London Borough of Brent
Official logo of London Borough of Brent
Motto: 
Forward Together
Brent shown within Greater London
Brent shown within Greater London
Coordinates: 51°33′58″N 0°16′26″W / 51.56611°N 0.27389°W / 51.56611; -0.27389
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionLondon
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Created1 April 1965
Admin HQEngineers Way, Wembley
Government
 • TypeLondon borough council
 • BodyBrent London Borough Council
 • LeaderMuhammed Butt (Labour)
 • MayorCllr Abdi Aden[1]
 • London AssemblyKrupesh Hirani (Lab) AM for Brent and Harrow
 • MPsBarry Gardiner (Lab)
Tulip Siddiq (Lab)
Dawn Butler (Lab)
Area
 • Total16.70 sq mi (43.24 km2)
 • Rank255th (of 296)
Population
 (2021)
 • Total338,918
 • Rank30th (of 296)
 • Density20,000/sq mi (7,800/km2)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
Postcodes
HA, NW, W
Area code020
ISO 3166 codeGB-BEN
ONS code00AE
GSS codeE09000005
PoliceMetropolitan Police
Websitehttp://www.brent.gov.uk

Brent (pronunciation) is a borough in north-west London. It is known for landmarks such as Wembley Stadium, the Swaminarayan Temple and the Kiln Theatre. It also contains the Welsh Harp reservoir and the Park Royal commercial estate. The local authority is Brent London Borough Council.

Brent's population is estimated to be 339,800.[2] Major districts are Kilburn, Willesden, Wembley and Harlesden, with sub-districts Stonebridge, Kingsbury, Kensal Green, Neasden, and Kenton. Brent has a mixture of residential, industrial and commercial land. It includes many districts of inner-city character in the east and a more distinct suburban character in the west, part of which formed part of the early 20th century Metroland developments.

Local government

Administrative history

The Brent region in the Ordnance Survey's First Series of maps (1805–1869)

Brent was formed in 1965 from the area of the former Municipal Borough of Wembley and Municipal Borough of Willesden of Middlesex. The Municipal Borough of Wembley was formed by a merger of the parishes of Wembley (originally part of the Ancient Parish of Harrow-on-the-Hill) and Kingsbury in 1934.

Its name derives from the River Brent which runs through the borough and separated the former boroughs of Wembley and Willesden.[3]

UK Parliament

A map showing the wards of Brent since 2002

Brent is divided into 21 electoral wards. Some wards share a name with the traditional areas above, others include Mapesbury and Welsh Harp.[4]

The borough includes three parliamentary constituencies: Brent North, Brent Central and Hampstead and Kilburn, which includes part of the London Borough of Camden. Before the 2010 United Kingdom general election it was divided into three constituencies contained wholly within the borough – Brent South, Brent East and Brent North.

Brent London Borough Council

See also: Brent London Borough Council elections

Brent London Borough Council is elected every four years, with currently 63 councillors being elected at each election. While the Labour Party has been the largest single party on the council for about half its history and the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats have each been the largest party at other times, there have been several periods when no party has had overall control. Labour regained control in 2010 and increased their majority at the 2014 election and 2018 election. As of 2020, the council is composed of the following councillors:[5][6]

Party Councillors
Labour Party 59
Conservative Party 3
Liberal Democrats 1

The Leader of the council is Labour Councillor Muhammed Butt.[7]

Greater London representation

For elections to the Greater London Council, the borough formed the Brent electoral division, electing four members. In 1973 it was divided into the single-member Brent East, Brent North and Brent South electoral divisions.[8] The Greater London Council was abolished in 1986.

Since 2000, for elections to the London Assembly, the borough forms part of the Brent and Harrow constituency.

