B 
6 C 
7 N 
8 O 
9 F 
10 Ne  
11 Na 
12 Mg 
13 Al 
14 Si 
15 P 
16 S 
17 Cl 
18 Ar  
19 K 
20 Ca 
21 Sc 
22 Ti 
23 V 
24 Cr 
25 Mn 
26 Fe 
27 Co 
28 Ni 
29 Cu 
30 Zn 
31 Ga 
32 Ge 
33 As 
34 Se 
35 Br 
36 Kr  
37 Rb 
38 Sr 
39 Y 
40 Zr 
41 Nb 
42 Mo 
43 Tc 
44 Ru 
45 Rh 
46 Pd 
47 Ag 
48 Cd 
49 In 
50 Sn 
51 Sb 
52 Te 
53 I 
54 Xe  
55 Cs 
56 Ba 
71 Lu 
72 Hf 
73 Ta 
74 W 
75 Re 
76 Os 
77 Ir 
78 Pt 
79 Au 
80 Hg 
81 Tl 
82 Pb 
83 Bi 
84 Po 
85 At [Cu]^{[6]} 
86 Rn [Cu]^{[7]}  
87 Fr [W]^{[4]} 
88 Ra 
103 Lr [Mg]^{[8]} 
104 Rf [Mg]^{[8]} 
105 Db [W]^{[8]} 
106 Sg [W]^{[8]} 
107 Bh [Mg]^{[8]} 
108 Hs [Mg]^{[9]} 
109 Mt [Cu]^{[8]} 
110 Ds [W]^{[8]} 
111 Rg [W]^{[8]} 
112 Cn [Mg]^{[10]} 
113 Nh [Mg]^{[11]} 
114 Fl 
115 Mc 
116 Lv 
117 Ts 
118 Og [Cu]^{[7]}  
57 La 
58 Ce 
59 Pr 
60 Nd 
61 Pm 
62 Sm 
63 Eu 
64 Gd 
65 Tb 
66 Dy 
67 Ho 
68 Er 
69 Tm 
70 Yb  
89 Ac 
90 Th 
91 Pa 
92 U 
93 Np 
94 Pu 
95 Am 
96 Cm 
97 Bk 
98 Cf 
99 Es 
100 Fm [Cu]^{[12]} 
101 Md [Cu]^{[12]} 
102 No [Cu]^{[12]} 
Legend: 

[…] predicted structure 
Elements with known structure.

Bodycentered cubic structure: W

Facecentered cubic structures: Cu

Primitive Hexagonal structures: Mg

unknown or uncertain

The following is a list of structure types which appear in the tables above. Regarding the number of atoms in the unit cell, structures in the rhombohedral lattice system have a rhombohedral primitive cell and have trigonal point symmetry but are also often also described in terms of an equivalent but nonprimitive hexagonal unit cell with three times the volume and three times the number of atoms.
Prototype  Strukturbericht  Diagram  Lattice system  Space group  Atoms per unit cell  Coordination  notes 

