Homicide rate in the United States (blue line): it may be seen that the homicide rate today is similar to that of the 1950s, and much lower than it was in the 1970s–80s. Nevertheless, most people imagine crime rates to be worse.[1]
Homicide rate in Western Europe since 1300: again, a precipitous decline is seen.

Mean world syndrome is a proposed cognitive bias wherein people may perceive the world to be more dangerous than it is. This is due to long-term moderate to heavy exposure to violence-related content in mass media.[2] In the early stages of research, mean world syndrome was only discussed as an effect of watching television. However, it became clear that social media platforms also play a major role in the spread of mean world syndrome.

Proponents of the syndrome, coined by communications professor George Gerbner in the 1970s, assert that viewers who are exposed to violence-related content can experience increased fear, anxiety, pessimism, and a heightened state of alert in response to perceived threats.[3][4] Through the study of mean world syndrome, it was found that media of all sorts has the power to directly influence and inform people's attitudes, beliefs, and opinions about the world.

History

The term mean world syndrome was coined by U.S. communications professor George Gerbner, whose life's work explored the effects of television on viewers, particularly violent media.[5]

Cultural Indicators Project and cultivation theory

In 1968, Gerbner established the Cultural Indicators Project (CIP), which was a pioneering analysis of the influence of television on people's attitudes and perceptions of the world.[6] Gerbner held a database of more than 3,000 television programs and 35,000 characters which documented the trends in television content and how these changes affect viewers' perceptions of the world.[5][7]

The CIP would notably be used to analyze Gerbner's cultivation theory, which suggests that exposure to media over time, "cultivates" viewers' perceptions of reality through images and ideological messages viewed on primetime or popular television. This content heavily influences the perception of events and thus can skew one's perception of the real world. Cultivation theory asserts that "the more time people spend 'living' in the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality aligns with reality portrayed on television."[8] In 1968, Gerbner conducted a survey to validate cultivation theory and his hypothesis that watching extensive TV affects the attitudes and beliefs of an individual toward the world. Categorizing survey respondents into three groups—"light viewers" (less than 2 hours a day), "medium viewers" (2–4 hours a day), and "heavy viewers" (more than 4 hours a day)—Gerbner found that the latter group held beliefs and opinions similar to those portrayed on television rather than ones based in real-world circumstances, demonstrating the compound effect of media influence.[9] These "heavy viewers" experienced shyness, loneliness, and depression much more than those who did not watch television or did not watch it nearly as much.[10]

Accordingly, cultivation theory laid the theoretical groundwork for the mean world syndrome, which Gerbner defined in the CIP. It is the phenomenon in which people who watch moderate to large amounts of television are more likely to perceive the world as a dangerous and frightening place.[7]

Research findings

The findings of the Cultural Indicators Project confirmed several aspects of Gerbner's hypotheses. Gerbner found a direct correlation between the amount of television an individual watches and the amount of fear that same individual tends to have about being victimized in everyday life.[3] That is, people who watched moderate to high levels of television perceived the world to be a more intimidating and unforgiving place than viewers who watched less television.[3] Furthermore, viewers who consumed television at a higher rate also believed that greater protection by law enforcement is needed and reported that most people "cannot be trusted" and are "just looking out for themselves".[2] These findings amplified Gerbner's concerns about exposure to media violence. He stated, "The consequence of regular or heavy viewing of television is a normalization of unhealthy and violent behavior. It is a cultivation that the concept [of violence] is normal and accepted in society."[4]

Gerbner was particularly concerned about the impact violent media was having on children. During the CIP, Gerbner found that children had seen about 8,000 murders on television by the end of elementary school, and about 200,000 violent acts by the age of 18.[3] Gerber stated.[11]

Our studies have shown that growing up from infancy with this unprecedented diet of violence has three consequences, which, in combination, I call the 'mean world syndrome'. What this means is that if you are growing up in a home where there is more than say three hours of television per day, for all practical purposes you live in a meaner world - and act accordingly - than your next-door neighbor who lives in the same world but watches less television. The programming reinforces the worst fears and apprehensions and paranoia of people.

In 1981, Gerbner took his findings and testified before a congressional subcommittee about the damage he believed violent media was inflicting on Americans, particularly children. "Fearful people are more dependent, more easily manipulated and controlled, more susceptible to deceptively simple, strong, tough measures and hard-line measures," he explained.[12] Since then, hundreds of studies and countless congressional hearings have looked at the issue of media violence and the same conclusion is always drawn—television can propagate violent conduct and skew people's perceptions of violence and crime.[3]

The Mean World Index

The findings of the cultivation theory study led Gerbner and Larry Gross to further develop it in 1976 using findings from their other large-scale research projects.[13][14] Believing that those "who tell the stories of a culture really govern human behavior," Gerbner claimed that a major cultural shift was taking place, wherein those storytellers "used to be the parent, the school, the church, the community," but are now "a handful of global conglomerates that have nothing to tell, but a great deal to sell."[11] Using the theory, Gerbner would explore the effects of TV violence-related content on the attitudes and beliefs of an individual about crime and violence in the world, which he dubbed "The Mean World Index".[14] Since TV was becoming an ever-increasing presence in the average American household and the amount of violence on TV was growing exponentially, Gerbner conducted several large-scale studies that upheld his hypothesis: those who watched moderate to large amounts of TV believed the world to be a more dangerous place.