Demographics

Population pyramid of the Borough of Brent in 2021
Population
YearPop.±%
1801 2,022—    
1811 2,690+33.0%
1821 3,074+14.3%
1831 3,991+29.8%
1841 5,416+35.7%
1851 5,646+4.2%
1861 14,749+161.2%
1871 23,852+61.7%
1881 32,955+38.2%
1891 67,674+105.4%
1901 105,613+56.1%
1911 164,833+56.1%
1921 202,448+22.8%
1931 248,656+22.8%
1941 277,842+11.7%
1951 310,457+11.7%
1961 294,804−5.0%
1971 280,009−5.0%
1981 251,249−10.3%
1991 248,569−1.1%
2001 263,463+6.0%
2011 311,215+18.1%
Source: A Vision of Britain through time

In 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough had a total population of 2,022. This rose slowly throughout the nineteenth century, as the district became built up; reaching 5,646 in the middle of the century. When the railways arrived the rate of population growth increased. The population took five decades to rebound to the more muted peak of the 1950s, when much industry relocated from London, further boosting the speed of the wave of new housing then built.

Brent is the most diverse locality in the UK by country of birth. It in 2019 became the only local authority with over 50% of residents, namely 52%, born abroad.[9] Large Asian and Indian, Black African, Black Caribbean, Irish, and Eastern European communities exist. 45 per cent of the population was a minority ethnicity in the 1991 census,[10] the most in England at the time.[11] In 1991 17.2% were Indian, 10.2% were Black Caribbean and 9% were Irish. Brent was the only Outer London borough combining high proportions of Indian and Afro-Caribbean ethnicities.[12]

The 2001 UK Census found that the borough had a population of 263,464 residents, of whom 127,806 were male, and 135,658 female. Of those stating a choice, 47.71% described themselves as Christian, 17.71% as Hindu, 12.26% as Muslim and 10% as having no religion. Among residents, 39.96% were in full-time employment and 7.86% in part-time employment – compared to a London average of 42.64% and 8.62%, respectively. Narrowly most residents included an owner-occupier in their household, with 23.17% of households owning their house outright, and a further 31.33% owning with a mortgage. 10.59% were in local authority housing, with a further 13.29% renting from a housing association, or other registered social landlord.[13]

The 2021 census found that the borough has England and Wales's lowest proportion of people born in the UK, at 43.9%.[14]

The borough of Brent is extremely ethnically diverse, having changed greatly since 1951. In the 2011 census, those who identified as White British made up 18% of the borough's population. 18% identified as other White, 5% were of mixed heritage, those of South Asian heritage comprised about 33%, those of African and Caribbean heritage about 19%, and other ethnic groups about 7%. White ethnicities were relatively high in the wards of Mapesbury (straddling Willesden Green and Cricklewood), Brondesbury Park, Queen's Park and Kilburn. Black ethnicities in highest proportion were in Stonebridge, Harlesden and Kensal Green wards. Asian ethnicities in highest proportion were in the wards of Alperton, Wembley Central and Kenton.[15] Those who ethnically identify as BAME (Black, Asian and minority Ethnic) was as high as 86% in Wembley Central – one of the highest in London – and most other Brent wards have a majority BAME population. Queen's Park had the lowest BAME proportion, at 37.0%.[16]

Brent has the highest proportion of Irish residents in Britain, with 4% of the population.[17] It also has the largest Brazilian community in the UK;[18] one of the largest Indian communities;[19] a significant Afro-Caribbean community;[20] and more recent Romanian, Polish and Somali communities.[21]

Religion

As of 2011, 41.5% identified themselves as Christian, 18.6% Muslim, 17.8% Hindu and 10.6% with no religion.[22] Brent is home of the Neasden Temple, once the largest Hindu Mandir outside India; and JFS, the largest Jewish school in Europe.[23] There is also an Islamic school called Islamia Primary School founded by Cat Stevens.

The following table shows the religious identity of residents residing in Brent according to the 2001, 2011 and the 2021 censuses.

