Narcissistic personality disorder
SpecialtyPsychiatry, Clinical psychology
SymptomsExaggerated feelings of self-importance, excessive craving for admiration, reduced levels of empathy[1][2]
Usual onsetEarly adulthood[2]
DurationLong term[2]
Differential diagnosisBipolar Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Substance Abuse, Borderline Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder[1]
TreatmentPsychotherapy, pharmaceuticals for comorbid disorders[1]

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a life-long pattern of exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive need for admiration, a diminished ability or unwillingness to empathize with others' feelings, and interpersonally exploitative behavior. Narcissistic personality disorder is one of the sub-types of the broader category known as personality disorders.[1][2] It is often comorbid with other mental disorders and associated with significant functional impairment and psychosocial disability.[1]

Personality disorders are a class of mental disorders characterized by enduring and inflexible maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating from those accepted by any culture. These patterns develop by early adulthood, and are associated with significant distress or impairment.[4][5][6] Criteria for diagnosing personality disorders are listed in the sixth chapter of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

There is no standard treatment for NPD.[7][8] Its high comorbidity with other mental disorders influences treatment choice and outcomes.[7] Psychotherapeutic treatments generally fall into two categories: psychoanalytic/psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral therapy, with growing support for integration of both in therapy.[9][10] However, there is an almost complete lack of studies determining the effectiveness of treatments.[8]

Signs and symptoms


The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) describes NPD as possessing at least five of the following nine criteria.[2]

Within the DSM-5, NPD is a cluster B personality disorder.[2] Individuals with cluster B personality disorders often appear dramatic, emotional, or erratic.[2] Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental disorder characterized by a life-long pattern of exaggerated feelings of self-importance, an excessive craving for admiration, and a diminished ability to empathize with others' feelings.[1][2]

A diagnosis of NPD, like other personality disorders, is made by a qualified healthcare professional in a clinical interview. The process of diagnosis often involves asking the client to describe people emotionally close to them, which can reveal extreme arrogance or a lack of empathy.[1]

Narcissistic personality disorder usually develops either in youth or in early adulthood.[2] True symptoms of NPD are pervasive, apparent in varied social situations, and are rigidly consistent over time. Severe symptoms of NPD can significantly impair the person's mental capabilities to develop meaningful human relationships, such as friendship, kinship, and marriage. Generally, the symptoms of NPD also impair the person's psychological abilities to function socially, either at work or at school, or within important societal settings. The DSM-5 indicates that, in order to qualify as symptomatic of NPD, the person's manifested personality traits must substantially differ from social norms.[2]

ICD-11 and ICD-10

See also: Personality disorder § ICD-11

In the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 11th Edition ICD-11 of the World Health Organization (WHO), all personality disorders are diagnosed under a single title called "personality disorder". The criteria for diagnosis are mainly concerned with assessing dysfunction, distress and maladaptive behavior as opposed to attributing specific personality traits.

In the previous edition, the ICD-10, narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is listed under the category of "other specific personality disorders". This means similarly to the ICD-11, the ICD-10 required that cases otherwise described as NPD in the DSM-5 would only need to meet a general set of diagnostic criteria.[11]

Associated features

People with NPD exaggerate their skills, accomplishments, and their degree of intimacy with people they consider high-status. A sense of personal superiority may lead them to monopolize conversations, look down on others[12] or to become impatient and disdainful when other persons talk about themselves.[2] This behavior correlates to an overall worse functioning in areas of life like work and intimate romantic relationships.[13][14][15][16]

People with NPD have been observed to use psychosocial strategies, such as the tendency to devalue and derogate and to insult and blame other people, usually with anger and hostility towards people's responses to their anti-social behavior.[17] Narcissistic personalities are more likely to respond with anger or aggressiveness when presented with rejection.[18][19][20] Because they are sensitive to perceived criticism or defeat, people with NPD are prone to feelings of shame, humiliation, and worthlessness over minor incidents of daily life and imagined, personal slights,[12] and usually mask such feelings from people, by feigning humility, responding with outbursts of rage and defiance, or seeking revenge.[2][21]

The DSM-5 indicates that: "Many highly successful individuals display personality traits that might be considered narcissistic. Only when these traits are inflexible, maladaptive, and persisting, and cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress, do they constitute narcissistic personality disorder."[2] Given the high-function sociability associated with narcissism, some people with NPD might not view such a diagnosis as a functional impairment to their lives.[22] Although overconfidence tends to make people with NPD very ambitious, such a mindset does not necessarily lead to professional high achievement and success, because they refuse to take risks, in order to avoid failure or the appearance of failure.[2][21] Moreover, the psychological inability to tolerate disagreement, contradiction, and criticism, makes it difficult for persons with NPD to work cooperatively or to maintain long-term, professional relationships with superiors and colleagues.[23]

Differential diagnosis

The occurrence of narcissistic personality disorder presents a high rate of comorbidity with other mental disorders.[24] People with NPD are prone to bouts of psychological depression, often to the degree that meets the clinical criteria for a co-occurring depressive disorder.[25] NPD is associated with the occurrence of bipolar disorder and substance use disorders,[1][21] especially cocaine use disorder.[2] NPD may also be comorbid or differentiated with the occurrence of other mental disorders, including histrionic personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, or paranoid personality disorder.[2] NPD should also be differentiated from mania and hypomania as these cases can also present with grandiosity, but present with different levels of functional impairment.[2] Narcissistic personality disorder differs from self-confidence which is associated with a strong sense of self.[2][12] It is common for children and adolescents to display personality traits that resemble NPD, but such occurrences are usually transient, and register below the clinical criteria for a formal diagnosis of NPD.[12]


Although the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NPD has been viewed as homogeneous, there are a variety of subtypes used for classification of NPD.[1][26][27] There is poor consensus on how many subtypes exist, but there is broad acceptance that there are at least two: grandiose or overt narcissism, and vulnerable or covert narcissism.[9][26] However, none of the subtypes of NPD are recognized in the DSM-5 or in the ICD-11.

