Autism spectrum disorder
Other namesAutism spectrum conditions
Repetitively stacking or lining up objects is associated with autism spectrum disorder.
SpecialtyClinical psychology, psychiatry, pediatrics, occupational medicine
SymptomsImpairments in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and the presence of restricted interests and repetitive behavior
ComplicationsSocial isolation, educational and employment problems, anxiety, stress, bullying, self-harm
Usual onsetEarly childhood
Risk factorsFamily history, certain genetic conditions, having older parents, certain prescribed drugs, perinatal and neonatal health issues
Diagnostic methodBased on observation of behavior and development
Differential diagnosisIntellectual disability, anxiety, depression, Rett syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, selective mutism, schizophrenia
TreatmentBehavioral therapy, educational therapy, psychotropic medication
Frequency< 3% of people approx. (< 234 million in 2020)

The autism spectrum is an umbrella term covering a range of neurodevelopmental conditions referred to as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The word spectrum is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to cover a wider group of conditions and differences in the type and perceived severity of symptoms, a trend which developed in the 1980s;[1][2] an alternative term, autism spectrum conditions, has been used by some to avoid perceived negativity associated with the word disorder.[3][4] Asperger syndrome is included in the term autism spectrum disorder. The 11th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), released in January 2021,[5] characterises ASD with deficits in the ability of an individual to begin and sustain two-way social communication and restricted or repetitive behavior unusual for the individual's age or situation (see Classification). Although linked with early childhood, the symptoms can appear later, frequently associated with increased social interaction. With considerable variation, also dependent on the context, deficits can cause impediments in personal, family, social, educational and occupational situations; those diagnosed with ASD range from the independent and gifted to the very challenged and needy requiring intervention and long-term support.[6][7][8][9]

Symptoms can be detected before the age of two and experienced practitioners can give a reliable diagnosis by that age. However, a diagnosis may not occur until much older, even well into adulthood. The signs are many and can include specific or repeated behaviors, enhanced sensitivity to materials, being upset by changes in routine, appearing to show reduced interest in others, avoiding eye-contact and limitations in social situations and with verbal communication. When social interaction becomes more important, some whose condition might have been overlooked suffer social and other exclusion and are more likely to have coexisting mental and physical conditions.[8][10] Long-term problems include difficulties in daily living such as managing schedules, hypersensitivities (e.g. to foods, noises, fabric textures), initiating and sustaining relationships and maintaining jobs.[11][12]

The causes of autism spectrum conditions remain uncertain. Genetic and neuroscientific studies have identified patterns of risk but with little that is of current practical benefit.[13][14] Research on twins demonstrates a greater likelihood of heritability of the condition over environmental factors. Studies comparing data from multiple countries also indicate a genetic link.[15][16][17] Risk factors can include a family history of ASD, having an older parent, certain genetic conditions, certain prescribed drugs taken during pregnancy and general compromises in perinatal and neonatal health.[18][19][20][21][22]

Diagnosis is based on observation of behavior and development. Many, especially girls and those who have good verbal skills, may have been misdiagnosed with other conditions. The assessment of children involves carers, the child if capable, physicians and a core team of professionals including pediatricians, child psychiatrists, speech-and-language therapists and clinical/educational psychologists.[23][24][25] For adults, clinicians identify neurodevelopmental history, behaviors, difficulties in communication, limited interests and problems in education, employment and social relationships. Challenging behavior may be assessed with functional analysis to identify the triggers causing it.[14]

Autistic spectrum disorder is considered a lifelong condition with no simple test or cure.[25][26] Few of the many different treatments have been independently scientifically evaluated. Support efforts include teaching social and behavioral skills, monitoring, factoring-in co-existing conditions, and guidance for the carers, family, educators and employers.[25][27] There is no specific medication for ASD; drugs can be prescribed for symptoms such as anxiety but there are significant risks. A study in 2019[28] found that the management of challenging behaviors was generally of low quality, with little support for long-term usage of psychotropic drugs, and concerns about their inappropriate prescription.[29][30] Genetic research has improved understanding of molecular pathways in ASD and animal research has pointed to the reversibility of phenotypes but the studies are at an early stage.[18]

The reported prevalence of ASD worldwide is variable, affected by access, research, data-collection, assessment tools, record-completeness, and geographical coverage, as well as cultural differences and funding.[31][32][33] Most data comes from high-income countries; there is a paucity of data from Africa[34][35] and South America.[36] A 2019 population study of children in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and France showed means of 1.26%, 0.77%, 3.13% and (up to) 0.73% in France respectively with ASD.[37] The USA (2016) had a mean of 1.9% (3.0% of boys and 0.7% of girls)[31] and Canada (2018) 1.5% (2.39% of boys and 0.6% of girls);[38] Irish estimates (2018) showed 1.5% had ASD, similar to the UK, Norway and Italy but lower than South Korea at 2.64%.[39] Meta-analysis from China (2016) gave a low mean of 0.39%, possibly due to different screening tools.[40] Apparent increases in the prevalence of ASD have been attributed to changes in reporting practices.[41][42] Males are diagnosed with ASD about four times more often than females.[12][43] The reasons for this are unclear, with suggestions including a higher testosterone level in utero, different presentation of symptoms in females (leading to misdiagnosis) or simply gender-bias.[44][45]

Advocacy groups have emerged, some as part of the autism rights movement, offering support and challenging healthcare professionals.[33][46][47] The groups encompass those for or against drug treatment, biogenetic research, behavioural therapy, educational and societal change or beliefs about envirotoxins. Terms such as neurodiversity and neurotypical have been popularized and sometimes used in medical literature. Critics, including those on the spectrum, have bemoaned the entrenchment of some groups' opinions.[46][48][49][50] In this process, disagreements have been exposed in the interpretation of ASD by experts from different countries, with some regarding diagnostic changes since 2000 as an "American" phenomenon.[33]


Further information: Autism § Classification


The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (11th Revision) ICD-11, regarded as the global standard, was released in January 2021 to come into full effect from January 2022.[5] It describes ASD thus:[51][52]

[ASD] is characterised by persistent deficits in the ability to initiate and to sustain reciprocal social interaction and social communication, and by a range of restricted, repetitive, and inflexible patterns of behaviour, interests or activities that are clearly atypical or excessive for the individual's age and sociocultural context. The onset of the disorder occurs during the developmental period, typically in early childhood, but symptoms may not become fully manifest until later, when social demands exceed limited capacities. Deficits are sufficiently severe to cause impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning and are usually a pervasive feature of the individual's functioning observable in all settings, although they may vary according to social, educational, or other context. Individuals along the spectrum exhibit a full range of intellectual functioning and language abilities.

— ICD-11, chapter 6, section A02

ICD-11 was produced by professionals from 55 countries out of the 90 countries involved and is the most widely used reference worldwide. Clinicians use the ICD as a reference for diagnosis and reporting but researchers, particularly in the US, continue to use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 (from 2013) or its predecessors) as some material is not included in the ICD (the ICD is also broader in scope, covering general as well as mental health). There remain differences, for example Rett disorder was included in ASD in the DSM-5 but in the ICD-11 it was excluded and placed in the chapter for Developmental Anomalies. Both the ICD and the DSM have been under revision and there has been collaborative work towards a convergence of the two since 1980 (when DSM-3 was published and ICD-9 was current), including more rigorous biological assessment - in place of historical experience - and a simplification of the system of classification.[52][53][54][55][56]


A revision to the presentation of ASD appeared in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5 (DSM-5), released in May 2013.[57] The diagnosis encompassed previous diagnoses of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett disorder and PDD-NOS. Rather than categorizing these diagnoses, the DSM-5 adopted a dimensional approach to diagnosing disorders that fall underneath the autistic spectrum umbrella because some proposed that individuals on the autism spectrum were better represented as a single diagnostic category. Within this category, the DSM-5 proposed a framework of differentiating each individual by dimensions of severity, as well as associated features (i.e., known genetic disorders, and intellectual disability).

Another change included collapsing social and communication deficits into one domain.[58] Thus, an individual with an ASD diagnosis would be described in terms of severity of social communication symptoms, severity of fixated or restricted behaviors or interests, and hyper- or hyposensitivity to sensory stimuli.

The restricting of onset age was also loosened from 3 years of age to "early developmental period", with a note that symptoms may manifest later when social demands exceed capabilities.[59]

Considering the synthesis between the classification within the ICD and DSM, the justification for future development of the DSM has been questioned.[53]

Signs and symptoms

Clinicians consider assessment for ASD when a patient shows:

These features are typically assessed with the following, when appropriate:

There are many signs associated with ASD; the presentation varies widely:[61][26]

Common signs for autistic spectrum disorder
  • little or no infant babbling
  • not pointing to show interest or not showing interest when something is indicated
  • limited language skills e.g. having a smaller vocabulary than peers or difficulty expressing themselves in words
  • having reduced interest in other children or carers, possibly with more interest in objects
  • having trouble understanding other's feelings or talking about their own feelings
  • showing interest in others, but not knowing how to play with them or relate to them
  • avoiding playing pretending games
  • unusual or limited usage of toys
  • avoiding eye-contact
  • wanting to be alone
  • increased sensitivity to the smell, texture, sound, taste or appearance of things
  • being upset by changes in routine, possibly with trouble adapting to the changes
  • avoiding hugs, except when they want them
  • difficulty expressing needs using everyday words or actions
  • repeating words or phrases, or using them in place of typical language
  • repeating actions over and over again
  • making unusual movements, expressions, actions or positions
  • apparently losing skills once held e.g. stopping using specific language
  • self-harming

In addition, a small percentage of people with ASD can exhibit notable ability, for example in mathematics, music or artistic reproduction, which in exceptional cases is referred to as savant syndrome.[62][63]

Developmental course

Most parents report that the onset of autism symptoms occur within the first year of life.[64][65] There are two possible developmental courses of ASD. One course of development is more gradual in nature, in which parents report concerns in development over the first two years of life and diagnosis is made around 3–4 years of age.[clarification needed] Some of the early signs of ASDs in this course include decreased looking at faces, failure to turn when name is called, failure to show interests by showing or pointing, and delayed imaginative play.[66]