Religion 2001[24] 2011[25] 2021[26]
Number % Number % Number %
Christian 125,702 47.7 129,080 41.5 131,914 38.8
Muslim 32,290 12.3 58,036 18.6 72,574 21.4
Jewish 6,464 2.5 4,357 1.4 3,723 1.1
Hindu 45,228 17.2 55,449 17.8 52,876 15.6
Sikh 1,738 0.7 1,709 0.5 1,530 0.5
Buddhism 2,497 0.9 4,300 1.4 3,117 0.9
Other religion 2,977 1.1 3,768 1.2 4,424 1.3
No religion 26,252 10.0 33,054 10.6 46,153 13.6
Religion not stated 20,316 7.7 21,462 6.9 23,506 6.9
Total 263,464 100.00% 311,215 100.00% 339,800 100.0%

Health

According to the House of Commons survey of female genital mutilation, in the year to 31 March 2016, Brent represented the highest number of attendees, by current residence or visiting location, to medical services, at 1250, 545 more than the next-highest local authority, Bristol.[27]

In 2015, the BBC reported that some wards of Brent and four other London boroughs had rates of tuberculosis over ten times the national average, and higher than rates seen in Iraq and Rwanda.[28]

Ethnicity

Ethnic makeup of Brent by single year ages in 2021

This table shows the stated ethnic group of respondents in the 1991 to 2021 censuses and estimates for 1966 and 1981 in Brent.

Ethnic Group Year
1966 estimations[29][30][31] 1981 estimations[32] 1991[33] 2001[34] 2011[35] 2021[36]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
White: Total 92.6% 165,069 66.5% 134,156 55.2% 119,278 45.27% 112,880 36.27% 117,701 34.6%
White: British 76,893 29.19% 55,887 17.96% 51,611 15.2%
White: Irish 18,313 6.95% 12,320 3.96% 9,314 2.7%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller 320 0.10% 237 0.1%
White: Roma 2,520 0.7%
White: Other 24,072 9.14% 44,353 14.25% 54,019 15.9%
Asian or Asian British: Total 61,077 25.1% 75,874 28.80% 105,986 34.06% 111,515 32.8%
Asian or Asian British: Indian 41753 48,624 18.46% 58,017 18.64% 66,157 19.5%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 7323 10,626 4.03% 14,381 4.62% 15,217 4.5%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 750 1,184 0.45% 1,749 0.56% 2,186 0.6%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese 2572 2,812 1.07% 3,250 1.04% 3,393 1.0%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian 8679 12,628 4.79% 28,589 9.19% 24,562 7.2%
Black or Black British: Total 40,135 16.5% 52,337 19.86% 58,632 18.84% 59,495 17.5%
Black or Black British: African 9967 20,640 7.83% 24,391 7.84% 31,070 9.1%
Black or Black British: Caribbean 24845 27,574 10.47% 23,723 7.62% 21,258 6.3%
Black or Black British: Other Black 5323 4,123 1.56% 10,518 3.38% 7,167 2.1%
Mixed or British Mixed: Total 9,802 3.72% 15,775 5.07% 17,249 5.1%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean 2,739 1.04% 4,291 1.38% 3,775 1.1%
Mixed: White and Black African 1,739 0.66% 2,820 0.91% 3,184 0.9%
Mixed: White and Asian 2,529 0.96% 3,642 1.17% 3,607 1.1%
Mixed: Other Mixed 2,795 1.06% 5,022 1.61% 6,683 2.0%
Other: Total 7657 3.1% 6,173 2.34% 17,942 5.77% 33,861 10%
Other: Arab 11,430 3.67% 17,924 5.3%
Other: Any other ethnic group 7657 6,512 2.09% 15,937 4.7%
Ethnic minority: Total 7.4% 83,023 33.5% 108,869 44.7% 144,186 54.73% 198,335 63.73% 222,120 65.4%
Total 100% 248,092 100% 243,025 100% 263,464 100.00% 311,215 100.00% 339,821 100%

Geography

Main article: List of districts in Brent

Major districts of Brent include Kilburn, Willesden and Wembley.

Climate

Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[37][failed verification]

Climate data for Borough of Brent, UK
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8
(46)
8
(46)
10
(50)
12
(54)
15
(59)
17
(63)
19
(66)
19
(66)
17
(63)
14
(57)
11
(52)
8
(46)
13
(55)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3
(37)
3
(37)
4
(39)
5
(41)
8
(46)
10
(50)
12
(54)
12
(54)
10
(50)
8
(46)
6
(43)
4
(39)
7
(45)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 130
(5.2)
110
(4.3)
79
(3.1)
84
(3.3)
79
(3.1)
64
(2.5)
76
(3)
89
(3.5)
89
(3.5)
140
(5.7)
150
(5.9)
150
(6.1)
1,250
(49.4)
Source: Weatherbase[38][failed verification]

Economy

Behind Tower Hamlets, Brent has the highest poverty rate in London after housing costs.[39] It was the borough with the highest average unemployment rate in 2022 with 7%.[40] More than one in three households live in poverty, 9% above the London average, and 14% above the England average.[41]

Diageo has its head office in Park Royal and in Brent,[42][43] on a former Guinness brewery property.[44] The brewery was closed in 2004; it had produced beer since 1936.[45] Diageo planned to move its head office to Brent from Central London when the lease on the Central London office expired in 2010.[44]

Amenities and culture

The old Brent Town Hall
The new Brent Civic Centre

Education

Main article: List of schools in the London Borough of Brent

Compulsory recycling

Recycling has been compulsory in Brent since 2008.[46]

London Fire Brigade

Brent has three fire stations: Park Royal, Wembley and Willesden. Brent has a mixture of residential, industrial and commercial land. Wembley National Stadium is in the borough; on match days the fire safety of over 90,000 people falls to the London Fire Brigade. The Wembley station covers the largest area in the borough, 19.1 km2 (7.4 sq mi).[47] Two pumping appliances, a fire rescue unit and an aerial ladder platform are based there. Willesden, for its more typical area covered (10.5 km2 (4.1 sq mi)), responded to over a thousand incidents in 2006/2007.[47] Two pumping appliances reside there. Park Royal, with its one pumping appliance and an incident response unit covers 8.1 km2 (3.1 sq mi). Within the borough, 4,105 incidents occurred in 2006/2007.[47]

Transport

Like most of northwest London, Brent is served extensively by the London Underground. 21 tube stations are located in Brent, all served by either the Metropolitan, Jubilee, Bakerloo or Piccadilly Lines. All of them are surface level, with the exception of Kilburn Park tube station in the southeast of the borough. This number is the second highest of all London boroughs behind Westminster, which has 32 stations within its boundaries. The numerous London Underground, London Overground and National Rail stations in the borough are:

Travel to work

In March 2011, the plurality of residents aged 16–74 were not in employment, 38.9%. After that, the main forms of transport to work were:

Landmarks

Parks and open spaces

Main article: Brent parks and open spaces

Sport and leisure

The Borough has three Non-League football clubs:

Town twinning

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the United Kingdom

Brent is twinned with:

Freedom of the Borough

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the Borough of Brent.

This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (July 2020)

