This article needs more reliable medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Digital media use and mental health" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2023)
This article may be in need of reorganization to comply with Wikipedia's layout guidelines. The reason given is: Proposed re-organization. See Talk:Digital media use and mental health#Structure. Please help by editing the article to make improvements to the overall structure. (April 2024) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

The relationships between digital media use and mental health have been investigated by various researchers—predominantly psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, and medical experts—especially since the mid-1990s, after the growth of the World Wide Web. A significant body of research has explored "overuse" phenomena, commonly known as "digital addictions", or "digital dependencies." These phenomena manifest differently in many societies and cultures. Some experts have investigated the benefits of moderate digital media use in various domains, including in mental health, and the treatment of mental health problems with novel technological solutions.

The delineation between beneficial and pathological use of digital media has not been established. There are no widely accepted diagnostic criteria, although some experts consider overuse a manifestation of underlying psychiatric disorders. The prevention and treatment of pathological digital media use is also not standardized, although guidelines for safer media use for children and families have been developed. The 2013 fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) do not include diagnoses for problematic internet use and problematic social media use; the ICD-11 includes a diagnosis for gaming disorder (commonly known as video game addiction), whereas the DSM-5 does not. Debate over how and when to diagnose these conditions is ongoing as of 2023. The use of the term addiction to refer to these phenomena and diagnoses has been questioned.

Digital media and screen time amongst modern social media apps such as Instagram, Tiktok, Snapchat and Facebook have changed how children think, interact and develop in positive and negative ways, but researchers are unsure about the existence of hypothesized causal links between digital media use and mental health outcomes. Those links appear to depend on the individual and the platforms they use. Several large technology firms have made commitments or announced strategies to try to reduce the risks of digital media use.

History and terminology

The relationship between digital technology and mental health has been investigated from many perspectives.[1][2][3] Benefits of digital media use in childhood and adolescent development have been found.[4][5] Concerns have been expressed by researchers, clinicians and the public in regard to apparent compulsive behaviors of digital media users, as correlations between technology overuse and mental health problems become apparent.[1][5][6][7]

Terminologies used to refer to compulsive digital-media-use behaviours are not standardized or universally recognised. They include "digital addiction", "digital dependence", "problematic use", or "overuse", often delineated by the digital media platform used or under study (such as problematic smartphone use or problematic internet use).[8] Unrestrained use of technological devices may affect developmental, social, mental and physical well-being and may result in symptoms akin to other psychological dependence syndromes, or behavioral addictions.[9][7] The focus on problematic technology use in research, particularly in relation to the behavioural addiction paradigm, is becoming more accepted, despite poor standardization and conflicting research.[10]

Internet addiction has been proposed as a diagnosis since the 1998[11] and social media and its relation to addiction has been examined since 2009.[12] A 2018 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report stated there were benefits of structured and limited internet use in children and adolescents for developmental and educational purposes, but that excessive use can have a negative impact on mental well-being. It also noted an overall 40% increase in internet use in school-age children between 2010 and 2015, and that different OECD nations had marked variations in rates of childhood technology use, as well as differences in the platforms used.[13]

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has not formally codified problematic digital media use in diagnostic categories, but it deemed internet gaming disorder to be a condition for further study in 2013.[14] Gaming disorder, commonly known as video game addiction, has been recognised in the ICD-11.[15][16] Different recommendations in the DSM and the ICD are due partly to the lack of expert consensus, the differences in emphasis in the classification manuals, as well as difficulties using animal models for behavioural addictions.[9]

The utility of the term addiction in relation to the overuse of digital media has been questioned, in regard to its suitability to describe new, digitally mediated psychiatric categories, as opposed to overuse being a manifestation of other psychiatric disorders.[2][3] Usage of the term has also been criticised for drawing parallels with substance use behaviours. Careless use of the term may cause more problems—both downplaying the risks of harm in seriously affected people, as well as overstating risks of excessive, non-pathological use of digital media.[3] The evolution of terminology relating excessive digital media use to problematic use rather than addiction was encouraged by Panova and Carbonell, psychologists at Ramon Llull University, in a 2018 review.[17]

Due to the lack of recognition and consensus on the concepts used, diagnoses and treatments are difficult to standardize or develop. Heightened levels of public anxiety around new media (including social media, smartphones and video games) further obfuscate population-based assessments, as well as posing management dilemmas.[2] Radesky and Christakis, the 2019 editors of JAMA Paediatrics, published a review that investigated "concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development."[18] Due to the ready availability of multiple technologies to children worldwide, the problem is bi-directional, as taking away digital devices may have a detrimental effect, in areas such as learning, family relationship dynamics, and overall development.[19]

Problematic use

See also: Cyberpathology, Digital Revolution, Social aspects of television, and Television consumption

Though associations have been observed between digital media use and mental health symptoms or diagnoses, causality has not been established; nuances and caveats published by researchers are often misunderstood by the general public, or misrepresented by the media.[3] Females are more likely to overuse social media, and males video games.[20] Following from this, problematic digital media use may not be singular constructs, may be delineated based on the digital platform used, or reappraised in terms of specific activities (rather than addiction to the digital medium).[21]

Access to means of communication

In 2000, a majority of U.S. households had at least one personal computer and internet access the following year.[22] In 2002, a majority of U.S. survey respondents reported having a mobile phone.[23] In September and December 2006 respectively, Luxembourg and the Netherlands became the first countries to completely transition from analog to digital television, while the United States commenced its transition in 2008. In September 2007, a majority of U.S. survey respondents reported having broadband internet at home.[24] In January 2013, a majority of U.S. survey respondents reported owning a smartphone.[25] An estimated 40% of U.S. households in 2006 owned a dedicated home video game console,[26][27] and by 2015, 51 percent of U.S. households owned a dedicated home video game console.[28][29] In April 2015, one survey of U.S. teenagers ages 13 to 17 reported that nearly three-quarters of them either owned or had access to a smartphone, and 92 percent went online daily, with 24 percent saying they went online "almost constantly."[30]

Screen time and mental health

See also: Criticism of Facebook § Psychological/sociological effects, and Social media and suicide

Some types of potentially problematic internet use are associated with psychiatric or behavioural problems such as depression, anxiety, hostility, aggression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The studies could not determine if causal relationships exist; it was unclear, for example, whether people with depression might overuse the internet because they were already depressed, or if using the internet too much triggered the depression.[1] While overuse of digital media has been associated with depressive symptoms, digital media may also be used in some situations to improve mood.[31][32] Symptoms of ADHD have been positively correlated with digital media use in a large prospective study.[33] The ADHD symptom of hyperfocus may cause affected individuals to overuse video games, social media, or online chatting; however the correlation between hyperfocus and problematic social media use is weak.[34]

A 2018 review found associations between the self-reported mental health symptoms by users of the Chinese social media platform WeChat and excessive platform use. However, the motivations and usage patterns of WeChat users affected overall psychological health, rather than the amount of time spent using the platform.[7]

An analysis of data from the Monitoring the Future survey, the Millennium Cohort Study, and the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System found that digital technology use (including, playing video games, watching television, using social media, etc.) accounted for only 0.4% of the variation in adolescent well-being.[35] Additional research found little evidence for substantial negative associations for digital screen engagement and adolescent well-being.[36] However, looking exclusively at the effect social media usage has on girls, there was a strong association between using social media and poor mental health.[37][38]

The evidence, although of mainly low to moderate quality, shows an correlation between heavy screen time and a variety of health physical and mental health problems.[6] However, moderate use of digital media is also correlated with benefits for young people in terms of social integration, mental health, and overall well-being.[6]

A 2017 UK large-scale study of the "Goldilocks hypothesis"—of avoiding both too much and too little digital media use[39]—was described as the "best quality" evidence to date by experts and non-government organisations (NGOs) reporting to a 2018 UK parliamentary committee. That study concluded that modest digital media use may have few adverse affects, and some positive associations in terms of well-being.[40]

Social media and mental health

Excessive time spent on social media may be more harmful than digital screen time as a whole. Some research found a "substantial" association between social media use and mental health issues, but most found only a weak or inconsistent relationship.[41][42][43] There is nuanced evidence for a relationship between social media usage and flourishing.[44]

There is a significant association between social media use and depression, with the association especially high for adolescent girls.[45]

Proposed diagnostic categories

See also: Computer addiction, Internet addiction disorder, Internet sex addiction, Nomophobia, Problematic smartphone use, Problematic social media use, Television addiction, and Video game addiction

Gaming disorder has been considered by the DSM-5 task force as warranting further study (as the subset internet gaming disorder), and was included in the ICD-11.[14] Concerns have been raised by Aarseth and colleagues over this inclusion, particularly in regard to stigmatization of heavy gamers.[46]

Christakis has asserted that internet addiction may be "a 21st century epidemic".[47] In 2018, he commented that childhood Internet overuse may be a form of "uncontrolled experiment[s] on ... children".[48] International estimates of the prevalence of internet overuse have varied considerably, with marked variations by nation. A 2014 meta-analysis of 31 nations yielded an overall worldwide prevalence of six percent.[49] A different perspective in 2018 by Musetti and colleagues reappraised the internet in terms of its necessity and ubiquity in modern society, as a social environment, rather than a tool, thereby calling for the reformulation of the internet addiction model.[50]

Some medical and behavioural scientists recommend adding a diagnosis of "social media addiction" (or similar) to the next Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders update.[51][52][7] A 2015 review concluded there was a probable link between basic psychological needs and social media addiction. "Social network site users seek feedback, and they get it from hundreds of people—instantly. It could be argued that the platforms are designed to get users 'hooked'."[53]

Internet sex addiction, also known as cybersex addiction, has been proposed as a sexual addiction characterized by virtual internet sexual activity that causes serious negative consequences to one's physical, mental, social, and/or financial well-being.[54][55] It may be considered a form of problematic internet use.[56]

Related phenomena

Online problem gambling

Main article: Online gambling § Problem gambling

A 2015 review found evidence of higher rates of mental health comorbidities, as well as higher amounts of substance use, among internet gamblers, compared to non-internet gamblers. Causation, however, has not been established. The review postulates that there may be differences in the cohorts between internet and land-based problem gamblers.[57]

Cyberbullying

Main article: Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying, bullying or harassment using social media or other electronic means, has been shown to have effects on mental health. Victims may have lower self-esteem, increased suicidal ideation, decreased motivation for usual hobbies, and a variety of emotional responses, including being scared, frustrated, angry, anxious or depressed. These victims may also begin to distance themselves from friends and family members.[58][59][60]

According to the EU Kids Online project, the incidence of cyberbullying across seven European countries in children aged 8–16 increased from 8% to 12% between 2010 and 2014. Similar increases were shown in the United States and Brazil.[61]

Media multitasking

Main article: Media multitasking

Concurrent use of multiple digital media streams, commonly known as media multitasking, has been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms, social anxiety, impulsivity, sensation seeking, lower perceived social success and neuroticism.[62] A 2018 review found that while the literature is sparse and inconclusive, overall, heavy media multitaskers also have poorer performance in several cognitive domains.[63] One of the authors commented that the data does not "unambiguously show that media multitasking causes a change in attention and memory", therefore it is possible to argue that it is inefficient to multitask on digital media.[64]

Distracted road use

Main articles: Mobile phones and driving safety and Smartphones and pedestrian safety

See also: Distracted driving, Human multitasking, and Texting while driving

In March 2023, Accident Analysis & Prevention published a systematic review of 47 samples across 45 studies investigating associations between problematic mobile phone use and road safety outcomes (including 32 samples of drivers, 9 samples of pedestrians, 5 samples with road use type unspecified, and 1 sample of motorcyclists and bicyclists) that found that problematic mobile phone use was associated with greater risk of simultaneous mobile phone use and road use and risk of vehicle collisions and pedestrian collisions or falls.[65]

Noise-induced hearing loss

See also: Tinnitus and Occupational hearing loss

In January 2024, BMJ Public Health published a systematic review of 14 studies investigating associations between sound-induced hearing loss and playing video games and esports that found a significant association between gaming and hearing loss or tinnitus and that the average measured sound levels during gameplay by subjects (which averaged 3 hours per week) exceeded or nearly exceeded permissible sound exposure levels.[66]

Assessment and treatment

Rigorous, evidence-based assessment of problematic digital media use is yet to be comprehensively established. This is due partially to a lack of consensus around the various constructs and lack of standardization of treatments.[67] The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has developed a Family Media Plan, intending to help parents assess and structure their family's use of electronic devices and media more safely. It recommends limiting entertainment screen time to two hours or less per day.[68][69] The Canadian Paediatric Society produced a similar guideline. Ferguson, a psychologist, has criticised these and other national guidelines for not being evidence-based.[70] Other experts, cited in a 2017 UNICEF Office of Research literature review, have recommended addressing potential underlying problems rather than arbitrarily enforcing screen time limits.[3]

Different methodologies for assessing pathological internet use have been developed, mostly self-report questionnaires, but none have been universally recognised as a gold standard.[71] For gaming disorder, both the American Psychiatric Association[72] and the World Health Organization (through the ICD-11)[15] have released diagnostic criteria.