Grandiose/overt and vulnerable/covert

Similar to the definition of NPD in the DSM-IV, Grandiose narcissism is defined by an inflated sense of self-worth and high self-esteem, interpersonal exploitativeness, social dominance and assertiveness, shamelessness and a sense of entitlement derived from feelings of superiority or prestige.[28]

The counterpart to grandiose narcissism is vulnerable narcissism, characterized by the personality traits of defensiveness, fragility, social withdrawal, and sensitivity to criticism.[1]

Oblivious and hypervigilant

The psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Glen Gabbard described two subtypes of NPD in 1989, later referred to as equivalent to, the grandiose and vulnerable subtypes.[29][30][31] The first was the "oblivious" subtype of narcissist, equivalent to the grandiose subtype. It was described as being grandiose, arrogant and thick-skinned, while also exhibiting personality traits of helplessness and emotional emptiness, low self-esteem and shame. These were observed in people with NPD to be expressed as socially avoidant behavior in situations where self-presentation is difficult or impossible, leading to withdrawal from situations where social approval is not given.

The second subtype Gabbard described was termed "hypervigilant", equivalent to the vulnerable subtype. People with this subtype of NPD were described as having easily hurt feelings, an oversensitive temperament, and persistent feelings of shame.

High functioning or exhibitionist

A third subtype for classifying people with NPD, also initially theorised by Gabbard, is termed high functioning or exhibitionistic.[31][32] It has been described as "high functioning narcissists [who] were grandiose, competitive, attention-seeking, and sexually provocative; they tended to show adaptive functioning and utilize their narcissistic traits to succeed."[26]

Communal Narcissist

A fourth type is the communal narcissist, who shares the same arrogance and self-motives, and sense of entitlement and grandiosity as the grandiose narcissist but seeks power and admiration in the communal realm. They see themselves as altruistic, saintly, caring, helpful, and warm. [33] [34]

Millon's subtypes

This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help clarify the section. There is a discussion about this on talk page. (October 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In the study Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV-TM and Beyond (1996), Theodore Millon suggested five subtypes of NPD, although they did not identify specific treatments per subtype.[6]

Subtype Features
Unprincipled Narcissist Deficient conscience; unscrupulous, amoral, disloyal, fraudulent, deceptive, arrogant, exploitive; a con artist and charlatan; dominating, contemptuous, vindictive.
Amorous narcissist Sexually seductive, enticing, beguiling, tantalizing; glib and clever; disinclined to real intimacy; indulges hedonistic desires; bewitches and inveigles others; pathological lying and swindling. Tends to have many affairs, often with exotic partners.
Compensatory narcissist Seeks to counteract or cancel out deep feelings of inferiority and lack of self-esteem; offsets deficits by creating illusions of being superior, exceptional, admirable, noteworthy; self-worth results from self-enhancement.
Elitist narcissist Feels privileged and empowered by virtue of special childhood status and pseudo-achievements; entitled façade bears little relation to reality; seeks favored and good life; is upwardly mobile; cultivates special status and advantages by association.
Normal narcissist Least severe and most interpersonally concerned and empathetic, still entitled and deficient in reciprocity; bold in environments, self-confident, competitive, seeks high targets, feels unique; talent in leadership positions; expecting recognition from others.

Masterson's subtypes (exhibitionist and closet)

In 1993, James F. Masterson proposed two subtypes for pathological narcissism, exhibitionist and closet.[35] Both fail to adequately develop an age- and phase- appropriate self because of defects in the quality of psychological nurturing provided, usually by the mother. A person with exhibitionist narcissism is similar to NPD described in the DSM-IV and differs from closet narcissism in several ways. A person with closet narcissism is more likely to be described as having a deflated, inadequate self-perception and greater awareness of emptiness within. A person with exhibitionist narcissism would be described as having an inflated, grandiose self-perception with little or no conscious awareness of feelings of emptiness. Such a person would assume that their condition was normal and that others were just like them. A person with closet narcissism is described to seek constant approval from others and appears similar to those with borderline personality disorder in the need to please others. A person with exhibitionist narcissism seeks perfect admiration all the time from others.[36]

Malignant narcissism

Main article: Malignant narcissism

Malignant narcissism, a term first coined in Erich Fromm's 1964 book The Heart of Man: Its Genius for Good and Evil,[37] is a syndrome consisting of a combination of NPD, antisocial personality disorder, and paranoid traits. A person with malignant narcissism was described as deriving higher levels of psychological gratification from accomplishments over time, suspected to worsen the disorder. Because a person with malignant narcissism becomes more involved in psychological gratification, it was suspected to be a risk factor for developing antisocial, paranoid, and schizoid personality disorders. The term malignant is added to the term narcissist to indicate that individuals with this disorder have a severe form of narcissistic disorder that is characterized also by features of paranoia, psychopathy (anti-social behaviors), aggression, and sadism.[38]

Assessment and screening

Narcissistic Personality Inventory

Main article: Narcissistic Personality Inventory

Risk factors for NPD and grandiose/overt and vulnerable/covert subtypes are measured using the narcissistic personality inventory, an assessment tool originally developed in 1979, has undergone multiple iterations with new versions in 1984, 2006 and 2014. The subtype is also assessed with the pathological narcissism inventory (PNI).[39] The PNI is a screening tool for antisocial, borderline, narcissistic personality disorders. The PNI scales exhibited significant associations with parasuicidal behavior, suicide attempts, homicidal ideation, and several aspects of psychotherapy utilization.[40] Pathological narcissism is a term for concurrent grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, which is linked to poor self-esteem, lack of empathy, feelings of shame, interpersonal distress, aggression, and significant impairments in personality functioning across both clinical and non-clinical samples. Despite the phenomenological and empirical distinction between vulnerable and grandiose narcissism, some theories suggest that grandiose narcissists also have fragile personality traits.[27] There are a number of other assessment tools for narcissism and NPD subtypes.[41]

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory

Main article: Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory

The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) is another diagnostic test developed by Theodore Millon. The MCMI includes a scale for narcissism. The NPI and MCMI have been found to be well correlated.[42] Whereas the MCMI measures narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), the NPI measures narcissism as it occurs in the general population; the MCMI is a screening tool. In other words, the NPI measures "normal" narcissism; i.e., most people who score very high on the NPI do not have NPD. Indeed, the NPI does not capture any sort of narcissism taxon as would be expected if it measured NPD.[43]

A 2020 study found that females scored significantly higher on vulnerable narcissism than males, but no gender differences were found for grandiose narcissism.[44]


Although there are no specific causes for NPD, it is described using the biopsychosocial model which describes a combination of risk factors from biological, psychological and socio-environmental factors.[7][45] This includes but is not limited to genetics, neurobiology, trauma, abuse and parenting.