Individuals

Military units

References

  1. ^ "Brent welcomes in a new Mayor". Brent Council. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  2. ^ "How the population changed in Brent, Census 2021 - ONS". www.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 8 July 2023.
  3. ^ King, Rosamund & Barres-Baker, Malcolm - Britain in Old Photographs: The London Borough of Brent (Stroud, The History Press, 2011) p.4 ISBN 0-75245-827-2
  4. ^ Borough of Brent official website, brent.gov.uk; accessed 7 December 2014.
  5. ^ "Local council election results 2018 - in full". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  6. ^ Volpe, Sam (22 June 2018). "Labour sweeps the board in delayed Willesden Green election". Brent & Kilburn Times. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  7. ^ "Councillor details - Councillor Muhammed Butt". democracy.brent.gov.uk. 6 January 2021.
  8. ^ Boothroyd, David. "Greater London Council Election results: Brent". United Kingdom Election Results. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2023.
  9. ^ Local Area Migration Indicators, UK: Office for National Statistics. Published on 27 August 2020.
  10. ^ Nicholas Timmins (13 December 1995). "London: Europe's new ethnic melting pot". The Independent. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  11. ^ John Windsor (1 January 1994). "Digging for treasure in a dustbin: It may be the most boring museum in the world, full of the ephemeral bric-a-brac of recent history, but to his surprise, John Windsor has become a fan of The Grange in Neasden". The Independent. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  12. ^ Racial segregation in London (PDF) (Thesis). University College London. June 1994. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2021.
  13. ^ Key Figures for 2001 Census: Census Area Statistics: Brent, neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk; accessed 25 February 2009.
  14. ^ "Country of birth - Census Maps, ONS". www.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  15. ^ 2011 Census data, accessed 4 November 2013.
  16. ^ "Ward Profiles and Atlas – London Datastore".
  17. ^ "2011 Census data".
  18. ^ "Layout 1" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 June 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  19. ^ "The London Borough of Brent". Onedome.com. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  20. ^ "Brent".
  21. ^ https://www.whatdotheyknow.com/request/492406/response/1187217/attach/html/5/Brent Council Controlling Migration Fund application.pdf.html
  22. ^ Brent profile by religious adherence, http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk; accessed 7 December 2014.
  23. ^ "JFS and JCoSS announce expansion plan - The Jewish Chronicle". Archived from the original on 15 March 2017.
  24. ^ "KS007 - Religion". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  25. ^ "2011 census – theme tables". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  26. ^ "Religion - Office for National Statistics".
  27. ^ "House of Commons - Female genital mutilation: abuse unchecked - Home Affairs Committee". publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  28. ^ "London areas have higher TB than Iraq". 27 October 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  29. ^ Frasure, Robert C. (1971). "Constituency Racial Composition and the Attitudes of British M. P.'s". Comparative Politics. 3 (2): 201–210. doi:10.2307/421299. ISSN 0010-4159.
  30. ^ Deakin, N.; Cohen, B.G. (June 1970). "Dispersal and Choice: Towards a Strategy for Ethnic Minorities in Britain". Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space. 2 (2): 193–201. doi:10.1068/a020193. ISSN 0308-518X.
  31. ^ KRAMER, DANIEL C. (1969). "WHITE VERSUS COLORED IN BRITAIN: AN EXPLOSIVE CONFRONTATION?". Social Research. 36 (4): 585–605. ISSN 0037-783X.
  32. ^ "Ethnic minorities in Britain: statistical information on the pattern of settlement". Commission for Racial Equality: Table 2.2. 1985.
  33. ^ "1991 census – theme tables". NOMIS. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  34. ^ "KS006 - Ethnic group". NOMIS. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  35. ^ "Ethnic Group by measures". NOMIS. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  36. ^ "Ethnic group - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  37. ^ "Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase.
  38. ^ "Brent, England: Monthly - Weather Averages Summary". Weatherbase. CantyMedia. 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  39. ^ Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, ONS
  40. ^ Data are based on annual January to December figures. Unemployment rate is the proportion of the working age economically active population.
  41. ^ Analysis of ONS, Households in Poverty estimates for middle layer super output areas, England & Wales, 2013/14
  42. ^ "Diageo Contacts." Diageo. Retrieved on 1 September 2011. "Diageo plc Lakeside Drive Park Royal London NW107HQ"
  43. ^ "Brent Boundary (approximate) Archived 1 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine." London Borough of Brent. Retrieved on 1 September 2011.
  44. ^ a b Dunkley, Jamie. "Drinks maker Diageo to close London office", The Daily Telegraph, 20 March 2009; retrieved 1 September 2011.
  45. ^ Innes, John. "Guinness closes UK brewery", The Scotsman. 16 April 2004; retrieved 1 September 2011.
  46. ^ "Mass sign-up to London recycling scheme". BBC News (UK, England). 2 August 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
  47. ^ a b c London Fire Brigade - Brent Profile, london-fire.gov.uk; accessed 7 December 2014.
  48. ^ "2011 Census: QS701EW Method of travel to work, local authorities in England and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 November 2013. Percentages are of all residents aged 16-74 including those not in employment. Respondents could only select one mode.
  49. ^ "Nelson Mandela given freedom of borough of Brent". BBC News. 24 June 2013.