There is some limited evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and family-based interventions for treatment. In randomized controlled trials, medications have not been shown to be effective.[67] A 2016 study of 901 adolescents suggested mindfulness may assist in preventing and treating problematic internet use.[73] A 2019 UK parliamentary report deemed parental engagement, awareness and support to be essential in developing "digital resilience" for young people, and to identify and manage the risks of harm online.[40] Treatment centres have proliferated in some countries, and China and South Korea have treated digital dependence as a public health crisis, opening 300 and 190 centres nationwide, respectively.[74] Other countries have also opened treatment centres.[75][76]

NGOs, support and advocacy groups provide resources to people overusing digital media, with or without codified diagnoses,[77][78] including the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.[79][80]

A 2022 study outlines the mechanisms by which media-transmitted stressors affect mental well-being. Authors suggest a common denominator related to problems with the media's construction of reality is increased uncertainty, which leads to defensive responses and chronic stress in predisposed individuals.[81]

Associated psychiatric disorders

ADHD

Main article: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

In April 2018, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published a systematic review of 24 studies researching associations between internet gaming disorder (IGD) and various psychopathologies that found an 85% correlation between IGD and ADHD.[82] In October 2018, PNAS USA published a systematic review of four decades of research on the relationship between children and adolescents' screen media use and ADHD-related behaviours and concluded that a statistically small relationship between children's media use and ADHD-related behaviours exists.[83] In November 2018, Cyberpsychology published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 5 studies that found evidence for a relationship between problematic smartphone use and impulsivity traits.[84] In October 2020, the Journal of Behavioral Addictions published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 40 studies with 33,650 post-secondary student subjects that found a weak-to-moderate positive association between mobile phone addiction and impulsivity.[85] In January 2021, the Journal of Psychiatric Research published a systematic review of 29 studies including 56,650 subjects that found that ADHD symptoms were consistently associated with gaming disorder and more frequent associations between inattention and gaming disorder than other ADHD scales.[86]

In July 2021, Frontiers in Psychiatry published a meta-analysis reviewing 40 voxel-based morphometry studies and 59 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing subjects with IGD or ADHD to control groups that found that IGD and ADHD subjects had disorder-differentiating structural neuroimage alterations in the putamen and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) respectively, and functional alterations in the precuneus for IGD subjects and in the rewards circuit (including the OFC, the anterior cingulate cortex, and striatum) for both IGD and ADHD subjects.[87] In March 2022, JAMA Psychiatry published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 87 studies with 159,425 subjects 12 years of age or younger that found a small but statistically significant correlation between screen time and ADHD symptoms in children.[88] In April 2022, Developmental Neuropsychology published a systematic review of 11 studies where the data from all but one study suggested that heightened screen time for children is associated with attention problems.[89] In July 2022, the Journal of Behavioral Addictions published a meta-analysis of 14 studies comprising 2,488 subjects aged 6 to 18 years that found significantly more severe problematic internet use in subjects diagnosed with ADHD to control groups.[90]

In December 2022, European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry published a systematic literature review of 28 longitudinal studies published from 2011 through 2021 of associations between digital media use by children and adolescents and later ADHD symptoms and found reciprocal associations between digital media use and ADHD symptoms (i.e. that subjects with ADHD symptoms were more likely to develop problematic digital media use and that increased digital media use was associated with increased subsequent severity of ADHD symptoms).[91] In May 2023, Reviews on Environmental Health published a meta-analysis of 9 studies with 81,234 child subjects that found a positive correlation between screen time and ADHD risk in children and that higher amounts of screen time in childhood may significantly contribute to the development of ADHD.[92] In December 2023, the Journal of Psychiatric Research published a meta-analysis of 24 studies with 18,859 subjects with a mean age of 18.4 years that found significant associations between ADHD and problematic internet use,[93] while Clinical Psychology Review published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 48 studies examining associations between ADHD and gaming disorder that found a statistically significant association between the disorders.[94]

Anxiety

Main articles: Generalized anxiety disorder and Social anxiety disorder

In April 2018, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published a systematic review of 24 studies researching associations between internet gaming disorder (IGD) and various psychopathologies that found a 92% correlation between IGD and anxiety and a 75% correlation between IGD and social anxiety.[82] In August 2018, Wiley Stress & Health published a meta-analysis of 39 studies comprising 21,736 subjects that found a small-to-medium association between smartphone use and anxiety.[95]

In December 2018, Frontiers in Psychiatry published a systematic review of 9 studies published after 2014 investigating associations between problematic SNS use and comorbid psychiatric disorders that found a positive association between problematic SNS use and anxiety.[96] In March 2019, the International Journal of Adolescence and Youth published a systematic review of 13 studies comprising 21,231 adolescent subjects aged 13 to 18 years that found that social media screen time, both active and passive social media use, the amount of personal information uploaded, and social media addictive behaviors all correlated with anxiety.[97] In February 2020, Psychiatry Research published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 studies that found positive associations between problematic smartphone use and anxiety and positive associations between higher levels of problematic smartphone use and elevated risk of anxiety,[98] while Frontiers in Psychology published a systematic review of 10 studies of adolescent or young adult subjects in China that concluded that the research reviewed mostly established an association between social networks use disorder and anxiety among Chinese adolescents and young adults.[99]

In April 2020, BMC Public Health published a systematic review of 70 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies investigating moderating factors for associations for screen-based sedentary behaviors and anxiety symptoms among youth that found that while screen types was the most consistent factor, the body of evidence for anxiety symptoms was more limited than for depression symptoms.[100] In October 2020, the Journal of Behavioral Addictions published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 40 studies with 33,650 post-secondary student subjects that found a weak-to-moderate positive association between mobile phone addiction and anxiety.[85] In November 2020, Child and Adolescent Mental Health published a systematic review of research published between January 2005 and March 2019 on associations between SNS use and anxiety symptoms in subjects between ages of 5 to 18 years that found that increased SNS screen time or frequency of SNS use and higher levels of investment (i.e. personal information added to SNS accounts) were significantly associated with higher levels of anxiety symptoms.[101]

In January 2021, Frontiers in Psychiatry published a systematic review of 44 studies investigating social media use and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence that concluded that the research reviewed established a direct association between levels of anxiety, social media addiction behaviors, and nomophobia, longitudinal associations between social media use and increased anxiety, that fear of missing out and nomophobia are associated with severity of Facebook usage, and suggested that fear of missing out may trigger social media addiction and that nomophobia appears to mediate social media addiction.[102] In March 2021, Computers in Human Behavior Reports published a systematic review of 52 studies published before May 2020 that found that social anxiety was associated with problematic social media use and that socially anxious persons used social media to seek social support possibly to compensate for a lack of offline social support.[103] In June 2021, Clinical Psychology Review published a systematic review of 35 longitudinal studies published before August 2020 that found that evidence for longitudinal associations between screen time and anxiety among young people was lacking.[104] In August 2021, a meta-analysis was presented at the 2021 International Conference on Intelligent Medicine and Health of articles published before January 2011 that found evidence for a negative impact of social media on anxiety.[105]

In January 2022, The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context published a meta-analysis of 13 cross-sectional studies comprising 7,348 subjects that found a statistically significant correlation between cybervictimization and anxiety with a moderate-to-large effect size.[106] In March 2022, JAMA Psychiatry published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 87 studies with 159,425 subjects 12 years of age or younger that found a small but statistically significant correlation between screen time and anxiety in children,[88] while Adolescent Psychiatry published a systematic review of research published from June 2010 through June 2020 studying associations between social media use and anxiety among adolescent subjects aged 13 to 18 years that established that 78.3% of studies reviewed reported positive associations between social media use and anxiety.[107] In April 2022, researchers in the Department of Communication at Stanford University performed a meta-analysis of 226 studies comprising 275,728 subjects that found a small but positive association between social media use and anxiety,[108] while JMIR Mental Health published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 studies comprising 9,269 adolescent and young adult subjects that found a moderate but statistically significant association between problematic social media use and anxiety.[109]

In May 2022, Computers in Human Behavior published a meta-analysis of 82 studies comprising 48,880 subjects that found a significant positive association between social anxiety and mobile phone addiction.[110] In August 2022, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 studies comprising 8,077 subjects that established a significant association between binge-watching and anxiety.[111] In November 2022, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking published a systematic review of 1,747 articles on problematic social media use that found a strong bidirectional relationship between social media use and anxiety.[112] In March 2023, the Journal of Public Health published a meta-analysis of 27 studies published after 2014 comprising 120,895 subjects that found a moderate and robust association between problematic smartphone use and anxiety.[113] In July 2023, Healthcare published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 studies that established correlation coefficients of 0.31 and 0.39 between nomophobia and anxiety and nomophobia and smartphone addiction respectively.[114]

In September 2023, Frontiers in Public Health published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 37 studies comprising 36,013 subjects aged 14 to 24 years that found a positive and statistically significant association between problematic internet use and social anxiety,[115] while BJPsych Open published a systematic review of 140 studies published from 2000 through 2020 found that social media use for more than 3 hours per day and passive browsing was associated with increased anxiety.[116] In January 2024, the Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication published a meta-analysis of 141 studies comprising 145,394 subjects that found that active social media use was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety and passive social media use was associated with greater symptoms of social anxiety.[117] In February 2024, Addictive Behaviors published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 53 studies comprising 59,928 subjects that found that problematic social media use and social anxiety are highly and positively correlated,[118] while The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery published a systematic review of 15 studies researching associations between problematic social media use and anxiety in subjects from the Middle East and North Africa (including 4 studies with subjects exclusively between the ages of 12 and 19 years) that established that most studies found a significant association.[119]

Autism

Main article: Autism spectrum

In September 2018, the Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders published a systematic review of 47 studies published from 2005 to 2016 that concluded that associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and screen time was inconclusive.[120] In May 2019, the Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics published a systematic review of 16 studies that found that children and adolescents with ASD are exposed to more screen time than typically developing peers and that the exposure starts at a younger age.[121] In April 2021, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders published a systematic review of 12 studies of video game addiction in ASD subjects that found that children, adolescents, and adults with ASD are at greater risk of video game addiction than those without ASD, and that the data from the studies suggested that internal and external factors (sex, attention and oppositional behavior problems, social aspects, access and time spent playing video games, parental rules, and game genre) were significant predictors of video game addiction in ASD subjects.[122] In March 2022, the Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders published a systematic review of 21 studies investigating associations between ASD, problematic internet use, and gaming disorder where the majority of the studies found positive associations between the disorders.[123]

In August 2022, the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction published a review of 15 studies that found that high rates of video game use in boys and young males with ASD was predominantly explained by video game addiction, but also concluded that greater video game use could be a function of ASD restricted interest and that video game addiction and ASD restricted interest could have an interactive relationship.[124] In December 2022, the Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders published a systematic review of 10 studies researching the prevalence of problematic internet use with ASD that found that ASD subjects had more symptoms of problematic internet use than control group subjects, had higher screen time online and an earlier age of first-time use of the internet, and also greater symptoms of depression and ADHD.[125] In July 2023, Cureus published a systematic review of 11 studies that concluded that earlier and longer screen time exposure for children was associated with higher risk of a child developing ASD.[126] In December 2023, JAMA Network Open published a meta-analysis of 46 studies comprising 562,131 subjects that concluded that while screen time may pose a developmental risk of ASD in childhood, associations between ASD and screen time were not statistically significant when accounting for publication bias.[127]

Bipolar disorder

Main article: Bipolar disorder

In November 2018, Cyberpsychology published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 5 studies that found evidence for a relationship between problematic smartphone use and impulsivity traits.[84] In October 2020, the Journal of Behavioral Addictions published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 40 studies with 33,650 post-secondary student subjects that found that a weak-to-moderate positive association between mobile phone addiction and impulsivity.[85]

In April 2021, a meta-analysis of 3 studies comprising 9,142 subjects was presented at the International Conference on Big Data and Informatization Education that found that problematic internet use is a risk factor for bipolar disorder.[128] In December 2023, the Journal of Psychiatric Research published a meta-analysis of 24 studies with 18,859 subjects with a mean age of 18.4 years that found significant associations between problematic internet use and impulsivity.[93]

Depression

Main article: Major depressive disorder

In April 2018, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published a systematic review of 24 studies researching associations between internet gaming disorder (IGD) and various psychopathologies that found an 89% correlation between IGD and depression.[82] In July 2018, JMIR Mental Health published a systematic review of 11 studies investigating social media use and depression among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) users that found that while qualitative research found that social media use could lead to greater social support and less loneliness for LGB users, LGB users were more likely to be cyberbullied than heterosexual users, that cyberbullying of LGB users was associated with depression among victims, and constant monitoring of accounts by LGB users was also found to be a stressor associated with depression.[129]

In December 2018, Frontiers in Psychiatry published a systematic review of 9 studies published after 2014 investigating associations between problematic SNS use and comorbid psychiatric disorders that found a positive association between problematic SNS use and depression.[96] In March 2019, the International Journal of Adolescence and Youth published a systematic review of 13 studies comprising 21,231 adolescent subjects aged 13 to 18 years that found that social media screen time, both active and passive social media use, the amount of personal information uploaded, and social media addictive behaviors all correlated with depression.[97] In April 2019, the Journal of Affective Disorders published a meta-analysis assessing associations between SNS use and higher levels of depression that found that greater SNS screen time and frequency of checking SNS accounts had small but statistically significant associations with higher levels of depression, that greater general social comparisons on SNS had a small to moderate association, and greater upward social comparisons on SNS had a moderate association.[130] In November 2019, BMC Public Health published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 cross-sectional studies and 7 longitudinal studies that found that screen time-based sedentary behavior is associated with depression risk.[131]