A second course of development is characterized by normal or near-normal development before onset of regression or loss of skills. One pattern of regression occurs in the first 15 months to 3 years.[67][68] There are some who believe that regressive autism is simply early-onset autism that was recognized at a later date. Researchers have conducted studies to determine whether regressive autism is a distinct subset of ASD. Over the years, the results of these studies have contradicted one another. Some researchers believe there is still nothing to support a definitive biological difference between early-onset and regressive autism.[69] Another pattern, childhood disintegrative disorder (a DSM-IV diagnosis now included under ASD in DSM-5), is characterized by regression after normal development in the first 3 to 4, or even up to 9 years of life.[70]

Regressive autism

Regression may occur in a variety of domains, including communication, social, cognitive, and self-help skills; however, the most common regression is loss of language.[67][68] Approximately 25–30% of children with ASD stop speaking after beginning to say words, often before the age of two.[71] Some children lose social development instead of language; some lose both.[72] Attribution of regression to environmental stress factors may result in a delay in diagnosis.[71] The apparent onset of regressive autism is surprising and distressing to parents, who often initially suspect severe hearing loss.

Regressive autism occurs when a child appears to develop typically but then starts to lose speech and social skills, typically between the ages of 15 and 30 months, and is subsequently diagnosed with autism.[69] Other terms used to describe regression in children with autism are autism with regression, autistic regression, setback-type autism, and acquired autistic syndrome.[73] There is no standard definition for regression,[73] and the prevalence of regression varies depending on the definition used.[72] Some children show a mixture of features, with some early delays and some later losses; and there is evidence of a continuous spectrum of behaviors, rather than, or in addition to, a black-and-white distinction, between autism with and without regression.[72]

After the regression, the child follows the standard pattern of autistic neurological development. The term regressive autism refers to the appearance that neurological development has reversed; it is actually only the affected developmental skills, rather than the neurology as a whole, that regresses. It is more usual for autistic neurological development not to include such aberrations, with age-appropriate autistic symptoms being clear from birth.

Skill loss may be quite rapid, or may be slow and preceded by a lengthy period of no skill progression; the loss may be accompanied by reduced social play or increased irritability.[73] The temporarily acquired skills typically amount to a few words of spoken language, and may include some rudimentary social perception. There are several intermediate types of development, which do not neatly fit into either the traditional early onset or the regressive categories, including mixtures of early deficits, failures to progress, subtle diminishments, and obvious losses. If regression is defined strictly to require loss of language, it is less common; if defined more broadly, to include cases where language is preserved but social interaction is diminished, it is more common.[72]

Differential outcomes

There continues to be a debate over the differential outcomes based on these two developmental courses. Some studies suggest that regression is associated with poorer outcomes and others report no differences between those with early gradual onset and those who experience a regression period.[74] While there is conflicting evidence surrounding language outcomes in ASD, some studies have shown that cognitive and language abilities at age 2+12 may help predict language proficiency and production after age 5.[75] Overall, the literature stresses the importance of early intervention in achieving positive longitudinal outcomes.[76]

Social and communication skills

Impairments in social skills present many challenges for autistic individuals. Deficits in social skills may lead to problems with friendships, romantic relationships, daily living, and vocational success.[77] One study that examined the outcomes of autistic adults found that, compared to the general population, those with ASD were less likely to be married, but it is unclear whether this outcome was due to deficits in social skills or intellectual impairment, or some other reason.[78]

Prior to 2013, deficits in social function and communication were considered two separate symptoms of autism.[79] The current criteria for autism diagnosis require individuals to have deficits in three social skills: social-emotional reciprocity, nonverbal communication, and developing and sustaining relationships.[8]

Social skills

Some of the symptoms related to social reciprocity include:

Symptoms related to relationships includes the following:

Communication skills

Communication deficits are due to problems with social-emotional skills like joint attention and social reciprocity.

Autistic people usually display atypical nonverbal behaviours or have difficulties with nonverbal communication:

Autistic people may experience difficulties with verbal communication:

Behavioural characteristics

ASDs include a wide variety of characteristics. Some of these include behavioural characteristics which widely range from slow development of social and learning skills to difficulties creating connections with other people. They may develop these difficulties of creating connections due to anxiety or depression, which autistic people are more likely to experience, and as a result isolate themselves.[89]

Other behavioural characteristics include abnormal responses to sensations including sights, sounds, touch, and smell, and problems keeping a consistent speech rhythm. The latter problem influences an individual's social skills, leading to potential problems in how they are understood by communication partners. Behavioural characteristics displayed by those with ASD typically influence development, language, and social competence. Behavioural characteristics of those with ASD can be observed as perceptual disturbances, disturbances of development rate, relating, speech and language, and motility.[90]

The second core symptom of autism spectrum is a pattern of restricted and repetitive behaviors, activities, and interests. In order to be diagnosed with ASD, a child must have at least two of the following behaviors:[8][91]


Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) are common in ASD and include head-banging, self-cutting, self-biting, and hair-pulling.[92] These behaviors can result in serious injury or death.[92] Following are theories about the cause of self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals:[93]


Main article: Causes of autism

While specific causes of ASDs have yet to be found, many risk factors identified in the research literature may contribute to their development. These risk factors include genetics, prenatal and perinatal factors, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and environmental factors. It is possible to identify general risk factors, but much more difficult to pinpoint specific factors. Given the current state of knowledge, prediction can only be of a global nature and therefore requires the use of general markers.[94]


Hundreds of different genes are implicated in susceptibility to developing autism,[95] most of which alter the brain structure in a similar way
Hundreds of different genes are implicated in susceptibility to developing autism,[95] most of which alter the brain structure in a similar way

As of 2018, it appeared that between 74% and 93% of ASD risk is heritable.[91] After an older child is diagnosed with ASD, 7–20% of subsequent children are likely to be as well.[91] If parents have a child with ASD they have a 2% to 8% chance of having a second child with ASD. If the child with ASD is an identical twin the other will be affected 36 to 95 percent of the time. If they are fraternal twins the other will only be affected up to 31 percent of the time.[87]

As of 2018, understanding of genetic risk factors had shifted from a focus on a few alleles to an understanding that genetic involvement in ASD is probably diffuse, depending on a large number of variants, some of which are common and have a small effect, and some of which are rare and have a large effect. The most common gene disrupted with large effect rare variants appeared to be CHD8, but less than 0.5% of autistic people have such a mutation. Some ASD is associated with clearly genetic conditions, like fragile X syndrome; however only around 2% of autistic people have fragile X.[91] Hypotheses from evolutionary psychiatry suggest that these genes persist because they are linked to human inventiveness, intelligence or systemising.[96][97]

Current research suggests that genes that increase susceptibility to ASD are ones that control protein synthesis in neuronal cells in response to cell needs, activity and adhesion of neuronal cells, synapse formation and remodeling, and excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmitter balance. Therefore, despite up to 1000 different genes thought to contribute to increased risk of ASD, all of them eventually affect normal neural development and connectivity between different functional areas of the brain in a similar manner that is characteristic of an ASD brain. Some of these genes are known to modulate production of the GABA neurotransmitter which is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. These GABA-related genes are underexpressed in an ASD brain. On the other hand, genes controlling expression of glial and immune cells in the brain e.g. astrocytes and microglia, respectively, are overexpressed which correlates with increased number of glial and immune cells found in postmortem ASD brains. Some genes under investigation in ASD pathophysiology are those that affect the mTOR signaling pathway which supports cell growth and survival.[98]

All these genetic variants contribute to the development of the autistic spectrum, however, it can not be guaranteed that they are determinants for the development.[99]

Early life

Several prenatal and perinatal complications have been reported as possible risk factors for autism. These risk factors include maternal gestational diabetes, maternal and paternal age over 30, bleeding after first trimester, use of prescription medication (e.g. valproate) during pregnancy, and meconium in the amniotic fluid. While research is not conclusive on the relation of these factors to autism, each of these factors has been identified more frequently in children with autism, compared to their siblings who do not have autism, and other typically developing youth.[100] While it is unclear if any single factors during the prenatal phase affect the risk of autism,[101] complications during pregnancy may be a risk.[101]

Low vitamin D levels in early development has been hypothesized as a risk factor for autism.[102]

There are also studies being done to test if certain types of regressive autism have an autoimmune basis.[69]

Disproven vaccine hypothesis

Main articles: Vaccines and autism and MMR vaccine and autism

In 1998 Andrew Wakefield led a fraudulent study that suggested that the MMR vaccine may cause autism.[103][104][105][106][107] This conjecture suggested that autism results from brain damage caused either by the MMR vaccine itself, or by thimerosal, a vaccine preservative.[108] No convincing scientific evidence supports these claims, and further evidence continues to refute them, including the observation that the rate of autism continues to climb despite elimination of thimerosal from routine childhood vaccines.[109] A 2014 meta-analysis examined ten major studies on autism and vaccines involving 1.25 million children worldwide; it concluded that neither the MMR vaccine, which has never contained thimerosal,[110] nor the vaccine components thimerosal or mercury, lead to the development of ASDs.[111]


Main article: Autism § Mechanism

In general, neuroanatomical studies support the concept that autism may involve a combination of brain enlargement in some areas and reduction in others.[112] These studies suggest that autism may be caused by abnormal neuronal growth and pruning during the early stages of prenatal and postnatal brain development, leaving some areas of the brain with too many neurons and other areas with too few neurons.[113] Some research has reported an overall brain enlargement in autism, while others suggest abnormalities in several areas of the brain, including the frontal lobe, the mirror neuron system, the limbic system, the temporal lobe, and the corpus callosum.[114][115]

In functional neuroimaging studies, when performing theory of mind and facial emotion response tasks, the median person on the autism spectrum exhibits less activation in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices of the brain than the median member of a properly sampled control population. This finding coincides with reports demonstrating abnormal patterns of cortical thickness and grey matter volume in those regions of autistic persons' brains.[116]