Evidence suggests there is a high heritability of NPD, with a number of genetic influences indicating varying rates of heritability based on subtype.[45][24][46][47] A number of twin studies historically suggested for the heritability of NPD, including personality disorders in general.[48][49]


Environmental and social factors also influence development of NPD.[24] In some people, pathological narcissism may develop from an impaired emotional attachment to primary caregivers (usually parents).[50] That lack of psychological and emotional attachment to a parental figure can result in the child's perception of themselves as unimportant and unconnected to other people, usually, family, community and society. Typically, the child comes to believe that they have a personality defect that makes them unvalued and unwanted;[51] overindulgent, permissive parenting or insensitive and over-controlling parenting are risk factors towards the development of NPD in a child.[12][25]

In Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders (2014), the following factors are identified as promoting the development of narcissistic personality disorder:[52]

Moreover, the research reported in "Modernity and Narcissistic Personality Disorders" (2014) indicates that cultural elements also influence the prevalence of NPD, because narcissistic personality traits more commonly occur in modern societies than in traditionalist conservative societies.[24]


Studies of the occurrence of narcissistic personality disorder identified structural abnormalities in the brains of people with NPD, specifically, a lesser volume of gray matter in the left, anterior insular cortex.[54][55] The results of a 2015 study associated the condition of NPD with a reduced volume of gray matter in the prefrontal cortex.[56] The regions of the brain identified and studied – the insular cortex and the prefrontal cortex – are associated with the human emotions of empathy and compassion, and with the mental functions of cognition and emotional regulation. The neurologic findings of the studies suggest that NPD may be related to a compromised (damaged) capacity for emotional empathy and emotional regulation.[57]


Treatment for NPD is primarily psychotherapeutic; there is no clear evidence that psychopharmacological treatment is effective for NPD, although it can prove useful for treating comorbid disorders.[9][58] Psychotherapeutic treatment falls into two general categories: psychoanalytic/psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral. Psychoanalytic therapies include schema therapy, transference focused psychotherapy, mentalization-based treatment and metacognitive psychotherapy. Cognitive behavioral therapies include cognitive behavioral therapy and dialectical behavior therapy. Formats also include group therapy and couples therapy.[10] The specific choice of treatment varies based on individual presentations.[59]

Management of narcissistic personality disorder has not been well studied, however many treatments tailored to NPD exist.[8][1] Therapy is complicated by the lack of treatment-seeking behavior in people with NPD, despite mental distress. Additionally, people with narcissistic personality disorders have decreased life satisfaction and lower qualities of life, irrespective of diagnosis.[60][61][62][63][64] People with NPD often present with comorbid mental disorders, complicating diagnosis and treatment.[1] NPD is rarely the primary reason for which people seek mental health treatment. When people with NPD enter treatment (psychologic or psychiatric), they often express seeking relief from a comorbid mental disorder, including major depressive disorder, a substance use disorder (drug addiction), or bipolar disorder.[21]


This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2021)

As of 2020, no treatment guidelines exist for NPD and no empirical studies have been conducted on specific NPD groups to determine efficacy for psychotherapies and pharmacology.[8][9]

The presence of NPD in patients undergoing psychotherapy for the treatment of other mental disorders is associated with slower treatment progress and higher dropout rates.[1]


As of 2018, overall prevalence is estimated to range from 0.8% to 6.2%.[65][66] In 2008 under the DSM-IV, lifetime prevalence of NPD was estimated to be 6.2%, with 7.7% for men and 4.8% for women,[67] with a 2015 study confirming the gender difference.[68] In clinical settings, prevalence estimates range from 1% to 15%.[7][3] The occurrence of narcissistic personality disorder presents a high rate of comorbidity with other mental disorders.[24]


The term "narcissism" comes from a first century (written in the year 8 AD) book by the Roman poet Ovid. Metamorphoses Book III is a myth about two main characters, Narcissus and Echo. Narcissus is a handsome young man who spurns the advances of many potential lovers. When Narcissus rejects the nymph Echo, named this way because she was cursed to only echo the sounds that others made, the gods punish him by making him fall in love with his own reflection in a pool of water. When Narcissus discovers that the object of his love cannot love him back, he slowly pines away and dies.[69]

The concept of excessive selfishness has been recognized throughout history. In ancient Greece, the concept was understood as hubris. It is only since the late 1800s that narcissism has been defined in psychological terms:[70]

Narcissistic personality was first described by the psychoanalyst Robert Waelder in 1925.[72] The term narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) was coined by Heinz Kohut in 1968.[73][74] Waelder's initial study has been influential in the way narcissism and the clinical disorder Narcissistic personality disorder are defined today[75]

Freudianism and psychoanalysis

Much early history of narcissism and NPD originates from psychoanalysis. Regarding the adult neurotic's sense of omnipotence, Sigmund Freud said that "this belief is a frank acknowledgement of a relic of the old megalomania of infancy";[76] and concluded that: "we can detect an element of megalomania in most other forms of paranoic disorder. We are justified in assuming that this megalomania is essentially of an infantile nature, and that, as development proceeds, it is sacrificed to social considerations."[77]