Later research

See also: Research on the effects of violence in mass media

Tabloid newspaper headline in Edinburgh

Since the 1970s, numerous studies have corroborated Gerbner's findings that moderate-to-heavy viewing of violence-related content on TV increased depression, fear, anxiety, anger, pessimism, post-traumatic stress, and substance use.[15][16][17][18]

In 2009, the American Academy of Pediatrics released a policy statement on media violence which concluded that "extensive research evidence indicates that media violence can contribute to aggressive behavior, desensitization to violence, nightmares, and fear of being harmed."[17]

A study conducted in 2018 by researchers at the University of Oklahoma found that there is "good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes."[15]

In 2022, another research article was published by students in the Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Early Intervention at the Medical University of Lublin, Poland in which the researchers assessed connections between binge-watching different types of media and sociological phenomena. Researchers found that when binge-watching media, different types of violent media impacted how the viewer saw the world.[19]

Evolution of mass media

Although the focus of Gerbner's research was television viewing, cultivation theory has been validated in studies exploring different forms of media, such as newspapers, film, and even photographs, essentially in any context social observation occurs in any form outside of one's natural environment.[20]

Gerbner's research focused on TV, as social media was just blossoming in 2006 when he died. However, increasingly, researchers are expanding their assessments of mass media, specifically looking at the effects of social media as well as television. Research continues to explore the effects of violence-related content on heavy TV consumers but has also branched out to explore the role that social media is playing in consumption of violent content.

In society, there is an increase in the similarity of questions being asked about the impact of social media on our emotions and perceptions of the world. Although it is too new to draw definitive conclusions, a growing body of literature suggests that social media can have similar psychological effects to that of television providing further support for Gerbner's theory.[21] Jean Kim, a psychiatrist for the U.S. State Department, said that social media "is not as visceral as seeing an event on television…but if you're overly getting caught up in troll wars or controversy online, you might be getting a skewed view and be prone to being directly affected."[21]

COVID-19 and mean world syndrome

Beginning in 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic spread across the world, causing extreme social disruption. The pandemic led individuals to spend more time inside and online, consuming countless different forms of media content. Gaining popularity on Twitter in 2020 at the peak of the pandemic, the term "doomscrolling" emerged to describe the act of excessively consuming negative content on social media.[22] During the pandemic, in order to stay up to date and close the information gap regarding COVID-19, many people engaged heavily in the act of doomscrolling.[23] According to a study conducted in 2021, even minimal exposure to negative COVID-19 news led to an immediate decline in optimism and positive emotions for participants.[24]

Social movements such as the Black Lives Matter movement inspired new studies connecting mean world syndrome, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the Black Lives Matter movement. One study done in 2020 found that feelings of anxiety were tied to violent or troublesome news media on the Black Lives Matter movement.[25]

The Mean World Syndrome documentary

The Mean World Syndrome: Media Violence & the Cultivation of Fear
Directed byJeremy Earp
Written byJeremy Earp
Produced by
Starring
Edited byAndrew Killoy
Production
company
Release date
2010
Running time
51 mins
CountryUSA
LanguageEnglish

In 2010, the Media Education Foundation filmed a documentary titled The Mean World Syndrome: Media Violence & the Cultivation of Fear summarizing the work of Gerbner and others about the effects of violent media on people's opinions, attitudes, and beliefs.[3][26] The documentary features Gerbner himself speaking about his research on violence in media and the effects this has had on the American public since the addition of sound to television in the 1930s. The film is narrated by Michael Morgan who worked closely with Gerbner on his research about cultivation theory and mean world syndrome.

See also

References

  1. ^ Koerth, Maggie (August 3, 2020). "Many Americans Are Convinced Crime Is Rising In The U.S. They're Wrong".
  2. ^ a b Gerbner, George (1980). "The "Mainstreaming" of America: Violence Profile No. 11". Journal of Communication. 30 (3): 10–29. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1980.tb01987.x.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Michael, Morgan. "The Mean World Syndrome". Mediaed. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  4. ^ a b Michael, Morgan. "The Mean World Syndrome". Challenging Media. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  5. ^ a b "George Gerbner." Encyclopædia Britannica.
  6. ^ Gerbner, George. "George Gerbner Archive". Annenburg School for Communication. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  7. ^ a b "George Gerbner, 86, Researcher Who Studied Violence on TV, Is Dead". The New York Times. 2006-01-03. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  8. ^ Riddle, K. (2009). "Cultivation Theory Revisited: The Impact of Childhood Television Viewing Levels on Social Reality Beliefs and Construct Accessibility in Adulthood". International Communication Association: 1–29.
  9. ^ Potter, James (2014). "A Critical Analysis of Cultivation Theory". Journal of Communication. 64 (6): 1015–1036. doi:10.1111/jcom.12128.
  10. ^ Hammermeister, Joe; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy (2005). "Life Without TV? Cultivation Theory and Psychosocial Characteristics of Television-Free Individuals and Their Television-Viewing Counterparts" (PDF). Health Communication. 17 (4): 253–64. doi:10.1207/s15327027hc1703_3. PMID 15855072. S2CID 18565666.
  11. ^ a b Weldon, Laura G. (2011-01-27). "Fighting "Mean World Syndrome"". Wired. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
  12. ^ "George Gerbner Leaves the Mean World Syndrome". Peace Earth & Justice News. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  13. ^ Gerbner, George, and Larry Gross. 1976. "Living With Television: The Violence Profile." Journal of Communication 26(2):173–99. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1976.tb01397.x.
  14. ^ a b Shanahan, J; Morgan, M (1999). "Television and its viewers: Cultivation theory and research". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 286–302. ISBN 978-1-4331-1368-0.
  15. ^ a b Pfefferbaum, B.; Newman, E.; Nelson, S.D.; Nitiéma, P.; Pfefferbaum, R.L.; Rahman, A. (2014). "Disaster media coverage and psychological outcomes: descriptive findings in the extant research". Current Psychiatry Reports. 16 (9): 464. doi:10.1007/s11920-014-0464-x. PMC 4144190. PMID 25064691.
  16. ^ Morgan, M; Shanahan, J (2009). "Growing up with television: Cultivation processes.". In Bryant, Jennings; Oliver, Mary Beth (eds.). Media Effects: Advances in Theory and Research (3rd ed.). pp. 50–56. doi:10.4324/9780203877111. ISBN 9781135591106. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  17. ^ a b American Academy of Pediatrics (2009). "Media Violence" (PDF). Pediatrics. 124 (5): 1495–1503. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-2146. PMID 19841118.
  18. ^ Jamieson, P.E.; Romer, D. (2014). "Violence in popular US prime time TV dramas and the cultivation of fear: A time series analysis". Media and Communication. 2 (31).
  19. ^ Wingralek, Zuzanna; Banaszek, Agnieszka; Giermasiński, Adrian; Goliszek, Konrad; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna; Wróbel-Knybel, Paulina (2022-09-01). ""Streaming trap – the occurrence of the phenomenom of binge-watching and the mean world syndrome: a narrative review"". Current Problems of Psychiatry. 23 (3): 118–127. doi:10.2478/cpp-2022-0012. S2CID 252123496.
  20. ^ Arendt, F. (2010). "Cultivation effects of a newspaper on reality estimates and explicit and implicit attitudes". Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications. 22 (4): 147–159. doi:10.1027/1864-1105/a000020.
  21. ^ a b Nowak, Peter (May 12, 2018). "The rise of Mean World Syndrome in social media". The Global and Mail. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  22. ^ Leskin, Paige. "Staying up late reading scary news? There's a word for that: 'doomscrolling'". Business Insider. Retrieved 2023-10-18.
  23. ^ Anand, Nitin; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thakur, Pranjali Chakraborty; Mondal, Ishita; Sahu, Maya; Singh, Priya; J., Ajith S.; Kande, Jayesh Suresh; Ms, Neeraj; Singh, Ripudaman (January 2022). "Doomsurfing and doomscrolling mediate psychological distress in COVID‐19 lockdown: Implications for awareness of cognitive biases". Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 58 (1): 170–172. doi:10.1111/ppc.12803. ISSN 0031-5990. PMC 8250995. PMID 33880766.
  24. ^ Buchanan, Kathryn; Aknin, Lara B.; Lotun, Shaaba; Sandstrom, Gillian M. (2021-10-13). "Brief exposure to social media during the COVID-19 pandemic: Doom-scrolling has negative emotional consequences, but kindness-scrolling does not". PLOS ONE. 16 (10): e0257728. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1657728B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0257728. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 8513826. PMID 34644310.
  25. ^ Young, Mykaila (2020). "Digital Trauma: The Reality and The Mean World. Media Coverage of Black Lives Matter Protests during Covid-19 Pandemic in the USA". Zeszyty Prasoznawcze. 63 (4 (244)): 123–140. doi:10.4467/22996362PZ.20.034.12700. S2CID 229000259.
  26. ^ "The Mean World Syndrome | Kanopy". www.kanopy.com.