In January 2020, Translational Psychiatry published a meta-analysis of 12 prospective studies comprising 128,553 subjects that found that while sedentary behavior and depression risk had a significant positive association, television viewing and other mentally passive sedentary behaviors were positively associated with depression risk but computer use and other mentally active sedentary behaviors were not.[132] In February 2020, Psychiatry Research published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 studies that found positive associations between problematic smartphone use and depression and positive associations between higher levels of problematic smartphone use and elevated risk of depression.[98] Also in February 2020, Frontiers in Psychology published a systematic review of 10 studies of adolescent or young adult subjects in China that concluded that the research reviewed mostly established an association between social networks use disorder and depression among Chinese adolescents and young adults.[99] In March 2020, the Review of General Psychology published a meta-analysis that found a small association between social networking service (SNS) use and self-reported depression.[133] In April 2020, BMC Public Health published a systematic review of 70 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies investigating moderating factors for associations for screen-based sedentary behaviors and depression symptoms among youth that found that the most consistent factor was for screen type since television viewing was not as strongly associated with depression symptoms as other screen types.[100]

In August 2020, the Journal of Medical Internet Research published an umbrella review of 7 systematic reviews on research investigating associations between depression and use of mobile technologies and social media by adolescents that concluded that while mobile technology and social media may promote social support, excess social comparison and personal involvement (i.e. increased exposure in general, exposure to specific content that promotes depressive symptoms, and the degree of personal information posted on social media) could be associated with symptoms of depression.[134] In October 2020, the Journal of Affective Disorders published a meta-analysis of 12 studies with subjects aged 11 to 18 years that found a small but statistically significant positive correlation between social media use and depressive symptoms among adolescents,[135] while the Journal of Behavioral Addictions published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 40 studies with 33,650 post-secondary student subjects that found a weak-to-moderate positive association between mobile phone addiction and depression.[85] In November 2020, Child and Adolescent Mental Health published a systematic review of research published between January 2005 and March 2019 on associations between SNS use and depression in subjects between ages of 5 to 18 years that found that increased SNS screen time or frequency of SNS use and problematic and addictive SNS use were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms.[101]

In January 2021, Frontiers in Psychiatry published a systematic review of 44 studies investigating social media use and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence that concluded that passive social media use (e.g. browsing other user photos or scrolling through comments or news feeds) and depression are bidirectionally associated and that problematic social media use and depressive symptoms are mediated by social comparisons.[102] In February 2021, Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology published a meta-analysis of 62 studies comprising 451,229 subjects that found SNS screen time and SNS use intensity to have weak but statistically significant associations with depression symptoms, while problematic SNS use was found to have a moderate association with depression symptoms.[136] In March 2021, Youth & Society published a systematic review of 9 studies that found an association between SNS use and adolescent subjective well-being including mood, but that the results over whether the association was positive or negative were mixed.[137] In April 2021, the Journal of Affective Disorders published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 92 studies comprising 15,148 subjects across 25 countries investigating associations between depression and internet gaming disorder found that one-third of the IGD subjects had been diagnosed with depression and major severe depressive symptoms were found in IGD subjects globally without a formal diagnosis in comparison to the general population.[138]

In May 2021, Current Psychology published a meta-analysis of 55 studies comprising 80,533 subjects that found a small but positive and statistically significant association between SNS use and self-reported depression symptoms.[139] In June 2021, Clinical Psychology Review published a systematic review of 35 longitudinal studies published before August 2020 that found that an association between screen time and subsequent depressive symptoms among young people was small and varied by device type and use.[104] In July 2021, Translational Medicine Communications published a systematic review of 9 studies published between October 2010 and December 2018 with Instagram user subjects between the ages of 19 and 35 years that found an association between Instagram use and depression symptoms.[140] In January 2022, The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context published a meta-analysis of 13 cross-sectional studies comprising 7,348 subjects that found a statistically significant correlation between cybervictimization and depression with a moderate-to-large effect size.[106] In February 2022, the International Journal of Social Psychiatry published a meta-analysis of 131 studies comprising 244,676 subjects that found a moderate mean correlation between problematic social media use and depression.[141]

In March 2022, Computers in Human Behavior published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 531 cross-sectional or longitudinal studies with subjects aged 10 to 24 years that found a small bidirectional association between online media use and depressive symptoms and that the effect size did not differ between general internet use, smartphone use, social media use, or online gaming, but also found that studies that measured online media use with media addiction scales rather than by screen time found significantly greater associations.[142] Also in March 2022, JAMA Psychiatry published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 87 studies with 159,425 subjects 12 years of age or younger that found a small but statistically significant correlation between screen time and depression in children,[88] while Adolescent Psychiatry published a systematic review of research published from June 2010 through June 2020 studying associations between social media use and depression among adolescent subjects aged 13 to 18 years that established that 82.6% of studies reviewed reported positive associations between social media use and depression.[107] In April 2022, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published a meta-analysis of 21 cross-sectional studies and 5 longitudinal studies comprising 55,340 adolescent subjects that found that social media screen time had a linear dose–response association with depression risk among adolescents and that depression risk increased by 13% for each additional hour of social media screen time.[143]

Also in April 2022, researchers in the Department of Communication at Stanford University performed a meta-analysis of 226 studies comprising 275,728 subjects that found a small but positive association between social media use and depression,[108] while JMIR Mental Health published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 studies comprising 9,269 adolescent and young adult subjects that found a moderate but statistically significant association between problematic social media use and depression.[109] In August 2022, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 studies comprising 8,077 subjects that established a significant association between binge-watching and depression and a stronger association between binge-watching and depression was found during the COVID-19 pandemic than pre-pandemic.[111] In November 2022, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking published a systematic review of 1,747 articles on problematic social media use that found a strong bidirectional relationship between social media use and depression.[112] In December 2022, Frontiers in Psychiatry published a meta-analysis of 18 cohort studies comprising 241,398 subjects that found that screen time is a predictor of depressive symptoms.[144] In March 2023, the Journal of Public Health published a meta-analysis of 27 studies published after 2014 comprising 120,895 subjects that found a moderate and robust association between problematic smartphone use and depression.[113]

In April 2023, Trauma, Violence, & Abuse published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 studies comprising 79,202 adolescent subjects between the ages of 10 and 19 years that found that depression was three times more common among cyberbullying victims than control groups.[145] In July 2023, Current Psychology published a meta-analysis of 38 studies comprising 14,935 subjects in Turkey that found a small but positive association between problematic social media use and depression.[146] In September 2023, Clinical Psychological Science published a preregistered review and meta-analysis of 34 articles published between 2018 and 2020 studying associations between adolescent depression and social media use to identify the proportion of samples taken from the Global North and Global South, and found that more than 70% examined Global North populations and that associations in the Global North were positive and significant while associations in the Global South were null and non-significant.[147] In September 2023, BJPsych Open published a systematic review of 140 studies published from 2000 through 2020 that found that social media use for more than 3 hours per day and passive browsing was associated with increased depression in children, adolescents, and young adults.[116] In February 2024, The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery published a systematic review of 15 studies researching associations between problematic social media use and depression in subjects from the Middle East and North Africa (including 4 studies with subjects exclusively between the ages of 12 and 19 years) that established that most studies found a significant association.[119]

Insomnia

Main article: Insomnia

In August 2018, Sleep Science and Practice published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 19 studies comprising 253,904 adolescent subjects that found that excessive technology use had a strong and consistent association with reduced sleep duration and prolonged sleep onset latency for adolescents 14 years of age or older.[148] Also in August 2018, Sleep Science published a systematic review of 12 studies investigating associations between exposure to video games, sleep outcomes, and post-sleep cognitive abilities that found the data present in the studies indicated associations between a reduction in sleep duration, increased sleep onset latency, modifications to rapid eye movement sleep and slow-wave sleep, increased sleepiness and self-perceived fatigue, and impaired post-sleep attention span and verbal memory.[149] In October 2019, Sleep Medicine Reviews published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 23 studies comprising 35,684 subjects that found a statistically significant odds ratio for sleep problems and reduced sleep duration for subjects with internet addiction.[150] In February 2020, Psychiatry Research published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 14 studies that found positive associations between problematic smartphone use and poor sleep quality and between higher levels of problematic smartphone use and elevated risk of poor sleep quality.[98]

Also in February 2020, Sleep Medicine Reviews published a systematic review of 31 studies examining associations between screen time and sleep outcomes in children younger than 5 years and found that screen time is associated with poorer sleep outcomes for children under the age of 5, with meta-analysis only confirming poor sleep outcomes among children under 2 years.[151] In March 2020, Developmental Review published a systematic review of 9 studies that found a weak-to-moderate association between sleep quantity and quality and problematic smartphone use among adolescents.[152] In October 2020, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 80 studies that found that greater screen time was associated with shorter sleep duration among toddlers and preschoolers,[153] while the Journal of Behavioral Addictions published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 40 studies with 33,650 post-secondary student subjects that found a weak-to-moderate positive association between mobile phone addiction and poor sleep quality.[85] In April 2021, Sleep Medicine Reviews published a systematic review of 36 cross-sectional studies and 6 longitudinal studies that found that 24 of the cross-sectional studies and 5 of the longitudinal studies established significant associations between more frequent social media use and poor sleep outcomes.[154]

In June 2021, Frontiers in Psychiatry published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 34 studies comprising 51,901 subjects that established significant associations between problematic gaming and sleep duration, poor sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and other sleep problems.[155] In September 2021, BMC Public Health published a systematic review of 49 studies investigating associations between electronic media use and various sleep outcomes among children and adolescents 15 years of age or younger that found a strong association with sleep duration and stronger evidence for an association with sleep duration between the ages of 6 and 15 years than for 5 years of age or younger, while evidence for associations between electronic media use with other sleep outcomes was more inconclusive.[156] In December 2021, Frontiers in Neuroscience published a systematic review of 12 studies published from January 2000 to April 2020 that found that adult subjects with higher gaming addiction scores were more likely to have shorter sleep quantity, poorer sleep quality, delayed sleep timing, and greater daytime sleepiness and insomnia scores than subjects with lower gaming addiction scores and non-gamer subjects.[157] In January 2022, Early Childhood Research Quarterly published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 26 studies that found a weak but statistically significant association with increased smartphone and tablet computer use and poorer sleep in early childhood.[158]

In May 2022, the Journal of Affective Disorders published a meta-analysis of 29 studies comprising 20,041 subjects that found a weak-to-moderate association between mobile phone addiction and sleep disorder and that adolescents with mobile phone addiction were at higher risk of developing sleep disorder.[159] In August 2022, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 studies comprising 8,077 subjects that established a significant association between binge-watching and sleep problems and a stronger association between binge-watching and sleep problems was found during the COVID-19 pandemic than pre-pandemic.[111] In October 2022, Reports in Public Health published a systematic review of 23 studies that found that excessive use of digital screens by adolescents was associated with poor sleep quality, nighttime awakenings, long sleep latency, and daytime sleepiness.[160] In December 2022, Sleep Epidemiology published a systematic review of 18 studies investigating associations between sleep problems and screen time during COVID-19 lockdowns that found that the increased screen time during the lockdowns negatively impacted sleep duration, sleep quality, sleep onset latency, and wake time.[161] In March 2023, the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 studies comprising 36,485 subjects that found that smartphone overuse was closely associated with self-reported poor sleep quality, sleep deprivation, and prolonged sleep latency.[162]

In April 2023, Sleep Medicine Reviews published a systematic review of 42 studies that found digital media use to be associated with shorter sleep duration and poorer sleep quality and bedtime or nighttime use with poor sleep outcomes, but only found associations for general screen use, mobile phone use, computer and internet use, internet, and social media and not for television, game console, and tablet use.[163] In July 2023, Healthcare published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 studies that established a correlation coefficient of 0.56 between nomophobia and insomnia.[114] In September 2023, PLOS One published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 16 studies of smartphone addiction and sleep among medical students found that 57% of subjects had poor sleep and 39% of subjects had smartphone addiction with a correlation index of 0.3,[164] while Computers in Human Behavior published a meta-analysis of 23 longitudinal studies comprising 116,431 adolescent subjects that found that adolescent screen time with computers, smartphones, social media, and television are positively associated with negative impacts on sleep health later in life.[165]

Narcissism

Main article: Narcissistic personality disorder

In April 2018, a meta-analysis published in the Journal of Personality found that the positive correlation between grandiose narcissism and SNS usage was replicated across platforms (including Facebook and Twitter).[166] In July 2018, a meta-analysis published in Psychology of Popular Media found that grandiose narcissism positively correlated with time spent on social media, frequency of status updates, number of friends or followers, and frequency of posting self-portrait digital photographs.[167] In March 2020, the Review of General Psychology published a meta-analysis that found a small-to-moderate association between SNS use and narcissism.[133] In June 2020, Addictive Behaviors published a systematic review finding a consistent, positive, and significant correlation between grandiose narcissism and problematic social media use.[168]

OCD

Main article: Obsessive–compulsive disorder

In April 2018, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published a systematic review of 24 studies researching associations between internet gaming disorder (IGD) and various psychopathologies that found a 75% association between IGD and obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms.[82]

Mental health benefits

Smartphones and other digital devices are ubiquitous in many societies.