Narcissistic injury and narcissistic scar are terms used by Freud in the 1920s. Narcissistic wound and narcissistic blow are other, almost interchangeable, terms.[78] When wounded in the ego, either by a real or a perceived criticism, a narcissistic person's displays of anger can be disproportionate to the nature of the criticism suffered;[12] but typically, the actions and responses of the NPD person are deliberate and calculated.[2] Despite occasional flare-ups of personal insecurity, the inflated self-concept of the NPD person is primarily stable.[2]

In The Psychology of Gambling (1957), Edmund Bergler considered megalomania to be a normal occurrence in the psychology of a child,[79] a condition later reactivated in adult life, if the individual takes up gambling.[80] In The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (1946), Otto Fenichel said that people who, in their later lives, respond with denial to their own narcissistic injury usually undergo a similar regression to the megalomania of childhood.[81]

Narcissistic supply

Narcissistic supply was a concept introduced by Otto Fenichel in 1938, to describe a type of admiration, interpersonal support, or sustenance drawn by an individual from his or her environment and essential to their self-esteem.[82] The term is typically used in a negative sense, describing a pathological or excessive need for attention or admiration that does not take into account the feelings, opinions, or preferences of other people.[83]

Narcissistic rage

The term narcissistic rage was a concept introduced by Heinz Kohut in 1972. Narcissistic rage was theorised as a reaction to a perceived threat to a narcissist's self-esteem or self-worth. Narcissistic rage occurs on a continuum from aloofness, to expressions of mild irritation or annoyance, to serious outbursts, including violent attacks.[84]

Narcissistic rage reactions are not necessarily limited to NPD. They may also be seen in catatonic, paranoid delusion, and depressive episodes.[84] It was later suggested that narcissistic people have two layers of rage; the first layer of rage being directed constant anger towards someone else, with the second layer being self-deprecating.[85]

Object relations

In the second half of the 20th century, in contrast to Freud's perspective of megalomania as an obstacle to psychoanalysis, in the US and UK Kleinian psychologists used the object relations theory to re-evaluate megalomania as a defence mechanism.[86] This Kleinian therapeutic approach built upon Heinz Kohut's view of narcissistic megalomania as an aspect of normal mental development, by contrast with Otto Kernberg's consideration of such grandiosity as a pathological distortion of normal psychological development.[87]

To the extent that people are pathologically narcissistic, the person with NPD can be a self-absorbed individual who passes blame by psychological projection and is intolerant of contradictory views and opinions; is apathetic towards the emotional, mental, and psychological needs of other people; and is indifferent to the negative effects of their behaviors, whilst insisting that people should see them as an ideal person.[citation needed] The merging of the terms "inflated self-concept" and "actual self" is evident in later research on the grandiosity component of narcissistic personality disorder, along with incorporating the defence mechanisms of idealization and devaluation and of denial.[88]

Comparison to other personality disorders

NPD shares properties with borderline personality disorder, including social stigma, unclear causes and prevalence rates. In a 2020 study, it was argued that NPD is following a similar historical trend to borderline personality disorder: "In the past three decades, enormous progress has been made to elucidate the psychopathology, longitudinal course, and effective treatment for BPD. NPD, which remains as similarly stigmatized and poorly understood as BPD once was, now carries the potential for a new wave of investigation and treatment development."[89]

However, NPD also shares some commonality with the now discredited "multiple personality disorder" (MPD) personality constellation in popular culture and clinical lore. MPD received a high level of mainstream media attention the 1980s, followed by a nearly complete removal from public discourse within the following two decades; this was in part due to thorough debunking many of its propositions and the evident societal harm created by its entry into the legal defence realm. Similar to MPD, NPD has been the subject of high levels of preoccupation in social and popular media forums, without a firm empirical basis despite over a century of description in clinical lore. The NPD label may be misused colloquially and clinically to disparage a target for the purpose of buttressing one's own self-esteem, or other motives that are detrimental for the person receiving the label. Finally, the rise in popular interest in NPD is not accompanied by hypothesized increases in narcissism among recent generations despite widespread assumptions to the contrary.[90]


The extent of controversy about narcissism was on display when the committee on personality disorders for the 5th Edition (2013) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders recommended the removal of Narcissistic Personality from the manual. A contentious three-year debate unfolded in the clinical community with one of the sharpest critics being John Gunderson, who led the DSM personality disorders committee for the 4th edition of the manual.[91]

The American Psychiatric Association's (APA) formulation, description, and definition of narcissistic personality disorder, as published in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Ed., Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR, 2000), was criticised by clinicians as inadequately describing the range and complexity of the personality disorder that is NPD. That it is excessively focused upon "the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns – at the expense of ... internal complexity and individual suffering", which reduced the clinical utility of the NPD definition in the DSM-IV-TR.[22]

In revising the diagnostic criteria for personality disorders, the work group for the list of "Personality and Personality Disorders" proposed the elimination of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) as a distinct entry in the DSM-5, and thus replaced a categorical approach to NPD with a dimensional approach, which is based upon the severity of the dysfunctional-personality-trait domains.[92][93] Clinicians critical of the DSM-5 revision characterized the new diagnostic system as an "unwieldy conglomeration of disparate models that cannot happily coexist", which is of limited usefulness in clinical practice.[94] Despite the reintroduction of the NPD entry, the APA's re-formulation, re-description, and re-definition of NPD, towards a dimensional view based upon personality traits, remains in the list of personality disorders of the DSM-5.

A 2011 study concluded that narcissism should be conceived as personality dimensions pertinent to the full range of personality disorders, rather than as a distinct diagnostic category.[95] In a 2012 literature review about NPD, the researchers concluded that narcissistic personality disorder "shows nosological inconsistency, and that its consideration as a trait domain needed further research would be strongly beneficial to the field."[96] In a 2018 latent structure analysis, results suggested that the DSM-5 NPD criteria fail to distinguish some aspects of narcissism relevant to diagnosis of NPD and subclinical narcissism.[97]

In popular culture

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Caligor, Eve; Levy, Kenneth N.; Yeomans, Frank E. (May 2015). "Narcissistic personality disorder: diagnostic and clinical challenges". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 172 (5): 415–22. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14060723. ISSN 1535-7228. PMID 25930131.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5 (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. 2013. pp. 72–669. ISBN 978-0890425541. OCLC 830807378.
  3. ^ a b Sederer, Lloyd I. (2009). Blueprints Psychiatry (Fifth ed.). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 29. ISBN 978-0781782531. Archived from the original on 11 January 2017 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, Virginia: American Psychiatric Association. 2013. pp. 646–49. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.
  5. ^ Berríos, Germán Elías (1993). "European views on personality disorders: a conceptual history". Comprehensive Psychiatry. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunders Ltd. 34 (1): 14–30. doi:10.1016/0010-440X(93)90031-X. PMID 8425387.
  6. ^ a b Theodore Millon; Roger D. Davis (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond. New York City: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-471-01186-6.
  7. ^ a b c d Mitra, Paroma; Fluyau, Dimy (2022), "Narcissistic Personality Disorder", StatPearls, Treasure Island, Florida: StatPearls Publishing, PMID 32310461, retrieved 1 May 2022
  8. ^ a b c d King, Ross M.; Grenyer, Brin F.S.; Gurtman, Clint G.; Younan, Rita (1 March 2020). "A clinician's quick guide to evidence‐based approaches: Narcissistic personality disorder". Clinical Psychologist. Melbourne, Australia: Australian Psychological Society. 24 (1): 91–95. doi:10.1111/cp.12214. hdl:10536/DRO/DU:30136767. ISSN 1328-4207. S2CID 216198008.
  9. ^ a b c d Yakeley, Jessica (5 July 2018). "Current understanding of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder". BJPsych Advances. 24 (5): 305–315. doi:10.1192/bja.2018.20. ISSN 2056-4678. S2CID 148566892.
  10. ^ a b Weinberg, Igor; Ronningstam, Elsa (March 2020). "Dos and Don'ts in Treatments of Patients With Narcissistic Personality Disorder". Journal of Personality Disorders. New York City: Guilford Press. 34 (Supplement): 122–142. doi:10.1521/pedi.2020.34.supp.122. ISSN 0885-579X. PMID 32186986. S2CID 214583609.
  11. ^ WHO (2010) ICD-10: Specific Personality Disorders
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Narcissistic personality disorder – Symptoms & causes". Mayo Clinic. Phoenix, Arizona: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. 18 November 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  13. ^ Gewirtz-Meydan, Ateret; Finzi-Dottan, Ricky (3 April 2018). "Narcissism and Relationship Satisfaction from a Dyadic Perspective: The Mediating Role of Psychological Aggression". Marriage & Family Review. 54 (3): 296–312. doi:10.1080/01494929.2017.1359814. ISSN 0149-4929. S2CID 148631814.
  14. ^ Cramer, Phebe (October 2010). "Narcissism through the ages: What happens when narcissists grow older?". Journal of Research in Personality. 45 (5): 479–92. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2011.06.003.
  15. ^ Mathieu, Cynthia (October 2013). "Personality and job satisfaction: The role of narcissism". Personality and Individual Differences. 55 (6): 650–54. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2013.05.012.
  16. ^ Ellison, William D.; Acuff, M. Chase; Kealy, David; Joyce, Anthony S.; Ogrodniczuk, John S. (September 2020). "Narcissism and Quality of Life: The Mediating Role of Relationship Patterns". Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 208 (8): 613–18. doi:10.1097/NMD.0000000000001170. ISSN 1539-736X. PMID 32229790. S2CID 213949270.
  17. ^ Ronningstam, Elsa (2005). Identifying and understanding the narcissistic personality. New York City: Oxford University Press. pp. 22–27. ISBN 978-0198033967. OCLC 61329826.
  18. ^ Ellison, William D.; Acuff, M. Chase; Kealy, David; Joyce, Anthony S.; Ogrodniczuk, John S. (31 March 2020). "Narcissism and Quality of Life". Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 208 (8): 613–618. doi:10.1097/nmd.0000000000001170. ISSN 1539-736X. PMID 32229790. S2CID 213949270.
  19. ^ Gewirtz-Meydan A, Finzi-Dottan R (2018) "Narcissism and relationship satisfaction from a dyadic perspective: The mediating role of psychological aggression". Marriage Fam Rev. 54:296–312.
  20. ^ Barry CT, Kauten RL (2014) "Nonpathological and pathological narcissism: Which self-reported characteristics are most problematic in adolescents?" J Pers Assess. 96:212–19
  21. ^ a b c d Ronningstam, Elsa (2016). "New Insights into Narcissistic Personality Disorder". Psychiatric Times. New York City: MJH Associates. 33 (2): 11.
  22. ^ a b Ronningstam, Elsa (February 2010). "Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review". Current Psychiatry Reports. 12 (1): 68–75. doi:10.1007/s11920-009-0084-z. ISSN 1535-1645. PMID 20425313. S2CID 19473736.
  23. ^ Golomb, Elan (1992). Trapped in the Mirror: Adult Children of Narcissists in Their Struggle For Self (1st ed.). New York: W. W. Morrow. ISBN 0688094716. OCLC 23143624.[page needed]
  24. ^ a b c d e Paris, Joel (April 2014). "Modernity and narcissistic personality disorder". Personality Disorders. 5 (2): 220–26. doi:10.1037/a0028580. ISSN 1949-2723. PMID 22800179.
  25. ^ a b "Narcissistic personality disorder", MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8 July 2018
  26. ^ a b c Levy, Kenneth N (August 2012). "Subtypes, dimensions, levels, and mental states in narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 68 (8): 886–97. doi:10.1002/jclp.21893. PMID 22740389.
