Mathematical Institute
The Mathematical Institute at Oxford University.jpg
The Andrew Wiles Building, home of the Mathematical Institute at the University of Oxford and featuring the Penrose tiling at its entrance, completed in 2013.
Established1966; 56 years ago (1966)
Head of Department
James Sparks[1]
Students1,400[1]
LocationWoodstock Road, Oxford
51°45′38″N 1°15′46″W / 51.7606°N 1.2629°W / 51.7606; -1.2629Coordinates: 51°45′38″N 1°15′46″W / 51.7606°N 1.2629°W / 51.7606; -1.2629
OX2 6GG
Websitewww.maths.ox.ac.uk
Map
Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford is located in Oxford city centre
Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford
Location in Oxford city centre

The Mathematical Institute is the mathematics department at the University of Oxford in England. It is one of the nine departments of the university's Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division.[2] The institute includes both pure and applied mathematics (Statistics is a separate department) and is one of the largest mathematics departments in the United Kingdom with about 200 academic staff.[1] It was ranked (in a joint submission with Statistics) as the top mathematics department in the UK in the 2021 Research Excellence Framework.[3] Research at the Mathematical Institute covers all branches of mathematical sciences ranging from, for example, algebra, number theory, and geometry to the application of mathematics to a wide range of fields including industry, finance, networks, and the brain. It has more than 850 undergraduates and 550 doctoral or masters students.[1] The institute inhabits a purpose-built building between Somerville College and Green Templeton College on Woodstock Road, next to the Faculty of Philosophy.

History

Former Mathematical Institute building, built in 1966.
Former Mathematical Institute building, built in 1966.

The earliest forerunner of the Mathematical Institute was the School of Geometry and Arithmetic in the Bodleian Library's main quadrangle. This was completed in 1620.[4]

Notable mathematicians associated with the university include Christopher Wren who, before his notable career as an architect, made contributions in analytical mathematics, astronomy, and mathematical physics;[5] Edmond Halley who published a series of profound papers on astronomy while Savilian Professor of Geometry in the early 18th century;[6] John Wallis, whose innovations include using the symbol for infinity;[7] Charles Dodgson, who made significant contributions to geometry and logic while also achieving fame as a children's author under his pen name Lewis Carroll;[8] and Henry John Stephen Smith, another Savilian Professor of Geometry, whose work in number theory and matrices attracted international recognition to Oxford mathematics.[9] Dodgson jokingly proposed that the university should grant its mathematicians a narrow strip of level ground, reaching "ever so far", so that they could test whether or not parallel lines ever meet.[4]

The building of an institute was originally proposed by G. H. Hardy in 1930. Lectures were normally given in the individual colleges of the university and Hardy proposed a central space where mathematics lectures could be held and where mathematicians could regularly meet.[4] This proposal was too ambitious for the university, who allocated just six rooms for mathematicians in an extension to the Radcliffe Science Library built in 1934.[10] A dedicated Mathematical Institute was built in 1966 and was located at the northern end of St Giles' near the junction with Banbury Road in central north Oxford.[10] The needs of the institute soon outgrew its building, so it also occupied a neighbouring house on St Giles and two annexes: Dartington House on Little Clarendon Street, and the Gibson Building on the site of the Radcliffe Infirmary.[11][10]

In 2008 the institute was given US$25 million — the largest grant ever for a mathematics department in the UK — to establish the Oxford Centre for Collaborative Applied Mathematics (OCCAM).[12][13] Since 2013 the institute has been housed in the purpose-built Andrew Wiles Building in the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter in North Oxford, near the original Radcliffe Infirmary. Wiles, the university's Regius Professor of Mathematics, is known for proving Fermat's Last Theorem.[14] The design and construction of the building was informed by the academic staff to incorporate mathematical ideas; Sir Roger Penrose designed a non-periodic pattern (a Penrose tiling) to decorate the ground at the entrance, and two structures where natural light enters the building have "crystals" illustrating concepts from graph theory and the vibration of a two-dimensional surface.[14]

Research

The institute is home to a number of research groups and funded research centres. Groups in mathematical logic, algebra, number theory, numerical analysis, geometry, topology, and mathematical physics date back to at least the 1960s.[15] More recent groups include a combinatorics group, the Wolfson Centre for Mathematical Biology (WCMB), the Oxford Centre for Industrial Applied Mathematics (OCIAM) which includes a centre studying financial derivatives, and the Oxford Centre for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (OxPDE).[16][17] In the 21st century, the institute's research topics have come to include quantum computing, tumour growth, and string theory, among other physical, biological, and economic problems.[18] In 2012 the office of the President of the Clay Mathematics Institute (CMI) moved to the Mathematical Institute as Nick Woodhouse became CMI's president. The CMI offers the Millennium Prizes of one million dollars for solving famous mathematical problems that were unsolved in 2000.[19] The current CMI president, Martin Bridson, is also based at the institute.[20]

Like other university departments in the UK, the institute has been rated for the quality and impact of its research. In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise, Oxford was joint first (with the University of Cambridge) for applied mathematics[21] and third for pure mathematics.[22] In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the institute submitted jointly with the Department of Statistics, getting the highest placement for mathematical sciences in the UK.[23] In the 2021 Research Excellence Framework, Oxford maintained its top place.[3]

Teaching

The institute has more than 850 undergraduate students on four degree courses: Mathematics, Mathematics and Statistics, Mathematics and Philosophy, and Mathematics and Computer Science. Students decide during their degree whether to earn a Bachelor of Arts (BA) after three years or to continue to a fourth year to earn a Master of Mathematics (MMath).[24][1] In 2017, the time allowed for exams was increased from 90 to 105 minutes for each paper for all students, with one motivation being to improve women's scores and close the gender performance gap.[25][26] The 550 postgraduate students take one of five courses to earn a Master of Science (MSc)[27] or conduct research to earn a DPhil (the Oxford name for a Doctor of Philosophy).[28][1]

The Guardian's 2021 ranking of "Best UK universities for mathematics" placed Oxford at the top.[29]

Outreach

Sir Roger Penrose is an emeritus professor at the institute.
Sir Roger Penrose is an emeritus professor at the institute.