αPu  (none)  Monoclinic  P2_{1}/m (No. 11) 
16  slightly distorted hexagonal structure. Lattice parameters: a = 618.3 pm, b = 482.2 pm, c = 1096.3 pm, β = 101.79° ^{[13]}^{[14]}  
βS  (none)  Monoclinic  P2_{1}/c (No. 14) 
32  
αNp  A_{c}  Orthorhombic  Pnma (No. 62) 
8  highly distorted bcc structure. Lattice parameters: a = 666.3 pm, b = 472.3 pm, c = 488.7 pm ^{[15]}^{[16]}  
αU  A20  Orthorhombic  Cmcm (No. 63) 
4  Each atom has four near neighbours, 2 at 275.4 pm, 2 at 285.4 pm. The next four at distances 326.3 pm and four more at 334.2 pm.^{[17]}  Strongly distorted hcp structure.  
αGa  A11  Orthorhombic  Cmce (No. 64) 
8  each Ga atom has one nearest neighbour at 244 pm, 2 at 270 pm, 2 at 273 pm, 2 at 279 pm.^{[18]}  The structure is related to that of iodine.  
bP  A17  Orthorhombic  Cmce (No. 64) 
8  Specifically the black phosphorus form of phosphorus.  
Cl  A14  Orthorhombic  Cmce (No. 64) 
8  
αS  A16  Orthorhombic  Fddd (No. 70) 
16  
In  A6  Tetragonal  I4/mmm (No. 139) 
2  Identical symmetry to the αPa type structure. Can be considered slightly distorted from an ideal Cu type facecentered cubic structure^{[18]} which has .  
αPa  A_{a}  Tetragonal  I4/mmm (No. 139) 
2  Identical symmetry to the In type structure. Can be considered slightly distorted from an ideal W type body centered cubic structure which has .  
βSn  A5  Tetragonal  I4_{1}/amd (No. 141) 
4  4 neighbours at 302 pm; 2 at 318 pm; 4 at 377 pm; 8 at 441 pm ^{[18]}  white tin form (thermodynamical stable above 286.4 K)  
βB  (none)  Rhombohedral  R3m (No. 166) 
105 (rh.) 315 (hex.) 
Partly due to its complexity, whether this structure is the ground state of Boron has not been fully settled.  
αAs  A7  Rhombohedral  R3m (No. 166) 
2 (rh.) 6 (hex.) 
in grey metallic form, each As atom has 3 neighbours in the same sheet at 251.7pm; 3 in adjacent sheet at 312.0 pm.^{[18]} each Bi atom has 3 neighbours in the same sheet at 307.2 pm; 3 in adjacent sheet at 352.9 pm.^{[18]} each Sb atom has 3 neighbours in the same sheet at 290.8pm; 3 in adjacent sheet at 335.5 pm.^{[18]} 
puckered sheet  
αSm  (none)  Rhombohedral  R3m (No. 166) 
3 (rh.) 9 (hex.) 
12 nearest neighbours  complex hcp with 9layer repeat: ABCBCACAB....^{[19]}  
αHg  A10  Rhombohedral  R3m (No. 166) 
1 (rh.) 3 (hex.) 
6 nearest neighbours at 234 K and 1 atm (it is liquid at room temperature and thus has no crystal structure at ambient conditions!)  Identical symmetry to the βPo structure, distinguished based on details about the basis vectors of its unit cell. This structure can also be considered to be a distorted hcp lattice with the nearest neighbours in the same plane being approx 16% farther away ^{[18]}  
βPo  A_{i}  Rhombohedral  R3m (No. 166) 
1 (rh.) 3 (hex.) 
Identical symmetry to the αHg structure, distinguished based on details about the basis vectors of its unit cell.  
γSe  A8  Hexagonal  P_{3}21 (No. 154) 
3  
Mg  A3  Hexagonal  P6_{3}/mmc (No. 194) 
2  Zn has 6 nearest neighbors in same plane: 6 in adjacent planes 14% farther away^{[18]} Cd has 6 nearest neighbours in the same plane 6 in adjacent planes 15% farther away^{[18]} 
If the unit cell axial ratio is exactly the structure would be a mathematical hexagonal close packed (HCP) structure. However, in real materials there are deviations from this in some metals where the unit cell is distorted in one direction but the structure still retains the hcp space group—remarkable all the elements have a ratio of lattice parameters c/a < 1.633 (best are Mg and Co and worst Be with c/a ~ 1.568). In others like Zn and Cd the deviations from the ideal change the symmetry of the structure and these have a lattice parameter ratio c/a > 1.85.  
gC  A9  Hexagonal  P6_{3}/mmc (No. 194) 
4  Specifically the graphite form of carbon.  
αLa  A3'  Hexagonal  P6_{3}/mmc (No. 194) 
4  The Double hexagonal close packed (DHCP) structure. Similar to the ideal hcp structure, the perfect dhcp structure should have a lattice parameter ratio of In the real dhcp structures of 5 lanthanides (including βCe) variates between 1.596 (Pm) and 1.6128 (Nd). For the four known actinides dhcp lattices the corresponding number vary between 1.620 (Bk) and 1.625 (Cf).^{[20]}  
βN  (none)  Hexagonal  P6_{3}/mmc (No. 194) 
4  
αPo  A_{h}  Cubic  Pm3m (No. 221) 
1  6 nearest neighbours  simple cubic lattice. The atoms in the unit cell are at the corner of a cube.  
γO  (none)  Cubic  Pm3n (No. 223) 
16  Closely related to the βW structure, except with a diatomic oxygen molecule in place of each tungsten atom. The molecules can rotate in place, but the direction of rotation for some of the molecules is restricted.  
αMn  A12  Cubic  I43m (No. 217) 
58  Unit cell contains Mn atoms in 4 different environments.^{[18]}  Distorted bcc  
W  A2  Cubic  Im3m (No. 229) 
2  The Body centered cubic structure (BCC). It is not a close packed structure. In this each metal atom is at the centre of a cube with 8 nearest neighbors, however the 6 atoms at the centres of the adjacent cubes are only approximately 15% further away so the coordination number can therefore be considered to be 14 when these are on one 4 fold axe structure becomes facecentred cubic (cubic close packed).  
Cu  A1  Cubic  Fm3m (No. 225) 
4  The facecentered cubic (cubic close packed) structure. More content relating to number of planes within structure and implications for glide/slide e.g. ductility.  
dC  A4  Cubic  Fd3m (No. 227) 
8  The diamond cubic (DC) structure. Specifically the diamond form of Carbon. 
See also: Closepacking of equal spheres 
The observed crystal structures of many metals can be described as a nearly mathematical closepacking of equal spheres. A simple model for both of these is to assume that the metal atoms are spherical and are packed together as closely as possible. In closest packing, every atom has 12 equidistant nearest neighbours, and therefore a coordination number of 12. If the close packed structures are considered as being built of layers of spheres, then the difference between hexagonal close packing and facecentred cubic is how each layer is positioned relative to others. The following types can be viewed as a regular buildup of closepacked layers:
Precisely speaking, the structures of many of the elements in the groups above are slightly distorted from the ideal closest packing. While they retain the lattice symmetry as the ideal structure, they often have nonideal c/a ratios for their unit cell. Less precisely speaking, there are also other elements are nearly closepacked but have distortions which have at least one broken symmetry with respect to the closepacked structure: