It has been suggested that Asperger syndrome be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since May 2024.

Autism spectrum
Other names
Infant stacking cans
Repetitively stacking or lining up objects is a common trait associated with autism.
SpecialtyPsychiatry, clinical psychology, pediatrics, occupational medicine
SymptomsDifficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and the presence of repetitive behavior or restricted interests
ComplicationsSocial isolation, educational and employment problems,[1] anxiety,[1] stress,[1] bullying, depression,[1][2] self-harm
OnsetEarly childhood
CausesMultifactorial, with many uncertain factors
Risk factorsFamily history, certain genetic conditions, having older parents, certain prescribed drugs, perinatal and neonatal health issues
Diagnostic methodBased on combination of clinical observation of behavior and development and comprehensive diagnostic testing completed by a team of qualified professionals (including psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, neuropsychologists, pediatricians, and speech-language pathologists). For adults, the use of a patient's written and oral history of autistic traits becomes more important
Differential diagnosisIntellectual disability, anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, Rett syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizoid personality disorder, selective mutism, schizophrenia, obsessive–compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, Einstein syndrome, PTSD,[3] learning disorders (mainly speech disorders)
ManagementApplied behavior analysis, cognitive behavioral therapy, occupational therapy, psychotropic medication,[4] speech–language pathology
  • One in 100 people (1%) worldwide[5]

Autism, formally called autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autism spectrum condition (ASC),[6] is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by deficits in reciprocal social communication and the presence of restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. Other common signs include difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, along with perseverative interests, stereotypic body movements, rigid routines, and hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input. Autism is clinically regarded as a spectrum disorder, meaning that it can manifest very differently in each person. For example, some are nonspeaking, while others have proficient spoken language. Because of this, there is wide variation in the support needs of people across the autism spectrum.

Psychiatry has traditionally classified autism as a mental disorder, but the autism rights movement (and an increasing number of researchers) see autistic people with low support needs as a part of humanity's natural neurodiversity.[7] From this point of view, autistic people may also be diagnosed with a disability of some sort, but that disability may be rooted in the systemic structures of a society rather than in the person;[8] thus, proponents argue that autistic people should be accommodated rather than cured.[9] The neurodiversity perspective has led to significant controversy among those who are autistic and advocates, practitioners, and charities.[10][11]

There are many theories about the causes of autism; it is highly heritable and mainly genetic, but many genes are involved, and environmental factors may also be relevant.[12] The syndrome frequently co-occurs with other conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Disagreements persist about what should be included as part of the diagnosis, whether there are meaningful subtypes or stages of autism,[13] and the significance of autism-associated traits in the wider population.[14][15] The combination of broader criteria, increased awareness, and the potential increase of actual prevalence, has led to a trend of steadily increasing estimates of autism prevalence,[16] unintentionally aiding the disproven myth perpetuated by anti-vaccine activists that it is caused by vaccines.[17]

There is no cure for autism. Although early intervention services based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) can help children gain self-care, social, and language skills,[18][19][20][21] independent living is unlikely in more severe cases. Speech and occupational therapy, as well as augmentative and alternative modes of communication, are effective adjunctive therapies, but some in the autism rights movement consider ABA therapy unethical and unhelpful.[22] Pharmacological treatments may also be useful; the atypical antipsychotics risperidone and aripiprazole are empirically validated for alleviating co-morbid irritability, though these drugs tend to be associated with sedation and weight gain.[23]


Spectrum model

Before the DSM-5 (2013) and ICD-11 (2022) diagnostic manuals were adopted, what is now called ASD was found under the diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorder. The previous system relied on a set of closely related and overlapping diagnoses such as Asperger syndrome and the syndrome formerly known as Kanner syndrome. This created unclear boundaries between the terms, so for the DSM-5 and ICD-11, a spectrum approach was taken. The new system is also more restrictive, meaning fewer people now qualify for diagnosis.[24]

The DSM-5 and ICD-11 use different categorization tools to define this spectrum. DSM-5 uses a "level" system, which ranks how in need of support the patient is,[25] while the ICD-11 system has two axes, intellectual impairment and language impairment,[26] as these are seen as the most crucial factors.

Autism is currently defined as a highly variable neurodevelopmental disorder[27] that is generally thought to cover a broad and deep spectrum, manifesting very differently from one person to another. Some have high support needs, may be non-speaking, and experience developmental delays; this is more likely with other co-existing diagnoses. Others have relatively low support needs; they may have more typical speech-language and intellectual skills but atypical social/conversation skills, narrowly focused interests, and wordy, pedantic communication.[28] They may still require significant support in some areas of their lives. The spectrum model should not be understood as a continuum running from mild to severe, but instead means that autism can present very differently in each person.[29] How it presents in a person can depend on context, and may vary over time.[30]

While the DSM and ICD greatly influence each other, there are also differences. For example, Rett syndrome was included in ASD in the DSM-5, but in the ICD-11 it was excluded and placed in the chapter on Developmental Anomalies. The ICD and the DSM change over time, and there has been collaborative work toward a convergence of the two since 1980 (when DSM-III was published and ICD-9 was current), including more rigorous biological assessment—in place of historical experience—and a simplification of the classification system.[31][32][33][34]

As of 2023, empirical and theoretical research is leading to a growing consensus among researchers that the established ASD criteria are ineffective descriptors of autism as a unitary biological entity, and that alternative research approaches must be encouraged, such as going back to autism prototypes, exploring new causal models of autism, or developing transdiagnostic endophenotypes.[35] Proposed alternatives to the current disorder-focused spectrum model deconstruct autism into at least two separate phenomena: (1) a non-pathological spectrum of behavioral traits in the population,[36][37] and (2) the neuropathological burden of rare genetic mutations and environmental risk factors potentially leading to neurodevelopmental and psychological disorders,[36][37] (3) governed by an individual's cognitive ability to compensate.[36]


The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (11th Revision), ICD-11, was released in June 2018 and came into full effect as of January 2022.[38][31] It describes ASD as follows:[39]

Autism spectrum disorder is characterised by persistent deficits in the ability to initiate and to sustain reciprocal social interaction and social communication, and by a range of restricted, repetitive, and inflexible patterns of behaviour, interests or activities that are clearly atypical or excessive for the individual's age and sociocultural context. The onset of the disorder occurs during the developmental period, typically in early childhood, but symptoms may not become fully manifest until later, when social demands exceed limited capacities. Deficits are sufficiently severe to cause impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning and are usually a pervasive feature of the individual's functioning observable in all settings, although they may vary according to social, educational, or other context. Individuals along the spectrum exhibit a full range of intellectual functioning and language abilities.

— ICD-11, chapter 6, section A02

ICD-11 was produced by professionals from 55 countries out of the 90 involved and is the most widely used reference worldwide.


The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-5-TR), released in 2022, is the current version of the DSM. It is the predominant mental health diagnostic system used in the United States and Canada, and is often used in Anglophone countries.

Its fifth edition, DSM-5, released in May 2013, was the first to define ASD as a single diagnosis,[40] which is still the case in the DSM-5-TR.[41] ASD encompasses previous diagnoses, including the four traditional diagnoses of autism—classic autism, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)—and the range of diagnoses that included the word "autism".[42] Rather than distinguishing among these diagnoses, the DSM-5 and DSM-5-TR adopt a dimensional approach with one diagnostic category for disorders that fall under the autism spectrum umbrella. Within that category, the DSM-5 and the DSM include a framework that differentiates each person by dimensions of symptom severity, as well as by associated features (i.e., the presence of other disorders or factors that likely contribute to the symptoms, other neurodevelopmental or mental disorders, intellectual disability, or language impairment).[41] The symptom domains are (a) social communication and (b) restricted, repetitive behaviors, and there is the option of specifying a separate severity—the negative effect of the symptoms on the person—for each domain, rather than just overall severity.[43] Before the DSM-5, the DSM separated social deficits and communication deficits into two domains.[44] Further, the DSM-5 changed to an onset age in the early developmental period, with a note that symptoms may manifest later when social demands exceed capabilities, rather than the previous, more restricted three years of age.[45] These changes remain in the DSM-5-TR.[41]

Common characteristics


For many autistic people, characteristics first appear during infancy or childhood and follow a steady course without remission (different developmental timelines are described in more detail below).[46] Autistic people may be severely impaired in some respects but average, or even superior, in others.[47][48][49]

Clinicians consider assessment for ASD when a patient shows:

These features are typically assessed with the following, when appropriate:

There are many signs associated with autism; the presentation varies widely:[52][53]

Common signs for autism spectrum disorder
  • avoidance of eye-contact
  • little or no babbling as an infant
  • not showing interest in indicated objects
  • delayed language skills (e.g., having a smaller vocabulary than peers or difficulty expressing themselves in words)
  • reduced interest in other children or caretakers, possibly with more interest in objects
  • difficulty playing reciprocal games (e.g., peek-a-boo)
  • hyper- or hypo-sensitivity to or unusual response to the smell, texture, sound, taste, or appearance of things
  • resistance to changes in routine
  • repetitive, limited, or otherwise unusual usage of toys (e.g., lining up toys)
  • repetition of words or phrases (echolalia)
  • repetitive motions or movements, including stimming
  • self-harming

Broader autism phenotype

The broader autism phenotype describes people who may not have ASD but do have autistic traits, such as avoiding eye contact and stimming.[54]

Social and communication skills

According to the medical model, autistic people experience social communications impairments. Until 2013, deficits in social function and communication were considered two separate symptom domains.[55] The current social communication domain criteria for autism diagnosis require people to have deficits across three social skills: social-emotional reciprocity, nonverbal communication, and developing and sustaining relationships.[41]

A deficit-based view predicts that autistic–autistic interaction would be less effective than autistic–non-autistic interactions or even non-functional.[56] But recent research has found that autistic–autistic interactions are as effective in information transfer as interactions between non-autistics are, and that communication breaks down only between autistics and non-autistics.[56][57] Also contrary to social cognitive deficit interpretations, recent (2019) research recorded similar social cognitive performances in autistic and non-autistic adults, with both of them rating autistic individuals less favorably than non-autistic individuals; however, autistic individuals showed more interest in engaging with autistic people than non-autistic people did, and learning of a person's ASD diagnosis did not influence their interest level.[58]