  27. ^ a b Sedikides, Constantine (2021). "In Search of Narcissus". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 25 (1): 67–80. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2020.10.010. PMID 33229145. S2CID 227063824.
  28. ^ Miller, Joshua D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Gentile, Brittany; Maples, Jessica; Keith Campbell, W. (2011). "Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism: A Nomological Network Analysis: Variants of Narcissism". Journal of Personality. New York City: Wiley. 79 (5): 1013–1042. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00711.x. PMID 21204843.
  29. ^ Gabbard, Glen O. (1989). "Two subtypes of narcissistic personality disorder". Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. 53 (6): 527–532. PMID 2819295.
  30. ^ Gabbard, Glen O. (March 2009). "Transference and Countertransference: Developments in the Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder". Psychiatric Annals. Thorofare, New Jersey: SLACK Incorporated. 39 (3). doi:10.3928/00485713-20090301-03. ISSN 0048-5713.
  31. ^ a b Gabbard, Glen O. (22 January 2022). "Narcissism and suicide risk". Annals of General Psychiatry. London, England: BioMed Central Ltd. 21 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/s12991-022-00380-8. ISSN 1744-859X. PMC 8783517. PMID 35065658. S2CID 246083162.
  32. ^ Russ M.A., Eric; Shedler, Jonathan; Bradley, Rebekah; Westen, Drew (1 November 2008). "Refining the Construct of Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Diagnostic Criteria and Subtypes". American Journal of Psychiatry. Washington D.C. 165 (11): 1473–1481. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07030376. PMID 18708489.
  33. ^ Gebauer, J. E., Sedikides, C., Verplanken, B., & Maio, G. R. (2012). Communal narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 854-878
  34. ^ Lancer, D. (March 6, 2021) "Know the Kind of Narcissist You're Dealing With and Symptoms,"
  35. ^ Masterson, James F. (1993). The Emerging Self: A Developmental Self & Object Relations Approach to the Treatment of the Closet Narcissistic Disorder of the Self. Hove, Sussex, England: Psychology Press. p. 4. ISBN 9781315825786.
  36. ^ Lowenstein, Joe; Purvis, Charlotte; Rose, Katie (13 October 2016). "A systematic review on the relationship between antisocial, borderline and narcissistic personality disorder diagnostic traits and risk of violence to others in a clinical and forensic sample". Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation. 3 (14): 14. doi:10.1186/s40479-016-0046-0. PMC 5062934. PMID 27777779.
  37. ^ Fromm, Erich (1964). The Heart of Man: Its Genius for Good and Evil. San Francisco, California: Harper & Row. p. 92. ISBN 9789933432300.
  38. ^ Lenzenweger, Mark F.; Clarkin, John F.; Caligor, Eve; Cain, Nicole M.; Kernberg, Otto F. (September 2018). "Malignant Narcissism in Relation to Clinical Change in Borderline Personality Disorder: An Exploratory Study". Psychopathology. Basel, Switzerland: Karger Publishers. 51 (5): 318–325. doi:10.1159/000492228. PMID 30184541. S2CID 52160230.
  39. ^ Pincus, Aaron L.; Ansell, Emily B.; Pimentel, Claudia A.; Cain, Nicole M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Levy, Kenneth N. (2009). "Pathological Narcissism Inventory". PsycTESTS Dataset. doi:10.1037/t00490-000. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  40. ^ Pincus, AL; Ansell, EB; Pimentel, CA; Cain, NM; Wright, AGC; Levy, KN (September 2009). "Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory" (PDF). Psychological Assessment. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. 21 (3): 365–79. doi:10.1037/a0016530. PMID 19719348. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  41. ^ Brookes, James (October 2015). "The effect of overt and covert narcissism on self-esteem and self-efficacy beyond self-esteem". Personality and Individual Differences. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 85: 172–175. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.013. ISSN 0191-8869.
  42. ^ Auerbach JS (December 1984). "Validation of two scales for narcissistic personality disorder". Journal of Personality Assessment. Abingdon, England: Taylor & Francis. 48 (6): 649–53. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4806_13. PMID 6520692.
  43. ^ Foster, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith (October 2007). "Are there such things as 'Narcissists'? A taxometric analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory". Personality and Individual Differences. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 43 (6). doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.04.003.
  44. ^ Green, Ava; MacLean, Rory; Charles, Kathy (1 December 2020). "Recollections of parenting styles in the development of narcissism: The role of gender". Personality and Individual Differences. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 167: 110246. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2020.110246. ISSN 0191-8869. S2CID 224958195.
  45. ^ a b Luo, Yu L. L.; Cai, Huajian (2018). "The Etiology of Narcissism: A Review of Behavioral Genetic Studies". Handbook of Trait Narcissism. New York City: Springer International Publishing. pp. 149–156. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-92171-6_16. ISBN 978-3-319-92170-9. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  46. ^ Torgersen, Svenn; Myers, John; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Røysamb, Espen; Kubarych, Thomas S.; Kendler, Kenneth S. (17 September 2012). "The Heritability of Cluster B Personality Disorders Assessed Both by Personal Interview and Questionnaire". Journal of Personality Disorders. New York City: Guilford Press. 26 (6): 848–866. doi:10.1521/pedi_2012_26_060. ISSN 0885-579X. PMC 3606922. PMID 23281671.
  47. ^ Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted (1 March 2010). "The Genetic Epidemiology of Personality Disorders". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. Abingdon, England: Taylor & Francis. 12 (1): 103–14. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2010.12.1/trkjennerud. ISSN 1294-8322. PMC 3181941. PMID 20373672.
  48. ^ Livesley WJ, Jang KL, Jackson DN, Vernon PA (December 1993). "Genetic and environmental contributions to dimensions of personality disorder". Am J Psychiatry. 150 (12): 1826–31. doi:10.1176/ajp.150.12.1826. PMID 8238637.