Individuals with mental illness can develop social connections over social media, that may foster a sense of social inclusion in online communities.[4][5] People with mental illness may share personal stories in a perceived safer space, as well as gaining peer support for developing coping strategies.[4][5]

People with mental illness are likely to report avoiding stigma and gaining further insight into their mental health condition by using social media. This comes with the risk of unhealthy influences, misinformation, and delayed access to traditional mental health outlets.[4]

Other benefits include connections to supportive online communities, including illness or disability specific communities, as well as the LGBTQIA community.[5] Young cancer patients have reported an improvement in their coping abilities due to their participation in an online community.[169] The uses of social media for healthcare communication include providing reducing stigma and facilitating dialogue between patients and between patients and health professionals.[170]

Furthermore, in children, the educational benefits of digital media use are well established.[4] For example, screen-based programs can help increase both independent and collaborative learning. A variety of quality apps and software can also decrease learning gaps and increase skill in certain educational subjects.[171][172]

Other disciplines

Digital anthropology

Daniel Miller from University College London has contributed to the study of digital anthropology, especially ethnographic research on the use and consequences of social media and smartphones as part of the everyday life of ordinary people around the world. He notes the effects of social media are very specific to individual locations and cultures. He contends "a layperson might dismiss these stories as superficial. But the anthropologist takes them seriously, empathetically exploring each use of digital technologies in terms of the wider social and cultural context."[173]

Digital anthropology is a developing field which studies the relationship between humans and digital-era technology. It aims to consider arguments in terms of ethical and societal scopes, rather than simply observing technological changes.[174] Brian Solis, a digital analyst and anthropologist, stated in 2018, "we've become digital addicts: it's time to take control of technology and not let tech control us".[175]

Digital sociology

Digital sociology explores how people use digital media using several research methodologies, including surveys, interviews, focus groups, and ethnographic research. It intersects with digital anthropology, and studies cultural geography. It also investigates longstanding concerns, and contexts around young people's overuse of "these technologies, their access to online pornography, cyber bullying or online sexual predation".[176]

A 2012 cross-sectional sociological study in Turkey showed differences in patterns of internet use that related to levels of religiosity in 2,698 subjects. With increasing religiosity, negative attitudes towards internet use increased. Highly religious people showed different motivations for internet use, predominantly searching for information.[177] A study of 1,296 Malaysian adolescent students found an inverse relationship between religiosity and internet addiction tendency in females, but not males.[178]

A 2018 review published in Nature considered that young people may have different experiences online, depending on their socio-economic background, noting lower-income youths may spend up to three hours more per day using digital devices, compared to higher-income youths.[179] They theorized that lower-income youths, who are already vulnerable to mental illness, may be more passive in their online engagements, being more susceptible to negative feedback online, with difficulty self-regulating their digital media use. It concluded that this may be a new form of digital divide between at-risk young people and other young people, pre-existing risks of mental illness becoming amplified among the already vulnerable population.[179]

Neuroscience

A 2018 neuroscientific review published in Nature found the density of the amygdala, a brain region involved in emotional processing, is related to the size of both offline and online social networks in adolescents. They considered that this and other evidence "suggests an important interplay between actual social experiences, both offline and online, and brain development". The authors postulated that social media may have benefits, namely social connections with other people, as well as managing impressions people have of other people such as "reputation building, impression management, and online self-presentation". It identified "adolescence [as] a tipping point in development for how social media can influence their self-concept and expectations of self and others", and called for further study into the neuroscience behind digital media use and brain development in adolescence.[180] Although brain-imaging modalities are under study, neuroscientific findings in individual studies often fail to be replicated in future studies, similar to other behavioural addictions; as of 2017, the exact biological or neural processes that could lead to excessive digital media use are unknown.[3]

Impact on cognition

There is research and development about the cognitive impacts of smartphones and digital technology. A group reported that, contrary to widespread belief, scientific evidence does not show that these technologies harm biological cognitive abilities and that they instead only change predominant ways of cognition – such as a reduced need to remember facts or conduct mathematical calculations by pen and paper outside contemporary schools. However, some activities – like reading novels – that require long focused attention-spans and do not feature ongoing rewarding stimulation may become more challenging in general.[181][182] How extensive online media usage impacts cognitive development in youth is under investigation[183] and impacts may substantially vary by the way and which technologies are being used – such as which and how digital media platforms are being used – and how these are designed. Impacts may vary to a degree such studies have not yet taken into account and may be modulatable by the design, choice and use of technologies and platforms, including by the users themselves.

Measured results of the study

A study suggests that in children aged 8–12 during two years, time digital gaming or watching digital videos can be positively correlated with measures intelligence, albeit correlations with overall screen time (including social media, socializing and TV) were not investigated and 'time gaming' did not differentiate between categories of video games (e.g. shares of games' platform and genre), and digital videos did not differentiate between categories of videos.[184][185]

Impact on social life

Worldwide adolescent loneliness in contemporary schools and depression increased substantially after 2012 and a study found this to be associated with smartphone access and Internet use.[186][187]

Mitigation

Industry

Several technology firms have implemented changes intending to mitigate the adverse effects of excessive use of their platforms.

In December 2017, Facebook admitted passive consumption of social media could be harmful to mental health, although they said active engagement can have a positive effect. In January 2018, the platform made major changes to increase user engagement.[188] In January 2019, Facebook's then head of global affairs, Nick Clegg, responding to criticisms of Facebook and mental health concerns, stated they would do "whatever it takes to make this environment safer online especially for youngsters". Facebook admitted "heavy responsibilities" to the global community, and invited regulation by governments.[189] In 2018 Facebook and Instagram announced new tools that they asserted may assist with overuse of their products.[190] In 2019, Instagram, which has been investigated specifically in one study in terms of addiction,[191] began testing a platform change in Canada to hide the number of "likes" and views that photos and videos received in an effort to create a "less pressurised" environment.[192] It then continued this trial in Australia, Italy, Ireland, Japan, Brazil and New Zealand[193] before extending the experiment globally in November of that year. The platform also developed artificial intelligence to counter cyberbullying.[194]

In 2018, Alphabet Inc. released an update for Android smartphones, including a dashboard app enabling users to set timers on application use.[195] Apple Inc. purchased a third-party application and then incorporated it in iOS 12 to measure "screen time".[196] Journalists have questioned the functionality of these products for users and parents, as well as the companies' motivations for introducing them.[195][197] Alphabet has also invested in a mental health specialist, Quartet, which uses machine learning to collaborate and coordinate digital delivery of mental health care.[198]

Two activist investors in Apple Inc voiced concerns in 2018 about the content and amount of time spent by youth. They called on Apple Inc. to act before regulators and consumers potentially force them to do so.[199] Apple Inc. responded that they have, "always looked out for kids, and [they] work hard to create powerful products that inspire, entertain, and educate children while also helping parents protect them online". The firm is planning new features that they asserted may allow them to play a pioneering role in regard to young people's health.[200]

Public sector

In China, Japan, South Korea and the United States, governmental efforts have been enacted to address issues relating to digital media use and mental health.

China's Ministry of Culture has enacted several public health efforts from as early as 2006 to address gaming and internet-related disorders. In 2007, an "Online Game Anti-Addiction System" was implemented for minors, restricting their use to 3 hours or less per day. The ministry also proposed a "Comprehensive Prevention Program Plan for Minors' Online Gaming Addiction" in 2013, to promulgate research, particularly on diagnostic methods and interventions.[201] China's Ministry of Education in 2018 announced that new regulations would be introduced to further limit the amount of time spent by minors in online games.[202][203] In response, Tencent, the owner of WeChat and the world's largest video game publisher, restricted the amount of time that children could spend playing one of its online games, to one hour per day for children 12 and under, and two hours per day for children aged 13–18.[204] Effective 2 September 2023, those under the age of 18 can no longer access the Internet on their mobile device between 10 pm and 6 am without parental bypass. Smartphone usage is similarly capped by default at 40 minutes a day for children younger than eight and at two hours for 16- and 17-year-olds.[205]

Japan's Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications coordinates Japanese public health efforts in relation to problematic internet use and gaming disorder. Legislatively, the Act on Development of an Environment that Provides Safe and Secure Internet Use for Young People was enacted in 2008, to promote public awareness campaigns, and support NGOs to teach young people safe internet use skills.[201]

South Korea has eight government ministries responsible for public health efforts in relation to internet and gaming disorders. A review article published in Prevention Science in 2018 stated that the "region is unique in that its government has been at the forefront of prevention efforts, particularly in contrast to the United States, Western Europe, and Oceania."[201] Efforts are coordinated by the Ministry of Science and ICT, and include awareness campaigns, educational interventions, youth counseling centres, and promoting healthy online culture.[201]

In May 2023, the United States' Surgeon general took the rare measure of issuing an advisory on Social media and mental health.[206][207] In October, 41 U.S. states commenced legal proceedings against Meta. This included the attorneys general of 33 states filing a combined lawsuit over concerns about the addictive nature of Instagram and its impact on the mental health of young people.[208][209]

Digital mental health care

Photograph of a screen from the "Wellmind" smartphone application
"Wellmind", a United Kingdom National Health Service smartphone application

Digital technologies have also provided opportunities for delivery of mental health care online; benefits have been found with computerized cognitive behavioral therapy for depression and anxiety.[210] Mindfulness based online intervention has been shown to have small to moderate benefits on mental health. The greatest effect size was found for the reduction of psychological stress. Benefits were also found regarding depression, anxiety, and well-being.[211][212]

The Lancet commission on global mental health and sustainability report from 2018 evaluated both benefits and harms of technology. It considered the roles of technologies in mental health, particularly in public education; patient screening; treatment; training and supervision; and system improvement.[213] A study in 2019 published in Front Psychiatry in the National Center for Biotechnology Information states that despite proliferation of many mental health apps there has been no "equivalent proliferation of scientific evidence for their effectiveness."[214]