Brain connectivity

Brains of autistic individuals have been observed to have abnormal connectivity and the degree of these abnormalities directly correlates with the severity of autism. Following are some observed abnormal connectivity patterns in autistic individuals:[117][98]


Listed below are some characteristic findings in ASD brains on molecular and cellular levels regardless of the specific genetic variation or mutation contributing to autism in a particular individual:

Gut-immune-brain axis

Role of gut-immune-brain axis in autism; BBB – blood brain barrier
Role of gut-immune-brain axis in autism; BBB – blood brain barrier

Up to 70% of autistic individuals have GI related problems like reflux, diarrhea, constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, and food allergies. The severity of GI symptoms is directly proportional to the severity of autism. It has also been shown that the makeup of gut bacteria in ASD patients is different than that of neurotypical individuals. This has raised the question of influence of gut bacteria on ASD development via inducing an inflammatory state.[118]

Listed below are some research findings on the influence of gut bacteria and abnormal immune responses on brain development:[118]

Mirror neuron system

Further information: Mirror neuron § Autism

The mirror neuron system (MNS) consists of a network of brain areas that have been associated with empathy processes in humans.[119] In humans, the MNS has been identified in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and is thought to be activated during imitation or observation of behaviors.[120] The connection between mirror neuron dysfunction and autism is tentative, and it remains to be seen how mirror neurons may be related to many of the important characteristics of autism.[121][122]

"Social brain" interconnectivity

A number of discrete brain regions and networks among regions that are involved in dealing with other people have been discussed together under the rubric of the "social brain". As of 2012, there is a consensus that autism spectrum is likely related to problems with interconnectivity among these regions and networks, rather than problems with any specific region or network.[123]

Temporal lobe

Functions of the temporal lobe are related to many of the deficits observed in individuals with ASDs, such as receptive language, social cognition, joint attention, action observation, and empathy. The temporal lobe also contains the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the fusiform face area (FFA), which may mediate facial processing. It has been argued that dysfunction in the STS underlies the social deficits that characterize autism. Compared to typically developing individuals, one fMRI study found that individuals with so-called 'high-functioning autism' had reduced activity in the FFA when viewing pictures of faces.[124]


ASD could be linked to mitochondrial disease (MD), a basic cellular abnormality with the potential to cause disturbances in a wide range of body systems.[125] A 2012 meta-analysis study, as well as other population studies have shown that approximately 5% of children with ASD meet the criteria for classical mitochondrial dysfunction.[126] It is unclear why this MD occurs considering that only 23% of children with both ASD and MD present with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abnormalities.[126]


Serotonin is a major neurotransmitter in the nervous system and contributes to formation of new neurons (neurogenesis), formation of new connections between neurons (synaptogenesis), remodeling of synapses, and survival and migration of neurons, processes that are necessary for a developing brain and some also necessary for learning in the adult brain. 45% of ASD individuals have been found to have increased blood serotonin levels.[98] It has been hypothesized that increased activity of serotonin in the developing brain may facilitate the onset of ASD, with an association found in six out of eight studies between the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) by the pregnant mother and the development of ASD in the child exposed to SSRI in the antenatal environment. The study could not definitively conclude SSRIs caused the increased risk for ASDs due to the biases found in those studies, and the authors called for more definitive, better conducted studies.[127] Confounding by indication has since then been shown to be likely.[128] However, it is also hypothesized that SSRIs may help reduce symptoms of ASD and even positively affect brain development in some ASD patients.[98]


This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: old sources, pre-DSM5. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (March 2021)
Process for screening and diagnosing ASD; M-CHAT is Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers; (+) is positive test result; (-) is negative test result
Process for screening and diagnosing ASD; M-CHAT is Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers; (+) is positive test result; (-) is negative test result

ASD can be detected as early as 18 months or even younger in some cases.[129] A reliable diagnosis can usually be made by the age of two years, however, because of delays in seeking and administering assessments, diagnoses often occur much later.[130] A study in 2005 found that children diagnosed with autistic disorder and PDD-NOS are typically diagnosed at age 3 while children with Aspergers are typically diagnosed at age 7.[131]

The diverse expressions of ASD behavioral and observational symptoms and absence of one specific genetic or molecular marker for the disorder pose diagnostic challenges to clinicians who use assessment methods based on symptoms alone. Individuals with an ASD may present at various times of development (e.g., toddler, child, or adolescent), and symptom expression may vary over the course of development.[132] Furthermore, clinicians who use those methods must differentiate among pervasive developmental disorders, and may also consider similar conditions, including intellectual disability not associated with a pervasive developmental disorder, specific language disorders, ADHD, anxiety, and psychotic disorders.[133] Ideally the diagnosis of ASD should be given by a team of professionals from different disciplines (e.g. child psychiatrists, child neurologists, psychologists) and only after the child has been observed in many different settings.[134]

Considering the unique challenges in diagnosing ASD using behavioral and observational assessment, specific practice parameters for its assessment were published by the American Academy of Neurology in the year 2000,[135] the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in 1999,[132] and a consensus panel with representation from various professional societies in 1999.[136] The practice parameters outlined by these societies include an initial screening of children by general practitioners (i.e., "Level 1 screening") and for children who fail the initial screening, a comprehensive diagnostic assessment by experienced clinicians (i.e. "Level 2 evaluation"). Furthermore, it has been suggested that assessments of children with suspected ASD be evaluated within a developmental framework, include multiple informants (e.g., parents and teachers) from diverse contexts (e.g., home and school), and employ a multidisciplinary team of professionals (e.g., clinical psychologists, neuropsychologists, and psychiatrists).[137]

As of 2019, psychologists would wait until a child showed initial evidence of ASD tendencies, then administer various psychological assessment tools to assess for ASD.[137] Among these measurements, the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) are considered the "gold standards" for assessing autistic children.[138][139] The ADI-R is a semi-structured parent interview that probes for symptoms of autism by evaluating a child's current behavior and developmental history. The ADOS is a semistructured interactive evaluation of ASD symptoms that is used to measure social and communication abilities by eliciting several opportunities (or "presses") for spontaneous behaviors (e.g., eye contact) in standardized context. Various other questionnaires (e.g., The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist) and tests of cognitive functioning (e.g., The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) are typically included in an ASD assessment battery.


Screening recommendations for autism in children younger than 3 years are:[140]


There is a significant level of misdiagnosis of autism in neurodevelopmentally normal children; 18–37% of children diagnosed with ASD eventually lose their diagnosis. This high rate of lost diagnosis cannot be accounted for by successful ASD treatment alone. The most common reason parents reported as the cause of lost ASD diagnosis was new information about the child (73.5%), such as a replacement diagnosis. Other reasons included a diagnosis given so the child could receive ASD treatment (24.2%), ASD treatment success or maturation (21%), and parents disagreeing with the initial diagnosis (1.9%).[medical citation needed][141]

Many of the children who were later found not to meet ASD diagnosis criteria then received diagnosis for another developmental disorder. Most common was ADHD, but other diagnoses included sensory disorders, anxiety, personality disorder, or learning disability.[non-primary source needed][141] Neurodevelopment and psychiatric disorders that are commonly misdiagnosed as ASD include specific language impairment, social communication disorder, anxiety disorder, reactive attachment disorder, cognitive impairment, visual impairment, hearing impairment and normal behavioral variations.[142] Some normal behavioral variations that resemble autistic traits are repetitive behaviors, sensitivity to change in daily routines, focused interests, and toe-walking. These are considered normal behavioral variations when they do not cause impaired function. Boys are more likely to exhibit repetitive behaviors especially when excited, tired, bored, or stressed. Some ways of distinguishing normal behavioral variations from abnormal behaviors are the ability of the child to suppress these behaviors and the absence of these behaviors during sleep.[134]


Main article: Conditions comorbid to autism spectrum disorders

ASDs tend to be highly comorbid with other disorders. Comorbidity may increase with age and may worsen the course of youth with ASDs and make intervention/treatment more difficult. Distinguishing between ASDs and other diagnoses can be challenging, because the traits of ASDs often overlap with symptoms of other disorders, and the characteristics of ASDs make traditional diagnostic procedures difficult.[143][144]


Main article: Autism therapies

For Humans, there is no known cure for autism, nor treatments that can significantly reduce certain brain mutations caused by autism, although those with Asperger syndrome and those who have autism and require little-to-no support are more likely to experience a lessening of symptoms over time.[162][163][164] Several interventions can help children with autism.[43] The main goals of treatment are to lessen associated deficits and family distress, and to increase quality of life and functional independence. In general, higher IQs are correlated with greater responsiveness to treatment and improved treatment outcomes.[165][166] Although evidence-based interventions for autistic children vary in their methods, many adopt a psychoeducational approach to enhancing cognitive, communication, and social skills while minimizing problem behaviors. It has been argued that no single treatment is best and treatment is typically tailored to the child's needs.[167] Regarding research of a potential treatment in reducing autism symptoms, some studies suggest certain mutations caused by autism in the brain can be reversed using CRISPR Therapy, however, as of now this has only been tested on mice.[168]

Non-pharmacological interventions

Intensive, sustained special education or remedial education programs and behavior therapy early in life can help children acquire self-care, social, and job skills. Available approaches include applied behavior analysis, developmental models, structured teaching, speech and language therapy, social skills therapy, and occupational therapy.[167] Among these approaches, interventions either treat autistic features comprehensively, or focus treatment on a specific area of deficit.[166] Generally, when educating those with autism, specific tactics may be used to effectively relay information to these individuals. Using as much social interaction as possible is key in targeting the inhibition autistic individuals experience concerning person-to-person contact. Additionally, research has shown that employing semantic groupings, which involves assigning words to typical conceptual categories, can be beneficial in fostering learning.[169]

There has been increasing attention to the development of evidence-based interventions for young children with ASD. Two theoretical frameworks outlined for early childhood intervention include applied behavioral analysis (ABA) and the developmental social-pragmatic model (DSP).[166] Although ABA therapy has a strong evidence base, particularly in regard to early intensive home-based therapy, ABA's effectiveness may be limited by diagnostic severity and IQ of the person affected by ASD.[170] The Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology has deemed two early childhood interventions as "well-established": individual comprehensive ABA, and focused teacher-implemented ABA combined with DSP.[166]

Another evidence-based intervention that has demonstrated efficacy is a parent training model, which teaches parents how to implement various ABA and DSP techniques themselves.[166] Various DSP programs have been developed to explicitly deliver intervention systems through at-home parent implementation.

A multitude of unresearched alternative therapies have also been implemented. Many have resulted in harm to autistic people and should not be employed unless proven to be safe.[167] However, a recent systematic review on adults with autism has provided emerging evidence for decreasing stress, anxiety, ruminating thoughts, anger, and aggression through mindfulness-based interventions for improving mental health.[171]

In October 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) proposed new evidence-based recommendations for early interventions in ASD for children under 3.[172] These recommendations emphasize early involvement with both developmental and behavioral methods, support by and for parents and caregivers, and a focus on both the core and associated symptoms of ASD.[172] However, a Cochrane review found no evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is effective in reducing behavioral problems associated with autism in most children with ASD but did help improve IQ and language skills. The Cochrane review did acknowledge that this may be due to the low quality of studies currently available on EIBI and therefore providers should recommend EIBI based on their clinical judgement and the family's preferences. No adverse effects of EIBI treatment were found.[173] Studies on pet therapy have shown positive effects.[174]

Generally speaking, treatment of ASD focuses on behavioral and educational interventions to target its two core symptoms: social communication deficits and restricted, repetitive behaviors.[175] If symptoms continue after behavioral strategies have been implemented, some medications can be recommended to target specific symptoms or co-existing problems such as restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs), anxiety, depression, hyperactivity/inattention and sleep disturbance.[175] Melatonin for example can be used for sleep problems.[176]

While there are a number of parent-mediated behavioral therapies to target social communication deficits in children with autism, there is uncertainty regarding the efficacy of interventions to treat RRBs.[177][178]

Pharmacological interventions

There is some emerging data that show positive effects of risperidone on restricted and repetitive behaviors (i.e., stimming; e.g., flapping, twisting, complex whole-body movements), but due to the small sample size of these studies and the concerns about its side effects, antipsychotics are not recommended as primary treatment of RRBs.[179]


Main article: Epidemiology of autism

While rates of ASD are consistent across cultures, they vary greatly by gender, with boys diagnosed far more frequently than girls. The average male-to-female diagnosis ratio for ASD is 4.2:1,[180] with 1 in 70 boys, but only 1 in 315 girls.[181] Girls, however, are more likely to have associated cognitive impairment. Among those with an ASD and intellectual disability, the sex ratio may be closer to 2:1.[182] Prevalence differences may be a result of gender differences in expression of clinical symptoms, with women and girls with autism showing less atypical behaviors and, therefore, less likely to receive an ASD diagnosis.[183]

Autism prevalence has been estimated at 1–2 per 1,000, Asperger syndrome at roughly 0.6 per 1,000, childhood disintegrative disorder at 0.02 per 1,000, and PDD-NOS at 3.7 per 1,000.[184] These rates are consistent across cultures and ethnic groups, as autism is considered a universal disorder.[74]

Using DSM-5 criteria 92% of the children diagnosed per DSM-IV with one of the disorders which is now considered part of ASD will still meet the diagnostic criteria of ASD. However, if both ASD and Social Communication Disorder categories of DSM-5 are combined, the prevalence of autism is mostly unchanged from the prevalence per the DSM-IV criteria. The best estimate for prevalence of ASD is 0.7% or 1 child in 143 children.[185] Relatively mild forms of autism, such as Aspergers as well as other developmental disorders were included in the recent DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.[186] ASD rates were constant between 2014 and 2016 but twice the rate compared to the time period between 2011 and 2014 (1.25 vs 2.47%). A Canadian meta-analysis from 2019 confirmed these effects as the profiles of people diagnosed with autism became less and less different from the profiles of the general population.[187] In the US, the rates for diagnosed ASD have been steadily increasing since 2000 when records began being kept.[188] While it remains unclear whether this trend represents a true rise in incidence, it likely reflects changes in ASD diagnostic criteria, improved detection, and increased public awareness of autism.[189]

United States

In the United States it is estimated to affect more than 2% of children (about 1.5 million) as of 2016.[190] According to the latest CDC prevalence reports, 1 in 59 children (1.7%) in the United States had a diagnosis of ASD in 2014, reflecting a 2.5-fold increase from the prevalence rate in 2000.[186] Prevalence is estimated at 6 per 1,000 for ASDs as a whole,[184] although prevalence rates vary for each of the developmental disorders in the spectrum.