The institute promotes understanding of mathematics outside the university by running public lectures, by hosting events for school students, and by supporting staff members who promote mathematics to the general public.[30][31] Of those staff members, the best known are Sir Roger Penrose, David Acheson, and Marcus Du Sautoy. Penrose, a former Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics who has an emeritus post at the institute, has written a series of popular books on mathematics and physics. Acheson has reached a wide audience through publishing, radio, and YouTube. Du Sautoy is the current Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding of Science and is known as a television and radio broadcaster as well as an author of popular books on mathematics.[31]

Historical statutory professors

Ben Green holds the Waynflete Professorship of Pure Mathematics.

Alumni

Sir Michael Atiyah was a member between 1961 and 1990.[43] Mary Cartwright, who earned her first degree and doctorate at Oxford, was the first female mathematician to be awarded Fellowship of the Royal Society and the first female president of the London Mathematical Society.[44]

In popular culture

In 2015, the final episode, "What Lies Tangled," of the British television detective drama Lewis was set and filmed in the Mathematical Institute. Sir Andrew Wiles played a professor who appears in the background of one shot.[45]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "About Us | Mathematical Institute". www.maths.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  2. ^ "Departments — Mathematical, Physical and Life Sciences Division". www.mpls.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  3. ^ a b "REF 2021: Mathematical sciences". Times Higher Education (THE). 12 May 2022. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  4. ^ a b c Woodhouse 2014, p. 1.
  5. ^ Chapman 2013a.
  6. ^ Chapman 2013b.
  7. ^ Flood & Fauvel 2013.
  8. ^ Wilson 2013.
  9. ^ Hannabuss 2013a, p. 239.
  10. ^ a b c Woodhouse 2014, p. 2.
  11. ^ About, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, UK.
  12. ^ "KAUST Global Research Partnership Center Grant | Mathematical Institute". www.maths.ox.ac.uk. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  13. ^ Neumann 2013, p. 351.
  14. ^ a b Woodhouse 2014, p. 15.
  15. ^ Neumann 2013, p. 344.
  16. ^ Neumann 2013, p. 346–351.
  17. ^ "Welcome to the WCMB website | Mathematical Institute". www.maths.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  18. ^ Neumann 2013, p. 350–352.
  19. ^ Neumann 2013, p. 351–2.
  20. ^ Anon (2017). "Bridson, Prof. Martin Robert". Who's Who. ukwhoswho.com (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.250830. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) (subscription required)
  21. ^ "RAE 2008: applied mathematics results". the Guardian. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  22. ^ "RAE 2008: pure mathematics". the Guardian. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  23. ^ "Research Excellence Framework 2014 ranking" (PDF). Times Higher Education. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  24. ^ "Prospectus | Mathematical Institute". www.maths.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  25. ^ Beauchamp, Sarah. "Oxford Is Giving Students Extra Time For Exams (But Female Students Especially)". Bustle. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  26. ^ Diver, Tony (2018). "Oxford University extends exam times for women's benefit". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  27. ^ "MSc Courses | Mathematical Institute". www.maths.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  28. ^ "Doctor of Philosophy (DPhil) | Mathematical Institute". www.maths.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  29. ^ "Best UK universities for mathematics – league table". the Guardian. Retrieved 5 August 2022.
  30. ^ "Oxford Mathematics Public Lectures and Events". www.maths.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 30 September 2022.
  31. ^ a b Neumann 2013, p. 353.
  32. ^ Fisher, Connie (29 January 2013). "The Queen awards Regius professorships". The Royal Family. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  33. ^ "New Regius Professorship in Mathematics for Queen's 90th birthday". University of Oxford. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  34. ^ University of Oxford, Sir Andrew Wiles appointed first Regius Professor of Mathematics at Oxford, 31 May 2018
  35. ^ Chapman 2013a, p. 94.
  36. ^ Alexanderson, Gerald (2012). "John Wallis and Oxford" (pdf). Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 49 (3): 443–446.
  37. ^ Hannabuss 2013b, pp. 223, 237.
  38. ^ Fauvel 2013, p. 23.
  39. ^ Rayner 2013, pp. 313–314.
  40. ^ Chapman 2013a, p. 95.
  41. ^ "The Oxford Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding of Science". ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  42. ^ The Simonyi Professorship, University of Oxford, UK.
  43. ^ Atiyah 2013.
  44. ^ Rayner 2013, p. 311.
  45. ^ "Ian Pearce, Location Manager for Lewis, Talks Filming in Oxford with Frederick Weisel". CrimeReads. 5 April 2021. Retrieved 14 March 2022.

Sources