Steve Blumenfield and Jeff Levin-Scherz, writing in the Harvard Business Review, claim that "most published studies show telephonic mental health care is as effective as in-person care in treating depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder." The also cite a 2020 study done with the Veterans Administration as evidence of this as well.[215]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Dickson K, Richardson M, Kwan I, MacDowall W, Burchett H, Stansfield C, Brunton G, Sutcliffe K, Thomas J (2018). Screen-based activities and children and young people's mental health: A Systematic Map of Reviews (PDF). EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, UCL Institute of Education, University College London. ISBN 978-1-911605-13-3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 February 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b c Ryding FC, Kaye LK (2018). ""Internet Addiction": a Conceptual Minefield". International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 16 (1): 225–232. doi:10.1007/s11469-017-9811-6. PMC 5814538. PMID 29491771.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Kardefelt-Winther D (1 February 2017). "How does the time children spend using digital technology impact their mental well-being, social relationships and physical activity? – An evidence-focused literature review" (PDF). UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti. UNICEF Office of Research. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 July 2019. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e Reid Chassiakos YL, Radesky J, Christakis D, Moreno MA, Cross C (November 2016). "Children and Adolescents and Digital Media". Pediatrics. 138 (5): e20162593. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-2593. PMID 27940795.
  5. ^ a b c d e Office of the Surgeon General (2023), "Social Media Has Both Positive and Negative Impacts on Children and Adolescents", Social Media and Youth Mental Health: The U.S. Surgeon General’s Advisory [Internet], US Department of Health and Human Services, retrieved 1 January 2024
  6. ^ a b c Stiglic N, Viner RM (January 2019). "Effects of screentime on the health and well-being of children and adolescents: a systematic review of reviews". BMJ Open. 9 (1): e023191. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023191. PMC 6326346. PMID 30606703.
  7. ^ a b c d Montag C, Becker B, Gan C (2018). "The Multipurpose Application WeChat: A Review on Recent Research". Frontiers in Psychology. 9: 2247. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02247. PMC 6297283. PMID 30618894.
  8. ^ Stiglic N, Viner RM (January 2019). "Effects of screentime on the health and well-being of children and adolescents: a systematic review of reviews". BMJ Open. 9 (1): e023191. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023191. PMC 6326346. PMID 30606703.
     • Beales K, MacDonald F, Bartlett V, Bowden-Jones H (2017). Are we all addicts now? : digital dependence. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-1-78694-081-0. OCLC 988053669.
     • Pantic I (October 2014). "Online social networking and mental health". Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 17 (10): 652–657. doi:10.1089/cyber.2014.0070. PMC 4183915. PMID 25192305.
     • Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD (March 2017). "Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (3): 311. doi:10.3390/ijerph14030311. PMC 5369147. PMID 28304359.
     • Sigman A. "The Impact of Screen Media on Children: A Eurovision For Parliament" (PDF). Steiner Education Australia (reprint of original speech). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 March 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  9. ^ a b Grant JE, Chamberlain SR (August 2016). "Expanding the definition of addiction: DSM-5 vs. ICD-11". CNS Spectrums. 21 (4): 300–303. doi:10.1017/S1092852916000183. PMC 5328289. PMID 27151528.
  10. ^ Ellis DA (1 August 2019). "Are smartphones really that bad? Improving the psychological measurement of technology-related behaviors". Computers in Human Behavior. 97: 60–66. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2019.03.006. ISSN 0747-5632. S2CID 150864248. Archived from the original on 9 February 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  11. ^ Young K (27 February 1998). Caught in the net: how to recognize the signs of Internet addiction—and a winning strategy for recovery. New York City: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-19159-9. OCLC 38130573.
  12. ^ La Barbera D, La Paglia F, Valsavoia R (2009). "Social network and addiction". Studies in Health Technology and Informatics. 144: 33–36. PMID 19592725.
  13. ^ Cornford K (2018). "Children & Young People's Mental Health in the Digital Age" (PDF). OECD.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  14. ^ a b Parekh R. "Internet Gaming". The American Psychiatric Association. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  15. ^ a b "Gaming disorder". Gaming disorder. World Health Organization. September 2018. Archived from the original on 6 February 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  16. ^ "ICD-11 – Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". icd.who.int. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  17. ^ Panova T, Carbonell X (June 2018). "Is smartphone addiction really an addiction?". Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 7 (2): 252–259. doi:10.1556/2006.7.2018.49. PMC 6174603. PMID 29895183.
  18. ^ Radesky JS, Christakis DA (October 2016). "Increased Screen Time: Implications for Early Childhood Development and Behavior". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 63 (5): 827–839. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2016.06.006. PMID 27565361.
  19. ^ Hsin CT (2014). "The Influence of Young Children's Use of Technology on Their Learning: A Review". Journal of Educational Technology & Society. 17 (4): 85–99. JSTOR jeductechsoci.17.4.85.
     • Gordo López AJ, Contreras PP, Cassidy P (1 August 2015). "The [not so] new digital family: disciplinary functions of representations of children and technology". Feminism & Psychology. 25 (3): 326–346. doi:10.1177/0959353514562805. S2CID 146174524.
     • Subrahmanyam K, Kraut RE, Greenfield PM, Gross EF (22 September 2000). "The impact of home computer use on children's activities and development". The Future of Children. 10 (2): 123–144. doi:10.2307/1602692. JSTOR 1602692. PMID 11255703. S2CID 12421727.
  20. ^ Hawi N, Samaha M (August 2019). "Identifying commonalities and differences in personality characteristics of internet and social media addiction profiles: traits, self-esteem, and self-construal". Behaviour & Information Technology. 38 (2): 110–119. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2018.1515984. S2CID 59523874. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
     • Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD (March 2017). "Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (3): 311. doi:10.3390/ijerph14030311. PMC 5369147. PMID 28304359.
     • Paulus FW, Ohmann S, von Gontard A, Popow C (July 2018). "Internet gaming disorder in children and adolescents: a systematic review". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 60 (7): 645–659. doi:10.1111/dmcn.13754. PMID 29633243. S2CID 205070702.
  21. ^ Hawi N, Samaha M (August 2019). "Identifying commonalities and differences in personality characteristics of internet and social media addiction profiles: traits, self-esteem, and self-construal". Behaviour & Information Technology. 38 (2): 110–119. doi:10.1080/0144929X.2018.1515984. S2CID 59523874. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
     • Paulus FW, Ohmann S, von Gontard A, Popow C (July 2018). "Internet gaming disorder in children and adolescents: a systematic review". Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 60 (7): 645–659. doi:10.1111/dmcn.13754. PMID 29633243. S2CID 205070702.
  22. ^ File T (May 2013). Computer and Internet Use in the United States (PDF) (Report). Current Population Survey Reports. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  23. ^ Tuckel P, O'Neill H (2005). Ownership and Usage Patterns of Cell Phones: 2000–2005 (PDF) (Report). JSM Proceedings, Survey Research Methods Section. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association. p. 4002. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 August 2021. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  24. ^ "Demographics of Internet and Home Broadband Usage in the United States". Pew Research Center. 7 April 2021. Archived from the original on 30 August 2021. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  25. ^ "Demographics of Mobile Device Ownership and Adoption in the United States". Pew Research Center. 7 April 2021. Archived from the original on 3 September 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  26. ^ Arendt S (5 March 2007). "Game Consoles in 41% of Homes". WIRED. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  27. ^ Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2008 (PDF) (Report). Statistical Abstract of the United States (127 ed.). U.S. Census Bureau. 30 December 2007. p. 52. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  28. ^ North D (14 April 2015). "155M Americans play video games, and 80% of households own a gaming device". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  29. ^ 2015 Essential Facts About the Computer and Video Game Industry (Report). Essential Facts About the Computer and Video Game Industry. Vol. 2015. Entertainment Software Association. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  30. ^ Lenhart A (9 April 2015). "Teens, Social Media & Technology Overview 2015". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 10 June 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  31. ^ Hoge E, Bickham D, Cantor J (November 2017). "Digital Media, Anxiety, and Depression in Children". Pediatrics. 140 (Suppl 2): S76–S80. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-1758G. PMID 29093037.
  32. ^ Elhai JD, Dvorak RD, Levine JC, Hall BJ (January 2017). "Problematic smartphone use: A conceptual overview and systematic review of relations with anxiety and depression psychopathology". Journal of Affective Disorders. 207: 251–259. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2016.08.030. PMID 27736736. S2CID 205642153.
  33. ^ Krull K (19 February 2019). "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents, clinical features and diagnosis". UpToDate.com. UpToDate. Archived from the original on 1 April 2019. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  34. ^ Kooij JJ, Bijlenga D, Salerno L, Jaeschke R, Bitter I, Balázs J, Thome J, Dom G, Kasper S, Nunes Filipe C, Stes S, Mohr P, Leppämäki S, Casas M, Bobes J, Mccarthy JM, Richarte V, Kjems Philipsen A, Pehlivanidis A, Niemela A, Styr B, Semerci B, Bolea-Alamanac B, Edvinsson D, Baeyens D, Wynchank D, Sobanski E, Philipsen A, McNicholas F, Caci H, Mihailescu I, Manor I, Dobrescu I, Saito T, Krause J, Fayyad J, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Foeken K, Rad F, Adamou M, Ohlmeier M, Fitzgerald M, Gill M, Lensing M, Motavalli Mukaddes N, Brudkiewicz P, Gustafsson P, Tani P, Oswald P, Carpentier PJ, De Rossi P, Delorme R, Markovska Simoska S, Pallanti S, Young S, Bejerot S, Lehtonen T, Kustow J, Müller-Sedgwick U, Hirvikoski T, Pironti V, Ginsberg Y, Félegyházy Z, Garcia-Portilla MP, Asherson P (February 2019). "Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD". European Psychiatry. 56: 14–34. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.11.001. hdl:10067/1564410151162165141. PMID 30453134.
  35. ^ Orben A, Przybylski AK (2019). "The association between adolescent well-being and digital technology use". Nature Human Behaviour. 3 (2). Springer Nature Publishing: 173–182. doi:10.1038/s41562-018-0506-1. PMID 30944443. S2CID 58006454. Archived from the original on 23 April 2021. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  36. ^ Orban A, Przybylski AK (2019). "Screens, Teens, and Psychological Well-Being: Evidence From Three Time-Use-Diary Studies". Psychological Science. 30 (5). SAGE Publications: 682–696. doi:10.1177/0956797619830329. PMC 6512056. PMID 30939250.
  37. ^ Twenge JM, Blake AB, Haidt J, Campbell WK (18 February 2020). "Commentary: Screens, Teens, and Psychological Well-Being: Evidence From Three Time-Use-Diary Studies". Frontiers in Psychology. 11. Frontiers Media: 181. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00181. PMC 7040178. PMID 32132949.
  38. ^ Twenge J, Haidt J, Joiner TE, Campbell WK (2020). "Underestimating digital media harm". Nature Human Behaviour. 4 (4). Springer Nature Publishing: 346–348. doi:10.1038/s41562-020-0839-4. PMID 32303719. S2CID 215804486. Archived from the original on 8 August 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  39. ^ Przybylski AK, Weinstein N (February 2017). "A Large-Scale Test of the Goldilocks Hypothesis" (PDF). Psychological Science. 28 (2): 204–215. doi:10.1177/0956797616678438. PMID 28085574. S2CID 9669390. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  40. ^ a b "Impact of social media and screen-use on young people's health" (PDF). House of Commons Science and Technology Committee. 31 January 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 July 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  41. ^ Valkenburg P, Meier A, Beyens I (April 2022). "Social media use and its impact on adolescent mental health: An umbrella review of the evidence". Current Opinion in Psychology. 44: 58–68. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.08.017. hdl:11245.1/07562e63-5608-4af8-bfc3-70d0a2c34390. PMID 34563980. S2CID 237941749.
  42. ^ Meier A, Reinecke L (October 2020). "Computer-Mediated Communication, Social Media, and Mental Health: A Conceptual and Empirical Meta-Review". Communication Research. 48 (8): 1182–1209. doi:10.1177/0093650220958224. S2CID 226332693.
  43. ^ Ivie E, Pettitt A, Moses L, Allen N (2020). "A meta-analysis of the association between adolescent social media use and depressive symptoms". Journal of Affective Disorders. 275: 165–174. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.014. PMID 32734903. S2CID 220892285.
  44. ^ Gudka M, Gardiner K, Lomas T (2021). "Towards a framework for flourishing through social media: a systematic review of 118 research studies". The Journal of Positive Psychology. 18: 86–105. doi:10.1080/17439760.2021.1991447. S2CID 255968367.
  45. ^ Mingli L, Kamper-DeMarco K, Zhang J, Xiao J, Dong D, Xue P (2022). "Time Spent on Social Media and Risk of Depression in Adolescents: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 19 (9): 5164. doi:10.3390/ijerph19095164. PMC 9103874. PMID 35564559.
  46. ^ Aarseth E, Bean AM, Boonen H, Colder Carras M, Coulson M, Das D, Deleuze J, Dunkels E, Edman J, Ferguson CJ, Haagsma MC, Helmersson Bergmark K, Hussain Z, Jansz J, Kardefelt-Winther D, Kutner L, Markey P, Nielsen RK, Prause N, Przybylski A, Quandt T, Schimmenti A, Starcevic V, Stutman G, Van Looy J, Van Rooij AJ (September 2017). "Scholars' open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal". Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 6 (3): 267–270. doi:10.1556/2006.5.2016.088. PMC 5700734. PMID 28033714.