Further information: Autism § History

The word autism comes from the Greek word "autos" whose meaning was first established by Eugen Bleuler.[191] Autism as it is known today can be drawn back to the late 1930s. Two separate psychiatrists used the word autism to describe the patients they were studying in their own clinical research. Victor, the Wild Boy of Aveyron, was found deep in the woods of Central France. He was non-verbal amongst his teenage years, and his case was widely popular among society for its time. Such cases brought awareness to autism, and more research was conducted on the natural dimensions of human behavior. The discussion of autism prior to the twentieth century is one that brings about much controversy. Without researchers being able to meet a consensus on the varying forms around the condition, there was a lack of research being conducted on the disorder. Discussing the syndrome and its complexity frustrated researchers. Controversies have surrounded various claims regarding the etiology of ASDs. In the 1950s, the "refrigerator mother theory" emerged as an explanation for autism. The hypothesis was based on the idea that autistic behaviors stem from the emotional frigidity, lack of warmth, and cold, distant, rejecting demeanor of a child's mother.[192] Parents of children with an ASD experienced blame, guilt, and self-doubt, especially as the theory was embraced by the medical establishment and went largely unchallenged into the mid-1960s.[citation needed] The "refrigerator mother" theory has since continued to be refuted in scientific literature, including a 2015 systematic review which showed no association between caregiver interaction and language outcomes in ASD.[193]

Leo Kanner, a child psychiatrist, was the first person to describe ASD as a neurodevelopmental disorder in 1943 by calling it 'infantile autism' and therefore rejected the 'refrigerator mother' theory.[194]

Another controversial claim suggests that watching extensive amounts of television may cause autism. This hypothesis was largely based on research suggesting that the increasing rates of autism in the 1970s and 1980s were linked to the growth of cable television at this time.[109]

Society and culture

Further information: Societal and cultural aspects of autism


Families who care for an autistic child face added stress from a number of different causes.[195] Parents may struggle to understand the diagnosis and to find appropriate care options. Parents often take a negative view of the diagnosis, and may struggle emotionally.[196] More than half of parents over the age of 50 are still living with their child as about 85% of people with autism have difficulties living independently.[197]

Neurodiversity movement

The neurodiversity movement is a social movement within the context of disability rights that emphasizes the concept of neurodiversity, viewing the autism spectrum as a result of natural variations in the human brain rather than a disorder to be cured.[46] The autism rights movement advocates for including greater acceptance of autistic behaviors; therapies that focus on coping skills rather than imitating the behaviors of those without autism;[198] and the recognition of the autistic community as a minority group.[198][199] Autism rights or neurodiversity advocates believe that the autism spectrum is genetic and should be accepted as a natural expression of the human genome. This perspective is distinct from two other likewise distinct views: the medical perspective, that autism is caused by a genetic defect and should be addressed by targeting the autism gene(s), and fringe theories that autism is caused by environmental factors such as vaccines.[46] Although these movements are not without criticism, for example, a common argument made against neurodiversity activists is that the majority of them are "high-functioning" or have Asperger syndrome and do not represent the views of "low-functioning" people with autism.[199] The concept is contended within various autism advocacy and research groups and has led to infighting.[48][49][50]

Academic performance

The number of students identified and served as eligible for autism services in the United States has increased from 5,413 children in 1991–1992 to 370,011 children in the 2010–2011 academic school year.[200] The United States Department of Health and Human Services reported approximately 1 in 68 children at age 8 are diagnosed with ASD although onset is typically between ages 2 and 4.[200]

The increasing number of students with ASD in the schools presents significant challenges to teachers, school psychologists, and other school professionals.[200] These challenges include developing a consistent practice that best support the social and cognitive development of the increasing number of students with ASD.[200] Although there is considerable research addressing assessment, identification, and support services for children with ASD, there is a need for further research focused on these topics within the school context.[200] Further research on appropriate support services for students with ASD will provide school psychologists and other education professionals with specific directions for advocacy and service delivery that aim to enhance school outcomes for students with ASD.[200]

Attempts to identify and use best intervention practices for students with autism also pose a challenge due to overdependence on popular or well-known interventions and curricula.[200] Some evidence suggests that although these interventions work for some students, there remains a lack of specificity for which type of student, under what environmental conditions (one-on-one, specialized instruction or general education) and for which targeted deficits they work best.[200] More research is needed to identify what assessment methods are most effective for identifying the level of educational needs for students with ASD.

A difficulty for academic performance in students with ASD is the tendency to generalize learning.[88] Learning is different for each student, which is the same for students with ASD. To assist in learning, accommodations are commonly put into place for students with differing abilities. The existing schema of these students works in different ways and can be adjusted to best support the educational development for each student.[201]

The cost of educating a student with ASD in the US is about $8,600 a year more than the cost of educating an average student, which is about $12,000.[202]


About half of people in their 20s with autism are unemployed, and one third of those with graduate degrees may be unemployed.[203] While employers state hiring concerns about productivity and supervision, experienced employers of autistics give positive reports of above average memory and detail orientation as well as a high regard for rules and procedure in autistic employees.[203] A majority of the economic burden of autism is caused by lost productivity in the job market.[204] Some studies also find decreased earning among parents who care for autistic children.[205][206] Adding content related to autism in existing diversity training can clarify misconceptions, support employees, and help provide new opportunities for autistic people.[207]

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