|Born||24 November 1622|
Charaideo, Assam, India
|Died||25 April 1672 (aged 49)|
Jorhat, Assam, India
|Allegiance||Tai Ahom kingdom|
|Rank||Borphukan and Commander-in-Chief of the Ahom army|
|Battles/wars||Lead the Ahom army to decisive victory in 1671 Battle of Saraighat against the Mughals.|
Lachit Borphukan (24 November 1622 - 25 April 1672) was a commander and Borphukan (Phu-Kon-Lung) in the Ahom kingdom, located in present-day Assam, India, known for his leadership in the 1671 Battle of Saraighat that thwarted a drawn-out attempt by Mughal forces under the command of Ramsingh I to take over Ahom kingdom. He died about a year later due to illness.
Lachit Borphukan was the son of Momai Tamuli Borbarua, the first Borbarua of upper-Assam and Commander-in-Chief of the Ahom army) under Pratap Singha. His mother's name was La-Cheng Aideu. He was born in Charaideo to a Tai Ahom family. Lachit Borphukan was educated in Humanities, indigenous scriptures and military skills. He was given the responsibility of serving as the Soladhara Barua (scarf-bearer) of the Ahom Swargadeo, a position equivalent to a Private Secretaryship, which was regarded as the first step for a career as an ambitious diplomat or politician. Other offices held by Lachit before his appointment as Borphukan included Superintendent of the Stable of Royal Horses (Ghora Barua), Commander of the strategic Simulgarh Fort and Superintendent of the Royal Household Guards (Dolakaxaria Barua) for King Chaofa Suo-Pung-Moung(Chakradhwaj Singha).
King Chakradhwaj Singha selected Lachit Borphukan to lead the forces of the Kingdom of Ahom to liberate Guwahati from Mughal occupation. The King presented Lachit with a gold-hafted sword (Hengdang) and the customary paraphernalia of distinction. Lachit raised the army and preparations were completed by summer of 1667. Lachit recovered Guwahati from the Mughals and successfully defended it against the Mughal forces during the Battle of Saraighat.
Lachit Borphukan died about a year after the victory at Saraighat due to natural causes. His remains lie in rest at the Lachit Maidaam constructed in 1672 by Swargadeo Udayaditya Singha at Hoolungapara 16 km from Jorhat.
There is no portrait of Lachit Barphukan, but an old chronicle does provide a physical description:
His face is broad, and resembles the moon in its full phase. No one is capable of staring at his face.
Main article: Battle of Saraighat
After being defeated by Lachit and his forces, the Mughals army sailed up the Brahmaputra river from Dhaka towards Assam advancing to Guwahati. The Mughal Army under Ram Singh I consisted of 30,000 infantry, 15,000 archers, 18,000 Turkish cavalry, 5,000 gunners and over 1000 cannons besides a large flotilla of boats.
Ram Singh, the Mughal commander in chief failed to make any advance against the Assamese army during the first phase of the war. An arrow carrying a letter by Ram Singh telling that Lachit have been paid rupees one lakh and he should evacuate Guwahati was fired into the Ahom camp, which eventually reached the Ahom king, Chakradhwaj Singha. Although the king started to doubt Lachit's sincerity and patriotism, his prime minister Atan Buragohain convinced the King this was just a trick against Lachit.
During the last stage of the Battle of Saraighat, when the Mughals attacked by the river in Saraighat, the Assamese soldiers began to lose their will to fight. Some elements retreated. Though Lachit was seriously ill he boarded a boat and with seven boats advanced against the Mughal fleet. He said: "If you (the soldiers) want to flee, flee. The king has given me a task here and I will do it well. Let the Mughals take me away. You report to the king that his general fought well following his orders". His soldiers rallied and a desperate battle ensured on the river Brahmaputra.
Lachit Borphukan was victorious. The Mughals were forced to retreat from Guwahati. The Mughal Commander-in-Chief, acknowledging his defeat by the Ahom soldiers and their Commander-in-chief Lachit Barphukan, wrote:
Glory to the king! Glory to the counselors! Glory to the commanders! Glory to the country! One single individual leads all the forces! Even I, Ram Singh, being personally on the spot, have not been able to find any loophole and an opportunity!
November 24 is celebrated as Lachit Divas (Lachit Day) in Assam to commemorate the heroism of Lachit Borphukan and the victory of the Assamese army at the Battle of Saraighat.
The best passing out cadet of National Defence Academy is conferred the Lachit Borphukan gold medal every year from 1999 The announcement of institution of the award by Indian Army chief General Malik on 25 April 1999 at the Delhi programme in presence of India's vice-president and other dignitaries was the pivot to perpetuate the memory of Lachit Borphukan at the national level for the very first time. Battalion Cadet Adjutant Aaditya Udupa, 126th NDA Course,was awarded the medal for the Spring Term 2014 on 28 May 2014.
An award is presented to notable personalities of Assam by Tai Ahom Yuba Parishad (TAYPA). Some of recipients are: Lt. Gen (retd.) S.K. Sinha (2012), Bhugeswar Baruah (2013), Capt. Jintu Gogoi - posthumously (2014), Jadav Payang (2015), Dr. Pushpadhar Gogoi and Dr. Hiren Gohain (2016). The award includes cash amount of ₹50,000.00, a citation and a traditional sword.
Lachit Borphukan's Maidam was constructed in memory of Lachit Borphukan at Jorhat, Assam. It is 8 km far from the famous Hoollongapar Gibbon Sanctuary. Here last remains of Borphukan were laid under this tomb (Maidam) constructed by Swargadeo Udayaditya Singha in 1672.