  47. ^ Christakis DA (October 2010). "Internet addiction: a 21st century epidemic?". BMC Medicine. 8 (1): 61. doi:10.1186/1741-7015-8-61. PMC 2972229. PMID 20955578.
  48. ^ Cooper A (9 December 2018). "Groundbreaking study examines effects of screen time on kids". 60 Minutes Canada. CBS News. Archived from the original on 11 December 2018. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  49. ^ Cheng C, Li AY (December 2014). "Internet addiction prevalence and quality of (real) life: a meta-analysis of 31 nations across seven world regions". Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 17 (12): 755–760. doi:10.1089/cyber.2014.0317. PMC 4267764. PMID 25489876.
  50. ^ Musetti A, Corsano P (18 April 2018). "The Internet Is Not a Tool: Reappraising the Model for Internet-Addiction Disorder Based on the Constraints and Opportunities of the Digital Environment". Frontiers in Psychology. 9: 558. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00558. PMC 5915628. PMID 29720954.
  51. ^ Pantic I (October 2014). "Online social networking and mental health". Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 17 (10): 652–7. doi:10.1089/cyber.2014.0070. PMC 4183915. PMID 25192305.
  52. ^ van den Eijnden RJ, Lemmens JS, Valkenburg PM (1 August 2016). "The Social Media Disorder Scale". Computers in Human Behavior. 61: 478–487. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.038.
  53. ^ Andreassen CS (1 June 2015). "Online Social Network Site Addiction: A Comprehensive Review" (PDF). Current Addiction Reports. 2 (2): 175–184. doi:10.1007/s40429-015-0056-9. ISSN 2196-2952. S2CID 145799241. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 August 2017.
  54. ^ Stein DJ, Hollander E, Rothbaum BO (31 August 2009). Textbook of Anxiety Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 359. ISBN 978-1-58562-254-2. Archived from the original on 11 October 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
  55. ^ Parashar A, Varma A (April 2007). "Behavior and substance addictions: is the world ready for a new category in the DSM-V?". CNS Spectrums. 12 (4): 257, author reply 258–9. doi:10.1017/S109285290002099X. PMID 17503551.
  56. ^ Griffiths M (November 2001). "Sex on the internet: Observations and implications for internet sex addiction". The Journal of Sex Research. 38 (4): 333–342. doi:10.1080/00224490109552104. S2CID 144522990. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  57. ^ Gainsbury SM (2015). "Online Gambling Addiction: the Relationship Between Internet Gambling and Disordered Gambling". Current Addiction Reports. 2 (2): 185–193. doi:10.1007/s40429-015-0057-8. PMC 4610999. PMID 26500834.
  58. ^  • Hinduja S, Patchin JW (2008). "Cyberbullying: An Exploratory Analysis of Factors Related to Offending and Victimization". Deviant Behavior. 29 (2): 129–156. doi:10.1080/01639620701457816. S2CID 144024729.
     • Hinduja S, Patchin JW (October 2007). "Offline consequences of online victimization: School violence and delinquency". Journal of School Violence. 6 (3): 89–112. doi:10.1300/J202v06n03_06. S2CID 143016237.
     • Hinduja S, Patchin JW (2009). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. ISBN 978-1-4129-6689-4.
     • Hinduja S, Patchin JW (2006). "Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: A preliminary look at cyberbullying". Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. 4 (2): 148–169. doi:10.1177/1541204006286288. S2CID 145357837.
  59. ^ Nixon CL (1 August 2014). "Current perspectives: the impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health". Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics. 5: 143–158. doi:10.2147/AHMT.S36456. ISSN 1179-318X. PMC 4126576. PMID 25177157.
  60. ^ "Effects of Cyberbullying". Social Media Victims Law Center. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  61. ^ Almuneef M, Anton-Erxleben K, Burton P (14 November 2016). Ending the torment : tackling bullying from the schoolyard to cyberspace. United Nations. Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children. New York: United Nations Publications. p. 116. ISBN 978-92-1-101344-3. OCLC 982286456.
  62. ^ Uncapher MR, Lin L, Rosen LD, Kirkorian HL, Baron NS, Bailey K, Cantor J, Strayer DL, Parsons TD, Wagner AD (November 2017). "Media Multitasking and Cognitive, Psychological, Neural, and Learning Differences". Pediatrics. 140 (Suppl 2): S62–S66. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-1758D. PMC 5658797. PMID 29093034.
  63. ^ Uncapher MR, Wagner AD (October 2018). "Minds and brains of media multitaskers: Current findings and future directions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115 (40): 9889–9896. Bibcode:2018PNAS..115.9889U. doi:10.1073/pnas.1611612115. PMC 6176627. PMID 30275312.
  64. ^ Huber J (29 October 2018). "How does media multitasking affect the mind?". Scope. Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  65. ^ Rahmillah FI, Tariq A, King M, Oviedo-Trespalacios O (2023). "Is distraction on the road associated with maladaptive mobile phone use? A systematic review". Accident Analysis & Prevention. 181. Elsevier: 106900. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2022.106900. PMID 36580764.
  66. ^ Dillard LK, Mulas P, Der C, Fu X, Chadha S (2024). "Risk of sound-induced hearing loss from exposure to video gaming or esports: a systematic scoping review". BMJ Public Health. 2 (1). BMJ: e000253. doi:10.1136/bmjph-2023-000253.
  67. ^ a b Zajac K, Ginley MK, Chang R, Petry NM (December 2017). "Treatments for Internet gaming disorder and Internet addiction: A systematic review". Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 31 (8): 979–994. doi:10.1037/adb0000315. PMC 5714660. PMID 28921996.
  68. ^ "How to Make a Family Media Use Plan". HealthyChildren.org. Archived from the original on 6 June 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  69. ^ Korioth T (12 December 2018). "Family Media Plan helps parents set boundaries for kids". AAP News. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  70. ^ Ferguson CJ, Beresin E (1 June 2017). "Social science's curious war with pop culture and how it was lost: The media violence debate and the risks it holds for social science". Preventive Medicine. 99: 69–76. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.02.009. ISSN 0091-7435. PMID 28212816.
  71. ^ Shaw M, Black DW (2008). "Internet addiction: definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management". CNS Drugs. 22 (5): 353–365. doi:10.2165/00023210-200822050-00001. PMID 18399706. S2CID 1699090.
  72. ^ Petry NM, Rehbein F, Gentile DA, Lemmens JS, Rumpf HJ, Mößle T, Bischof G, Tao R, Fung DS, Borges G, Auriacombe M, González Ibáñez A, Tam P, O'Brien CP (September 2014). "An international consensus for assessing Internet gaming disorder using the new DSM-5 approach". Addiction. 109 (9): 1399–1406. doi:10.1111/add.12457. PMID 24456155.
  73. ^ Gámez-Guadix M, Calvete E (1 December 2016). "Assessing the Relationship between Mindful Awareness and Problematic Internet Use among Adolescents". Mindfulness. 7 (6): 1281–1288. doi:10.1007/s12671-016-0566-0. S2CID 148514937.
  74. ^ Sharma MK, Palanichamy TS (February 2018). "Psychosocial interventions for technological addictions". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 60 (Suppl 4): S541–S545. doi:10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_40_18. PMC 5844169. PMID 29540928. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  75. ^ Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD (September 2011). "Online social networking and addiction – a review of the psychological literature". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8 (9): 3528–3552. doi:10.3390/ijerph8093528. PMC 3194102. PMID 22016701.
  76. ^ Romano M, Osborne LA, Truzoli R, Reed P (7 February 2013). "Differential psychological impact of Internet exposure on Internet addicts". PLOS One. 8 (2): e55162. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...855162R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055162. PMC 3567114. PMID 23408958.
  77. ^ "Hooked on Social Media? Help From Adults with ADHD". ADDitude. ADDitude Magazine. 23 November 2016. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  78. ^ "ADHD and Learning Disabilities Directory: ADD Coaches, Organizers, Doctors, Schools, Camps". directory.additudemag.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  79. ^ "Resources Online". ADHD Australia. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  80. ^ "ADHD Resource Center". www.aacap.org. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  81. ^ Kesner L, Horáček J (2022). "Global Adversities, the Media, and Mental Health". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 12: 809239. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.809239. ISSN 1664-0640. PMC 8785246. PMID 35082704.
  82. ^ a b c d González-Bueso V, Santamaría JJ, Fernández D, Merino L, Montero E, Ribas J (2018). "Association between Internet Gaming Disorder or Pathological Video-Game Use and Comorbid Psychopathology: A Comprehensive Review". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (4). MDPI: 668. doi:10.3390/ijerph15040668. PMC 5923710. PMID 29614059.
  83. ^ Beyens I, Valkenburg PM, Piotrowski JT (2 October 2018). "Screen media use and ADHD-related behaviors: Four decades of research". PNAS USA. 115 (40). National Academy of Sciences: 9875–9881. Bibcode:2018PNAS..115.9875B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1611611114. PMC 6176582. PMID 30275318.
  84. ^ a b de Francisco Carvalho L, Sette CP, Ferrari BL (2018). "Problematic smartphone use relationship with pathological personality traits: Systematic review and meta-analysis". Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace. 12 (3). Masaryk University: 5. doi:10.5817/CP2018-3-5.
  85. ^ a b c d e Li Y, Li G, Liu L, Wu H (2020). "Correlations between mobile phone addiction and anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and poor sleep quality among college students: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 9 (3). Akadémiai Kiadó: 551–571. doi:10.1556/2006.2020.00057. PMC 8943681. PMID 32903205.
  86. ^ Dullur P, Krishnan V, Diaz AM (2021). "A systematic review on the intersection of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and gaming disorder". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 133. Elsevier: 212–222. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.12.026. PMID 33360866. S2CID 229687229.
  87. ^ Gao X, Zhang M, Yang Z, Wen M, Huang H, Zheng R, Wang W, Wei Y, Cheng J, Han S, Zhang Y (2021). "Structural and Functional Brain Abnormalities in Internet Gaming Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comparative Meta-Analysis". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 12. Frontiers Media: 679437. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.679437. PMC 8281314. PMID 34276447.
  88. ^ a b c Eirich R, McArthur BA, Anhorn C, McGuinness C, Christakis DA, Madigan S (2022). "Association of Screen Time With Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children 12 Years or Younger: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA Psychiatry. 79 (5). American Medical Association: 393–405. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2022.0155. PMC 8928099. PMID 35293954.
  89. ^ Santos RM, Mendes CG, Miranda DM, Romano-Silva MA (2022). "The Association between Screen Time and Attention in Children: A Systematic Review". Developmental Neuropsychology. 47 (4). Routledge: 175–192. doi:10.1080/87565641.2022.2064863. PMID 35430923. S2CID 248228233.
  90. ^ Werling AM, Kuzhippallil S, Emery S, Walitza S, Drechsler R (2022). "Problematic use of digital media in children and adolescents with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder compared to controls. A meta-analysis". Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 11 (2). Akadémiai Kiadó: 305–325. doi:10.1556/2006.2022.00007. PMC 9295226. PMID 35567763.
  91. ^ Thorell LB, Burén J, Wiman JS, Sandberg D, Nutley SB (2022). "Longitudinal associations between digital media use and ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents: a systematic literature review". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Springer Science+Business Media. doi:10.1007/s00787-022-02130-3. PMID 36562860.
  92. ^ Liu H, Chen X, Huang M, Yu X, Gan Y, Wang J, Chen Q, Nie Z, Ge H (2023). "Screen time and childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis". Reviews on Environmental Health. De Gruyter. doi:10.1515/reveh-2022-0262. PMID 37163581. S2CID 258591184.
  93. ^ a b Augner C, Vlasak T, Barth A (2023). "The relationship between problematic internet use and attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsivity: A meta-analysis". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 168. Elsevier: 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2023.10.032. PMID 37866293. S2CID 264190691.
  94. ^ Koncz P, Demetrovics Z, Takacs ZK, Griffiths MD, Nagy T, Király O (2023). "The emerging evidence on the association between symptoms of ADHD and gaming disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Clinical Psychology Review. 106. Elsevier: 102343. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2023.102343. hdl:20.500.11820/91f22260-b579-4f0b-9e81-adc063f27e9e. PMID 37883910.
  95. ^ Vahedi Z, Saiphoo A (2018). "The association between smartphone use, stress, and anxiety: A meta-analytic review". Stress & Health. 34 (3). Wiley: 347–358. doi:10.1002/smi.2805. PMID 29673047.
  96. ^ a b Hussain Z, Griffiths MD (2018). "Problematic Social Networking Site Use and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review of Recent Large-Scale Studies". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 9. Frontiers Media: 686. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00686. PMC 6302102. PMID 30618866.
  97. ^ a b Keles B, McCrae N, Grealish A (2019). "A systematic review: the influence of social media on depression, anxiety and psychological distress in adolescents". International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. 25 (1). Taylor & Francis: 79–93. doi:10.1080/02673843.2019.1590851.
  98. ^ a b c Jiaxin Y, Xi F, Xiaoli L, Yamin L (2020). "Association of problematic smartphone use with poor sleep quality, depression, and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Psychiatry Research. 284. Elsevier: 112686. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2019.112686. PMID 31757638. S2CID 207974088.
  99. ^ a b Hussain Z, Wegmann E, Yang H, Montag C (2020). "Social Networks Use Disorder and Associations With Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: A Systematic Review of Recent Research in China". Frontiers in Psychology. 11. Frontiers Media: 211. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00211. PMC 7046800. PMID 32153455.
  100. ^ a b Zink J, Belcher BR, Imm K, Leventhal AM (2020). "The relationship between screen-based sedentary behaviors and symptoms of depression and anxiety in youth: a systematic review of moderating variables". BMC Public Health. 20 (1). BioMed Central: 472. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-08572-1. PMC 7147040. PMID 32272906.
  101. ^ a b Piteo EM, Ward K (2020). "Review: Social networking sites and associations with depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents – a systematic review". Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 25 (4). Wiley-Blackwell: 201–216. doi:10.1111/camh.12373. PMID 33118256.