  49. ^ Torgersen, S.; Lygren, S.; Oien, P. A.; Skre, I.; Onstad, S.; Edvardsen, J.; Tambs, K.; Kringlen, E. (November 2000). "A twin study of personality disorders". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 41 (6): 416–25. doi:10.1053/comp.2000.16560. ISSN 0010-440X. PMID 11086146.
  50. ^ Magid, Ken (1987). High Risk Children without a Conscience. New York City: Bantam Books. p. 67. ISBN 978-0553052909. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  51. ^ Johnson, Stephen M. (1987). Humanizing the Narcissistic Style. New York City: W.W. Norton. p. 39. ISBN 978-0393700374. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  52. ^ Gabbard, Glen O. (2014). Gabbard's treatments of psychiatric disorders (Fifth/DSM-5 ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9781585625048.gg72. ISBN 978-1585624423. OCLC 872383308.
  53. ^ Groopman, Leonard C.; Cooper, Arnold M. (2006). "Narcissistic Personality Disorder". Personality Disorders – Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Congers, New York: Armenian Medical Network. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
  54. ^ Schulze, Lars; Dziobek, Isabel; Vater, Aline; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Bajbouj, Malek; Renneberg, Babette; Heuser, Isabella; Roepke, Stefan (October 2013). "Gray matter abnormalities in patients with narcissistic personality disorder". Journal of Psychiatric Research. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier. 47 (10): 1363–69. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.05.017. ISSN 1879-1379. PMID 23777939.
  55. ^ Pedersen, Traci (6 October 2015). "Narcissists' Lack of Empathy Tied to Less Gray Matter". PsychCentral. Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  56. ^ Nenadic, Igor; Güllmar, Daniel; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Steinke, Johanna; Gader, Christian (February 2015). "Brain Structure in Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A VBM and DTI Pilot Study". Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging. Elsevier Ireland. 231 (2): 184–86. doi:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.11.001. PMID 25492857. S2CID 17073607.
  57. ^ Ronningstam, Elsa (19 January 2016). "Pathological Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Recent Research and Clinical Implications" (PDF). Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports. 3 (1): 34–42. doi:10.1007/s40473-016-0060-y. S2CID 49575408. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 August 2018.
  58. ^ "Narcissistic personality disorder – Diagnosis and treatment". 18 November 2017. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  59. ^ Kramer, Ueli; Berthoud, Laurent; Keller, Sabine; Caspar, Franz (June 2014). "Motive-Oriented Psychotherapeutic Relationship Facing a Patient Presenting with Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Case Study". Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy. 44 (2): 71–82. doi:10.1007/s10879-013-9249-5. S2CID 9514109. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  60. ^ Soyer, Renate B.; Rovenpor, Janet L.; Kopelman, Richard E.; Mullins, Lynn S.; Watson, P. J. (May 2001). "Further Assessment of the Construct Validity of Four Measures of Narcissism: Replication and Extension". The Journal of Psychology. 135 (3): 245–58. doi:10.1080/00223980109603695. ISSN 0022-3980. PMID 11577967. S2CID 31486515.
  61. ^ Morf, Carolyn C; Schürch, Eva; Küfner, Albrecht; Siegrist, Philip; Vater, Aline; Back, Mitja; Mestel, Robert; Schröder-Abé, Michela (2018). Expanding the nomological net of the pathological narcissism inventory German validation and extension in a clinical inpatient sample. OCLC 1236181501.
  62. ^ Egan, Vincent; Chan, Stephanie; Shorter, Gillian W. (September 2014). "The Dark Triad, happiness and subjective well-being". Personality and Individual Differences. 67: 17–22. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.004. S2CID 17277308.
  63. ^ Soeteman, Djøra I.; Verheul, Roel; Busschbach, Jan J.V. (June 2008). "The Burden of Disease in Personality Disorders: Diagnosis-Specific Quality of Life". Journal of Personality Disorders. 22 (3): 259–68. doi:10.1521/pedi.2008.22.3.259. ISSN 0885-579X. PMID 18540798.
  64. ^ Ellison, William D.; Acuff, M. Chase; Kealy, David; Joyce, Anthony S.; Ogrodniczuk, John S. (August 2020). "Narcissism and Quality of Life: The Mediating Role of Relationship Patterns". Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 208 (8): 613–18. doi:10.1097/NMD.0000000000001170. ISSN 1539-736X. PMID 32229790. S2CID 213949270.
  65. ^ Cailhol, Lionel; Pelletier, Éric; Rochette, Louis; Laporte, Lise; David, Pierre; Villeneuve, Évens; Paris, Joel; Lesage, Alain (12 April 2017). "Prevalence, Mortality, and Health Care Use among Patients with Cluster B Personality Disorders Clinically Diagnosed in Quebec: A Provincial Cohort Study, 2001-2012". The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 62 (5): 336–342. doi:10.1177/0706743717700818. ISSN 0706-7437. PMC 5459230. PMID 28403655.
  66. ^ Dhawan, Nikhil; Kunik, Mark E.; Oldham, John; Coverdale, John (July–August 2010). "Prevalence and Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder in the Community: A Systematic Review". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 51 (4): 333–39. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.09.003. PMID 20579503.
  67. ^ Stinson, Frederick S.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Huang, Boji; Smith, Sharon M.; Ruan, W. June; Pulay, Attila J.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Grant, Bridget F. (July 2008). "Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder: results from the wave 2 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 69 (7): 1033–1045. doi:10.4088/jcp.v69n0701. ISSN 1555-2101. PMC 2669224. PMID 18557663.
  68. ^ Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A.; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M. Brent; Harms, Peter D. (2015). "Gender Differences in Narcissism: A Meta-analytic Review". Psychological Bulletin. 141 (2): 261–310. doi:10.1037/a0038231. PMID 25546498. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017.
  69. ^ "Narcissus Greek mythology". Britanica. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  70. ^ a b c Millon, Theodore; Grossman, Seth; Million, Carrie; Meagher, Sarah; Ramnath, Rowena (2004). Personality Disorders in Modern Life (PDF). Wiley. p. 343. ISBN 978-0471237341.