  102. ^ a b Cataldo I, Lepri B, Neoh MJ, Esposito G (2021). "Social Media Usage and Development of Psychiatric Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence: A Review". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 11. Frontiers Media. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.508595. PMC 7838524. PMID 33519535.
  103. ^ O'Day EB, Heimberg RG (2021). "Social media use, social anxiety, and loneliness: A systematic review". Computers in Human Behavior Reports. 3. Elsevier: 100070. doi:10.1016/j.chbr.2021.100070.
  104. ^ a b Tang S, Werner-Seidler A, Torok M, Mackinnon AJ, Christensen H (2021). "The relationship between screen time and mental health in young people: A systematic review of longitudinal studies". Clinical Psychology Review. 86. Elsevier: 102021. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2021.102021. PMID 33798997.
  105. ^ Ma J (2022). "A Meta-Analysis of Social Media Usage with Stress, Anxiety, and Depression". Proceedings of the 2021 International Conference on Intelligent Medicine and Health. Vol. 2021. Association for Computing Machinery. pp. 125–129. doi:10.1145/3484377.3487041. ISBN 978-1-4503-8590-9.
  106. ^ a b Molero MM, Martos Á, Barragán AB, Pérez-Fuentes MC, Gázquez JJ (2022). "Anxiety and Depression from Cybervictimization in Adolescents: A Metaanalysis and Meta-regression Study". The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context. 14 (1). Madrid Regional Association of Psychology: 42–50. doi:10.5093/ejpalc2022a5.
  107. ^ a b Damodar S, Lokemoen C, Gurusamy V, Takhi M, Bishev D, Parrill A, Deviney M, Person U, Korie I, Branch R (2022). "Trending: A Systematic Review of Social Media Use's Influence on Adolescent Anxiety and Depression". Adolescent Psychiatry. 12 (1). Bentham Science Publishers: 11–22. doi:10.2174/2210676612666220225122720.
  108. ^ a b Hancock J, Liu SX, Luo M, Mieczkowski H (2022). "Psychological Well-Being and Social Media Use: A Meta-Analysis of Associations between Social Media Use and Depression, Anxiety, Loneliness, Eudaimonic, Hedonic and Social Well-Being". doi:10.2139/ssrn.4053961. SSRN 4053961.
  109. ^ a b Shannon H, Bush K, Villeneuve P, Hellemans K, Guimond S (2022). "Problematic Social Media Use in Adolescents and Young Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JMIR Mental Health. 9 (4). JMIR Publications: e33450. doi:10.2196/33450. PMC 9052033. PMID 35436240.
  110. ^ Ran G, Li J, Zhang Q, Niu X (2022). "The association between social anxiety and mobile phone addiction: A three-level meta-analysis". Computers in Human Behavior. 130. Elsevier: 107198. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2022.107198.
  111. ^ a b c Alimoradi Z, Jafari E, Potenza MN, Lin CY, Wu CY, Pakpour AH (2022). "Binge-Watching and Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 19 (15). MDPI: 9707. doi:10.3390/ijerph19159707. PMC 9368441. PMID 35955069.
  112. ^ a b Lopes LS, Valentini JP, Monteiro TH, de Freitas Costacurta MC, Soares LO, Telfar-Barnard L, Nunes PV (2022). "Problematic Social Media Use and Its Relationship with Depression or Anxiety: A Systematic Review". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 25 (11). Mary Ann Liebert: 691–702. doi:10.1089/cyber.2021.0300. PMID 36219756.
  113. ^ a b Augner C, Vlasak T, Aichhorn W, Barth A (2023). "The association between problematic smartphone use and symptoms of anxiety and depression—a meta-analysis". Journal of Public Health. 45 (1). Oxford University Press: 193–201. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdab350. PMID 34585243.
  114. ^ a b Daraj LR, AlGhareeb M, Almutawa YM, Trabelsi K, Jahrami H (2023). "Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Correlation Coefficients between Nomophobia and Anxiety, Smartphone Addiction, and Insomnia Symptoms". Healthcare. 11 (14). MDPI: 2066. doi:10.3390/healthcare11142066. PMC 10380081. PMID 37510507.
  115. ^ Ding H, Cao B, Sun Q (2023). "The association between problematic internet use and social anxiety within adolescents and young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Frontiers in Public Health. 11. Frontiers Media. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2023.1275723. PMC 10570444. PMID 37841708.
  116. ^ a b Hilty DM, Stubbe D, McKean AJ, Hoffman PE, Zalpuri I, Myint MT, Joshi SV, Pakyurek M, Li ST (2023). "A scoping review of social media in child, adolescents and young adults: research findings in depression, anxiety and other clinical challenges". BJPsych Open. 9 (5). Cambridge University Press: e152. doi:10.1192/bjo.2023.523. PMC 10594088. PMID 37563766.
  117. ^ Godard R, Holtzman S (2024). "Are active and passive social media use related to mental health, wellbeing, and social support outcomes? A meta-analysis of 141 studies". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 29 (1). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/jcmc/zmad055.
  118. ^ Wu W, Huang L, Yang F (2024). "Social anxiety and problematic social media use: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Addictive Behaviors. 153. Elsevier: 107995. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2024.107995. PMID 38401423.
  119. ^ a b Abbouyi S, Bouazza S, El Kinany S, El Rhazi K, Zarrouq B (2024). "Depression and anxiety and its association with problematic social media use in the MENA region: a systematic review". The Egyptian Journal of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery. 60. Springer: 15. doi:10.1186/s41983-024-00793-0.
  120. ^ Stiller A, Mößle T (2018). "Media Use Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Systematic Review". Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 5 (3). Springer: 227–246. doi:10.1007/s40489-018-0135-7. S2CID 256395870.
  121. ^ Slobodin O, Heffler KF, Davidovitch M (2019). "Screen Media and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review". Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 40 (4). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 303–311. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000654. PMID 30908423. S2CID 85516383.
  122. ^ Craig F, Tenuta F, De Giacomo A, Trabacca A, Costabile A (2021). "A systematic review of problematic video-game use in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders". Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 82. Elsevier: 101726. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2021.101726. S2CID 233601150.
  123. ^ Murray A, Koronczai B, Király O, Griffiths MD, Mannion A, Leader G, Demetrovics Z (2021). "Autism, Problematic Internet Use and Gaming Disorder: A Systematic Review". Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 9. Springer: 120–140. doi:10.1007/s40489-021-00243-0. hdl:10379/16762.
  124. ^ Coutelle R, Weiner L, Paasche C, Pottelette J, Bertschy G, Schröder CM, Lalanne L (2022). "Autism Spectrum Disorder and Video Games: Restricted Interests or Addiction?". International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 20 (4). Springer: 2243–2264. doi:10.1007/s11469-021-00511-4. S2CID 232145871.
  125. ^ Normand CL, Fisher MH, Simonato I, Fecteau SM, Poulin MH (2021). "A Systematic Review of Problematic Internet Use in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder". Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 9 (4). Springer: 507–520. doi:10.1007/s40489-021-00270-x. S2CID 236314346.
  126. ^ Sarfraz S, Shlaghya G, Narayana SH, Mushtaq U, Ameen BS, Nie C, Nechi D, Mazhar IJ, Yasir M, Franchini AP (2023). "Early Screen-Time Exposure and Its Association With Risk of Developing Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review". Cureus. 15 (7). Springer Nature: e42292. doi:10.7759/cureus.42292. PMC 10442849. PMID 37614255.
  127. ^ Ophir Y, Rosenberg H, Tikochinski R, Dalyot S, Lipshits-Braziler Y (2023). "Screen Time and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". JAMA Network Open. 6 (12). American Medical Association: e2346775. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.46775. PMC 10709772. PMID 38064216.
  128. ^ Pan X, Wang R (2021). "Is Problematic Internet use a risk factor for bipolar disorder—Evidence from Meta-Analysis". 2021 2nd International Conference on Big Data and Informatization Education (ICBDIE). Vol. 2021. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. pp. 540–544. doi:10.1109/ICBDIE52740.2021.00129. ISBN 978-1-6654-3870-4.
  129. ^ Escobar-Viera CG, Whitfield DL, Wessel CB, Shensa A, Sidani JE, Brown AL, Chandler CJ, Hoffman BL, Marshal MP, Primack BA (2018). "For Better or for Worse? A Systematic Review of the Evidence on Social Media Use and Depression Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Minorities". JMIR Mental Health. 5 (3). JMIR Publications: e10496. doi:10.2196/10496. PMC 6079300. PMID 30037786.
  130. ^ Yoon S, Kleinman M, Mertz J, Brannick M (2019). "Is social network site usage related to depression? A meta-analysis of Facebook–depression relations". Journal of Affective Disorders. 248. Elsevier: 65–72. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2019.01.026. PMID 30711871.
  131. ^ Wang X, Li Y, Fan H (2019). "The associations between screen time-based sedentary behavior and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis". BMC Public Health. 19 (1). BioMed Central: 1524. doi:10.1186/s12889-019-7904-9. PMC 6857327. PMID 31727052.
  132. ^ Huang Y, Li L, Gan Y, Wang C, Jiang H, Cao S, Lu Z (2020). "Sedentary behaviors and risk of depression: a meta-analysis of prospective studies". Translational Psychiatry. 10 (1). Nature Portfolio: 26. doi:10.1038/s41398-020-0715-z. PMC 7026102. PMID 32066686.
  133. ^ a b Appel M, Marker C, Gnambs T (2020). "Are Social Media Ruining Our Lives? A Review of Meta-Analytic Evidence". Review of General Psychology. 24 (1). American Psychological Association: 60–74. doi:10.1177/1089268019880891.
  134. ^ Arias-de la Torre J, Puigdomenech E, García X, Valderas JM, Eiroa-Orosa FJ, Fernández-Villa T, Molina AJ, Martín V, Serrano-Blanco A, Alonso J, Espallargues M (2020). "Relationship Between Depression and the Use of Mobile Technologies and Social Media Among Adolescents: Umbrella Review". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 22 (8). JMIR Publications: e16388. doi:10.2196/16388. PMC 7481866. PMID 32663157.
  135. ^ Ivie EJ, Pettitt A, Moses LJ, Allen NB (2020). "A meta-analysis of the association between adolescent social media use and depressive symptoms". Journal of Affective Disorders. 275. Elsevier: 165–174. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.014. PMID 32734903.
  136. ^ Cunningham S, Hudson CC, Harkness K (2021). "Social Media and Depression Symptoms: a Meta-Analysis". Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology. 49 (2). Springer: 241–253. doi:10.1007/s10802-020-00715-7. PMID 33404948.
  137. ^ Webster D, Dunne L, Hunter R (2021). "Association Between Social Networks and Subjective Well-Being in Adolescents: A Systematic Review". Youth & Society. 53 (2). Sage Publishing: 175–210. doi:10.1177/0044118X20919589.
  138. ^ Ostinelli EG, Zangani C, Giordano B, Maestri D, Gambini O, D'Agostino A, Furukawa TA, Purgato M (2021). "Depressive symptoms and depression in individuals with internet gaming disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Affective Disorders. 284. Elsevier: 136–142. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2021.02.014. hdl:2434/848082. PMID 33592432.
  139. ^ Vahedi Z, Zannella L (2021). "The association between self-reported depressive symptoms and the use of social networking sites (SNS): A meta-analysis". Current Psychology. 40 (5). Springer: 2174–2189. doi:10.1007/s12144-019-0150-6.
  140. ^ Adeyanju GC, Solfa RP, Tran TL, Wohlfarth S, Büttner J, Osobajo OA, Otitoju A (2021). "Behavioural symptoms of mental health disorder such as depression among young people using Instagram: a systematic review". Translational Medicine Communications. 6. Springer: 15. doi:10.1186/s41231-021-00092-3.
  141. ^ Huang C (2022). "A meta-analysis of the problematic social media use and mental health". International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 68 (1). Sage Publishing: 12–33. doi:10.1177/0020764020978434. PMID 33295241.
  142. ^ Shin M, Juventin M, Chu JT, Manor Y, Kemps E (2022). "Online media consumption and depression in young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Computers in Human Behavior. 128. Elsevier: 107129. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2021.107129.
  143. ^ Liu M, Kamper-DeMarco KE, Zhang J, Xiao J, Dong D, Xue P (2022). "Time Spent on Social Media and Risk of Depression in Adolescents: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 19 (9). MDPI: 5164. doi:10.3390/ijerph19095164. PMC 9103874. PMID 35564559.
  144. ^ Li L, Zhang Q, Zhu L, Zeng G, Huang H, Zhuge J, Kuang X, Yang S, Yang D, Chen Z, Gan Y, Lu Z, Wu C (2022). "Screen time and depression risk: A meta-analysis of cohort studies". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 13. Frontiers Media: 1058572. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2022.1058572. PMC 9815119. PMID 36620668.
  145. ^ Tran HG, Thai TT, Dang NT, Vo DK, Duong MH (2023). "Cyber-Victimization and Its Effect on Depression in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 24 (2). Sage Publishing: 1124–1139. doi:10.1177/15248380211050597. PMID 34689637.
  146. ^ Yigiter MS, Demir S, Dogan N (2023). "The Relationship Between Problematic Social Media Use and Depression: A Meta-Analysis Study". Current Psychology. 43 (9). Springer: 7936–7951. doi:10.1007/s12144-023-04972-9.
  147. ^ Ghai S, Fassi L, Awadh F, Orben A (2023). "Lack of Sample Diversity in Research on Adolescent Depression and Social Media Use: A Scoping Review and Meta-Analysis". Clinical Psychological Science. 11 (5). Sage Publishing: 759–772. doi:10.1177/21677026221114859. PMC 10491482. PMID 37694229.
  148. ^ Mei X, Zhou Q, Li X, Jing P, Wang X, Hu Z (2018). "Sleep problems in excessive technology use among adolescent: a systemic review and meta-analysis". Sleep Science and Practice. 2 (9). Springer. doi:10.1186/s41606-018-0028-9.
  149. ^ Peracchia S, Curcio G (2018). "Exposure to video games: effects on sleep and on post-sleep cognitive abilities. A sistematic review of experimental evidences". Sleep Science. 11 (4). Thieme Medical Publishers: 302–314. doi:10.5935/1984-0063.20180046. PMC 6361300. PMID 30746049.
  150. ^ Alimoradi Z, Lin CY, Broström A, Bülow PH, Bajalan Z, Griffiths MD, Ohayon MM, Pakpour AH (2019). "Internet addiction and sleep problems: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 47. Elsevier: 51–61. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2019.06.004. PMID 31336284. S2CID 198193864.
  151. ^ Janssen X, Martin A, Hughes AR, Hill CM, Kotronoulas G, Hesketh KR (2020). "Associations of screen time, sedentary time and physical activity with sleep in under 5s: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 49 (101226). Elsevier: 101226. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2019.101226. PMC 7034412. PMID 31778942.
  152. ^ Mac Cárthaigh S, Griffin C, Perry J (2020). "The relationship between sleep and problematic smartphone use among adolescents: A systematic review". Developmental Review. 55. Elsevier: 100897. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2020.100897. S2CID 213952365.
  153. ^ Li C, Cheng G, Sha T, Cheng W, Yan Y (2020). "The Relationships between Screen Use and Health Indicators among Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17 (19). MDPI: 7324. doi:10.3390/ijerph17197324. PMC 7579161. PMID 33036443.
  154. ^ Alonzo R, Hussain J, Stranges S, Anderson KK (2021). "Interplay between social media use, sleep quality, and mental health in youth: A systematic review" (PDF). Sleep Medicine Reviews. 56. Elsevier: 101414. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2020.101414. PMID 33385767. S2CID 230107960.
  155. ^ Kristensen JH, Pallesen S, King DL, Hysing M, Erevik EK (2021). "Problematic Gaming and Sleep: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 12. Frontiers Media: 675237. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.675237. PMC 8216490. PMID 34163386.
  156. ^ Lund L, Sølvhøj IN, Danielsen D, Andersen S (2021). "Electronic media use and sleep in children and adolescents in western countries: a systematic review". BMC Public Health. 21 (1). BioMed Central: 1598. doi:10.1186/s12889-021-11640-9. PMC 8482627. PMID 34587944.
  157. ^ Kemp C, Pienaar PR, Rosslee DT, Lipinska G, Roden LC, Rae DE (2021). "Sleep in Habitual Adult Video Gamers: A Systematic Review". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 15. Frontiers Media: 781351. doi:10.3389/fnins.2021.781351. PMC 8797142. PMID 35095395.
  158. ^ Mallawaarachchi SR, Anglim J, Hooley M, Horwood S (2022). "Associations of smartphone and tablet use in early childhood with psychosocial, cognitive and sleep factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 60. Elsevier: 13–33. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2021.12.008.
  159. ^ Zhang J, Zhang X, Zhang K, Lu X, Yuan G, Yang H, Guo H, Zhu Z, Wang T, Hao J, Sun Y, Su P, Yang L, Zhang Z (2022). "An updated of meta-analysis on the relationship between mobile phone addiction and sleep disorder". Journal of Affective Disorders. 305. Elsevier: 94–101. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2022.02.008. PMID 35149136. S2CID 246738576.
  160. ^ da Silva SS, da Silveira MA, de Almeida HC, do Nascimento MC, Dos Santos MA, Heimer MV (2022). "Use of digital screens by adolescents and association on sleep quality: a systematic review". Reports in Public Health. 38 (10). Sérgio Arouca National School of Public Health: e00300721. doi:10.1590/0102-311XEN300721. PMID 36259788.
  161. ^ Drumheller K, Fan CW (2022). "Unprecedented times and uncertain connections: A systematic review examining sleep problems and screentime during the COVID-19 pandemic". Sleep Epidemiology. 2. Elsevier: 100029. doi:10.1016/j.sleepe.2022.100029. PMC 9076584. PMID 35692715.
  162. ^ Chu Y, Oh Y, Gwon M, Hwang S, Jeong H, Kim HW, Kim K, Kim YH (2023). "Dose-response analysis of smartphone usage and self-reported sleep quality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies". Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 19 (3). American Academy of Sleep Medicine: 621–630. doi:10.5664/jcsm.10392. PMC 9978438. PMID 36546366.
  163. ^ Brautsch LA, Lund L, Andersen MM, Jennum PJ, Folker AP, Andersen S (2023). "Digital media use and sleep in late adolescence and young adulthood: A systematic review". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 68. Elsevier: 101742. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2022.101742. PMID 36638702.
  164. ^ Leow MQ, Chiang J, Chua TJ, Wang S, Tan NC (2023). "The relationship between smartphone addiction and sleep among medical students: A systematic review and meta-analysis". PLOS ONE. 18 (9). PLOS: e0290724. Bibcode:2023PLoSO..1890724L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0290724. PMC 10503710. PMID 37713408.
  165. ^ Pagano M, Bacaro V, Crocetti E (2023). ""Using digital media or sleeping … that is the question". A meta-analysis on digital media use and unhealthy sleep in adolescence". Computers in Human Behavior. 146. Elsevier: 107813. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2023.107813. hdl:11585/950006.
  166. ^ Gnambs T, Appel M (2018). "Narcissism and Social Networking Behavior: A Meta-Analysis". Journal of Personality. 86 (2). Wiley-Blackwell: 200–212. doi:10.1111/jopy.12305. PMID 28170106.
  167. ^ McCain JL, Campbell WK (2018). "Narcissism and Social Media Use: A Meta-Analytic Review". Psychology of Popular Media Culture. 7 (3). American Psychological Association: 308–327. doi:10.1037/ppm0000137. S2CID 152057114. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  168. ^ Casale S, Banchi V (2020). "Narcissism and problematic social media use: A systematic literature review". Addictive Behaviors Reports. 11. Elsevier: 100252. doi:10.1016/j.abrep.2020.100252. PMC 7244927. PMID 32467841.
  169. ^ See, for example, patients of "Stop Cancer" (Halasartan), as cited in: Ben-Aharon I, Goshen-Lago T, Fontana E, Smyth E, Guren M, Caballero C, Lordick F (1 June 2019). "Social networks for young patients with cancer: the time for system agility". The Lancet Oncology. 20 (6): 765. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30346-8. ISSN 1470-2045. PMID 31162090. S2CID 174808947. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  170. ^ Moorhead SA (22 August 2017). "Social Media for Healthcare Communication". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.335. ISBN 978-0-19-022861-3. Archived from the original on 6 June 2021. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  171. ^ Ponti M (5 September 2019). "Digital media: Promoting healthy screen use in school-aged children and adolescents". Paediatrics & Child Health. 24 (6): 402–408. doi:10.1093/pch/pxz095. PMC 6736327. PMID 31528113.
  172. ^ crossref. "Chooser". chooser.crossref.org. doi:10.2307/j.ctt22p7kj8.14. Retrieved 22 April 2024.
  173. ^ Miller D. "The Anthropology of Social Media". Scientific American Blog Network. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  174. ^ Miller D (28 August 2018). "Digital Anthropology". Open Encyclopedia of Anthropology. doi:10.29164/18digital. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  175. ^ Solis B (28 March 2018). "We've Become Digital Addicts: It's Time to Take Control of Technology and Not Let Tech Control Us". Medium. Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  176. ^ Lupton D (1 August 2012). "Digital Sociology: An Introduction" (PDF). ses.library.usyd.edu.au. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  177. ^ Sanaktekin OH (20 December 2011). "The Effects of Religiosity on Internet Consumption". Information, Communication & Society. 16 (10): 1553–1573. doi:10.1080/1369118x.2012.722663. S2CID 143260457.
  178. ^ Charlton JP, Soh PC, Ang PH, Chew KW (1 December 2013). "Religiosity, Adolescent Internet Usage Motives and Addiction". Information, Communication & Society. 16 (10): 1619–1638. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2012.735251. ISSN 1369-118X. S2CID 142545433.
  179. ^ a b Odgers C (February 2018). "Smartphones are bad for some teens, not all". Nature. 554 (7693): 432–434. Bibcode:2018Natur.554..432O. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-02109-8. PMC 6121807. PMID 29469108.
  180. ^ Crone EA, Konijn EA (February 2018). "Media use and brain development during adolescence". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 588. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9..588C. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03126-x. PMC 5821838. PMID 29467362.
  181. ^ "Smart technology is not making us dumber: study". phys.org. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  182. ^ Cecutti L, Chemero A, Lee SW (1 July 2021). "Technology may change cognition without necessarily harming it". Nature Human Behaviour. 5 (8): 973–975. doi:10.1038/s41562-021-01162-0. ISSN 2397-3374. PMID 34211150. S2CID 235709853. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  183. ^ Firth J, Torous J, Stubbs B, Firth JA, Steiner GZ, Smith L, Alvarez-Jimenez M, Gleeson J, Vancampfort D, Armitage CJ, Sarris J (2019). "The "online brain": how the Internet may be changing our cognition". World Psychiatry. 18 (2): 119–129. doi:10.1002/wps.20617. ISSN 2051-5545. PMC 6502424. PMID 31059635.
  184. ^ "Video games can boost children's intelligence: study". Karolinska Institutet. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  185. ^ Sauce B, Liebherr M, Judd N, Klingberg T (11 May 2022). "The impact of digital media on children's intelligence while controlling for genetic differences in cognition and socioeconomic background". Scientific Reports. 12 (1): 7720. Bibcode:2022NatSR..12.7720S. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-11341-2. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 9095723. PMID 35545630.
  186. ^ "Teens around the world are lonelier than a decade ago. The reason may be smartphones". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  187. ^ Twenge JM, Haidt J, Blake AB, McAllister C, Lemon H, Le Roy A (20 July 2021). "Worldwide increases in adolescent loneliness". Journal of Adolescence. 93: 257–269. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2021.06.006. ISSN 0140-1971. PMID 34294429. S2CID 236197751. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
  188. ^ Levin S (15 December 2017). "Facebook admits it poses mental health risk – but says using site more can help". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  189. ^ Rajan A (28 January 2019). "Can Nick Clegg help Facebook grow up?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  190. ^ Booth C (1 August 2018). "Facebook and Instagram officially announce new tools to fight social media addiction". The Next Web. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  191. ^ Kircaburun K, Griffiths MD (March 2018). "Instagram addiction and the Big Five of personality: The mediating role of self-liking". Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 7 (1): 158–170. doi:10.1556/2006.7.2018.15. PMC 6035031. PMID 29461086.
  192. ^ Shaban H (1 May 2019). "Here's why Instagram is going to hide your 'likes'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  193. ^ Robertson H (18 July 2019). "Instagram hides 'likes' from more users". Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 11 August 2019. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  194. ^ Steinmetz K (8 July 2018). "Inside Instagram's War on Bullying". Time. Archived from the original on 28 July 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2019.
  195. ^ a b Haig M (10 May 2018). "Google wants to cure our phone addiction. How about that for irony? | Matt Haig". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  196. ^ Ceres P (25 September 2018). "How to Use Apple's Screen Time Controls on iOS 12". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  197. ^ Haller S (27 August 2018). "Warning: Apple's new Screen Time could allow your child to watch NC-17 movies". USA Today. Archived from the original on 10 January 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  198. ^ "Google invests in mental health specialist Quartet to expand machine learning team". Healthcare IT News. 4 January 2018. Archived from the original on 5 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  199. ^ Benoit D (7 January 2018). "iPhones and Children Are a Toxic Pair, Say Two Big Apple Investors". WSJ.com. Archived from the original on 8 January 2019. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  200. ^ Musil S. "Apple vows new parental controls amid child addiction fears". CNET. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  201. ^ a b c d King DL, Delfabbro PH, Doh YY, Wu AM, Kuss DJ, Pallesen S, Mentzoni R, Carragher N, Sakuma H (February 2018). "Policy and Prevention Approaches for Disordered and Hazardous Gaming and Internet Use: an International Perspective" (PDF). Prevention Science. 19 (2): 233–249. doi:10.1007/s11121-017-0813-1. PMID 28677089. S2CID 28853252. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  202. ^ "State data to limit China child gamers". BBC News. 6 September 2018. Archived from the original on 2 October 2019. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  203. ^ "A new notice from China's Ministry of Education, and its impact on games". Niko. Niko Partners. 30 August 2018. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  204. ^ Webb K (7 November 2018). "Video game addiction has sparked a culture war in China – and it's having huge repercussions for the world's biggest video game maker". Business Insider Australia. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  205. ^ "Chinese youth to have smartphone, internet use curbed". Economic Times. 2 August 2023.
  206. ^ "Social Media and Youth Mental Health" (PDF). United States Department of Health and Human Services. May 2023. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  207. ^ Proulx N (25 May 2023). "Does Social Media Harm Young People's Mental Health?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  208. ^ Paul K (24 October 2024). "Meta sued by 33 states over claims youth mental health endangered by Instagram". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 January 2024.
  209. ^ Owen Dyer (October 2023). "Meta is sued by 41 US states for driving children's addiction to social media and hiding the harms". BMJ. 383: 2518. doi:10.1136/bmj.p2518. PMID 37903513. S2CID 264555773.
  210. ^ Bakker D, Kazantzis N, Rickwood D, Rickard N (March 2016). "Mental Health Smartphone Apps: Review and Evidence-Based Recommendations for Future Developments". JMIR Mental Health. 3 (1): e7. doi:10.2196/mental.4984. PMC 4795320. PMID 26932350.
  211. ^ Spijkerman MP, Pots WT, Bohlmeijer ET (April 2016). "Effectiveness of online mindfulness-based interventions in improving mental health: A review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". Clinical Psychology Review. 45: 102–114. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2016.03.009. PMID 27111302.
  212. ^ Tiitto M (1 January 2019). THERAPEUTIC VIDEO GAMES AND THE SIMULATION OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION DEFICITS IN ADHD. Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy (Thesis). doi:10.13023/etd.2019.284.
  213. ^ Patel V, Saxena S, Lund C, Thornicroft G, Baingana F, Bolton P, Chisholm D, Collins PY, Cooper JL, Eaton J, Herrman H, Herzallah MM, Huang Y, Jordans MJ, Kleinman A, Medina-Mora ME, Morgan E, Niaz U, Omigbodun O, Prince M, Rahman A, Saraceno B, Sarkar BK, De Silva M, Singh I, Stein DJ, Sunkel C, UnÜtzer J (October 2018). "The Lancet Commission on global mental health and sustainable development". The Lancet. 392 (10157): 1553–1598. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31612-X. PMID 30314863. S2CID 52976414. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  214. ^ Marshall JM, Dunstan DA, Bartik W (5 November 2019). "The Digital Psychiatrist: In Search of Evidence-Based Apps for Anxiety and Depression". Front Psychiatry. 10 (831): 831. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00831. PMC 6872533. PMID 31803083.
  215. ^ Blumenfield S, Levin-Scherz J (3 December 2020). "Digital Tools Are Revolutionizing Mental Health Care in the U.S." Harvard Business Review. Archived from the original on 25 December 2020. Retrieved 28 December 2020.

Further reading