  71. ^ Zuern, John David (1998), "Freud: On Narcissism", CriticaLink, University of Hawaii.
  72. ^ Waelder, Robert (1925). "The psychoses: Their mechanisms and accessibility to influence". International Journal of Psycho-Analysis. 6: 259–281.
  73. ^ O'Donohue, William T.; Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O. (2007). Personality disorders : toward the DSM-V. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. p. 235. ISBN 978-1412904223. OCLC 77716529.
  74. ^ Kohut, Heinz (1968). "The psychoanalytic treatment of narcissisticppersonality disorders. Outline of a systematic approach". The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child. Oxfordshire, England: Taylor & Francis. 23: 86–113. doi:10.1080/00797308.1968.11822951. ISSN 0079-7308. PMID 5759031.
  75. ^ Bergmann, Martin S. (1987). Anatomy of Loving; Man's Quest to Know what Love I. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0449905531.
  76. ^ Freud, Sigmund; Richards, Angela; Strachey, James (1990). Case Histories II. London, England: Penguin Books. p. 113. ISBN 978-0140137996. OCLC 490712192.
  77. ^ Freud, p. 203.
  78. ^ Akhtar, Salman (2018) [2009]. Comprehensive Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Abingdon, England: Routledge. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-85575-471-3.
  79. ^ Bergler, Edmund (1974). Halliday, Jon; Fuller, Peter (eds.). The Psychology of Gambling. London, England: International Universities Press. pp. 176, 182. ISBN 978-1111916336.
  80. ^ Robert M. Lindner, "The Psychodynamics of Gambling", in Halliday/Fuller eds., p. 220.
  81. ^ Fenichel, Otto (2016). Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis. Abingdon, England: Taylor & Francis. p. 420. ISBN 978-1138147829. OCLC 960836519.
  82. ^ Fenichel, Otto (1938). "The Drive to Amass Wealth" (PDF). The Psychoanalytic Quarterly. 7 (1): 69–95. doi:10.1080/21674086.1938.11925342.
  83. ^ "StackPath". Retrieved 10 October 2019.[unreliable source?]
  84. ^ a b Malmquist, Carl P. (2006). Homicide: A Psychiatric Perspective. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. pp. 181–82. ISBN 978-1585622047.
  85. ^ Vaknin, Sam (2003) [1999]. Malignant Self Love: Narcissism Revisited. p. 191. ISBN 8023833847.
  86. ^ Hughes, Judith M (2004). From obstacle to ally: the evolution of psychoanalytic practice. New York: Brunner-Routledge. p. 175. ISBN 978-1583918906. OCLC 57488252.
  87. ^ Hughes, Judith M (2004). From obstacle to ally: the evolution of psychoanalytic practice. New York: Brunner-Routledge. p. 149. ISBN 978-1583918906. OCLC 57488252.
  88. ^ Siegel, Judith P. (September 2006). "Dyadic splitting in partner relational disorders". Journal of Family Psychology. 20 (3): 418–22. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.20.3.418. ISSN 0893-3200. PMID 16937998.
  89. ^ Choi-Kain, Lois (March 2020). "Commentary on the Special Issue: Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Coming of Age". Journal of Personality Disorders. 34 (Supplement): 210–213. doi:10.1521/pedi.2020.34.supp.210. ISSN 0885-579X. PMID 32186984. S2CID 214583509.
  90. ^ Wetzel, E; Brown, A; Hill, PL; Chung, JM; Robins, RW; Roberts, BW (December 2017). "The Narcissism Epidemic Is Dead; Long Live the Narcissism Epidemic" (PDF). Psychological Science. 28 (12): 1833–1847. doi:10.1177/0956797617724208. PMID 29065280. S2CID 10073811.
  91. ^ Zanor, Charles. "A Fate That Narcissists Will Hate: Being Ignored". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 November 2010.
  92. ^ "DSM-5: Proposed Revisions: Personality and Personality Disorders". American Psychiatric Association. 13 February 2010. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010.
  93. ^ Holden, Constance (12 March 2010). "Psychiatry. APA seeks to overhaul personality disorder diagnoses". Science. 327 (5971): 1314. doi:10.1126/science.327.5971.1314. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 20223959.
  94. ^ Shedler, Jonathan; Beck, Aaron; Fonagy, Peter; Gabbard, Glen O.; Gunderson, John; Kernberg, Otto; Michels, Robert; Westen, Drew (September 2010). "Personality disorders in DSM-5". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 167 (9): 1026–1028. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10050746. ISSN 1535-7228. PMID 20826853.
  95. ^ Karterud, Sigmund; Øien, Maria; Pedersen, Geir (September 2011). "Validity aspects of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, narcissistic personality disorder construct". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 52 (5): 517–26. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2010.11.001. ISSN 1532-8384. PMID 21193181.
  96. ^ Alarcón, Renato D.; Sarabia, Silvana (January 2012). "Debates on the narcissism conundrum: trait, domain, dimension, type, or disorder?". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 200 (1): 16–25. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31823e6795. ISSN 1539-736X. PMID 22210358. S2CID 24405066.
  97. ^ Aslinger, Elizabeth N.; Manuck, Stephen N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Simms, Leonard; Wright, Aidan G.C. (18 April 2018). "Narcissist or Narcissistic? Evaluation of the Latent Structure of Narcissistic Personality Disorder". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 127 (5): 496–502. doi:10.31234/ PMC 6051431. PMID 30010367. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  98. ^ Hesse, Morten; Schliewe S; Thomsen RR (2005). "Rating of personality disorder features in popular movie characters". BMC Psychiatry. 5 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-5-45. PMC 1325244. PMID 16336663.
  99. ^ Mitchell, Giles. "The Great Narcissist: A Study of Fitzgerald's Gatsby, by Giles Mitchell". Retrieved 22 October 2017.

Further reading

  • Lowen, Alexander, Narcissism: Denial of the True Self (1984)
  • Malkin, Craig, Rethinking Narcissism, Harper Wave 2016
  • Masterson, James F. (1981). The Narcissistic and Borderline Disorders: An Integrated Developmental Approach. London: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203776148. ISBN 978-0876302927. LCCN 81038540.
  • Morrison, Andrew P., Essential Papers on Narcissism (Essential Papers in Psychoanalysis) (1986)
  • Morrison, Andrew P., Shame: The Underside of Narcissism (1997)
  • Shaw, Daniel, Traumatic Narcissism: Relational Systems of Subjugation (2013)
  • Thomas David, Narcissism: Behind the Mask (2010)