Thus, there has been a recent shift to acknowledge that autistic people may simply respond and behave differently than people without ASD.[59] So far, research has identified two unconventional features by which autistic people create shared understanding (intersubjectivity): "a generous assumption of common ground that, when understood, led to rapid rapport, and, when not understood, resulted in potentially disruptive utterances; and a low demand for coordination that ameliorated many challenges associated with disruptive turns."[57] Autistic interests, and thus conversational topics, seem to be largely driven by an intense interest in specific topics (monotropism).[60][61]

Historically, autistic children were said to be delayed in developing a theory of mind, and the empathizing–systemizing theory has argued that while autistic people have compassion (affective empathy) for others with similar presentation of symptoms, they have limited, though not necessarily absent, cognitive empathy.[62] This may present as social naïvety,[63] lower than average intuitive perception of the utility or meaning of body language, social reciprocity,[64] and/or social expectations, including the habitus, social cues, and/or some aspects of sarcasm,[65] which to some degree may also be due to comorbid alexithymia.[66] But recent research has increasingly questioned these findings, as the "double empathy problem" theory (2012) argues that there is a lack of mutual understanding and empathy between both non-autistic persons and autistic individuals.[67][68][69][70][71]

As communication is bidirectional,[72] research on communication difficulties has since also begun to study non-autistic behavior, with researcher Catherine Crompton writing in 2020 that non-autistic people "struggle to identify autistic mental states, identify autistic facial expressions, overestimate autistic egocentricity, and are less willing to socially interact with autistic people. Thus, although non-autistic people are generally characterised as socially skilled, these skills may not be functional, or effectively applied, when interacting with autistic people."[56] Any previously observed communication deficits of autistic people may thus have been constructed through a neurotypical bias in autism research, which has come to be scrutinized for "dehumanization, objectification, and stigmatization".[73] Recent research has proposed that autistics' lack of readability and a neurotypical lack of effort to interpret atypical signals may cause a negative interaction loop, increasingly driving both groups apart into two distinct groups with different social interaction styles.[72]

Differences in verbal communication begin to be noticeable in childhood, as many autistic children develop language skills at an uneven pace. Verbal communication may be delayed or never develop (nonverbal autism), while reading ability may be present before school age (hyperlexia).[74][75] Reduced joint attention seem to distinguish autistic from non-autistic infants.[76] Infants may show delayed onset of babbling, unusual gestures, diminished responsiveness, and vocal patterns that are not synchronized with the caregiver. In the second and third years, autistic children may have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words. Autistic children are less likely to make requests or share experiences and more likely to simply repeat others' words (echolalia).[77] The CDC estimated in 2015 that around 40% of autistic children do not speak at all.[78] Autistic adults' verbal communication skills largely depend on when and how well speech is acquired during childhood.[74]

Temple Grandin
Temple Grandin in 2011

Autistic people display atypical nonverbal behaviors or show differences in nonverbal communication. They may make infrequent eye contact, even when called by name, or avoid it altogether. Autistic people often recognize fewer emotions and their meaning from others' facial expressions, and may not respond with facial expressions expected by their non-autistic peers.[79][75] Temple Grandin, an autistic woman involved in autism activism, described her inability to understand neurotypicals' social communication as leaving her feeling "like an anthropologist on Mars".[80] Autistic people struggle to understand the social context and subtext of neurotypical conversational or printed situations, and form different conclusions about the content.[81] Autistic people may not control the volume of their voice in different social settings.[82] At least half of autistic children have atypical prosody.[82]

What may look like self-involvement or indifference to non-autistic people stems from autistic differences in recognizing how other people have their own personalities, perspectives, and interests.[81][83] Most published research focuses on the interpersonal relationship difficulties between autistic people and their non-autistic counterparts and how to solve them through teaching neurotypical social skills, but newer research has also evaluated what autistic people want from friendships, such as a sense of belonging and good mental health.[84][85] Children with ASD are more frequently involved in bullying situations than their non-autistic peers, and predominantly experience bullying as victims rather than perpetrators or victim-perpetrators, especially after controlling for comorbid psychopathology.[86] Prioritizing dependability and intimacy in friendships during adolescence, coupled with lowered friendship quantity and quality, often lead to increased loneliness in autistic people.[87] As they progress through life, autistic people observe and form a model of social patterns, and develop coping mechanisms, referred to as "masking",[88][89] which have recently been found to come with psychological costs and a higher increased risk of suicidality.[72]

Restricted and repetitive behaviors

Sleeping boy beside a dozen or so toys arranged in a line
A young autistic boy who has arranged his toys in a row

ASD includes a wide variety of characteristics. Some of these include behavioral characteristics which widely range from slow development of social and learning skills to difficulties creating connections with other people. Autistic people may experience these challenges with forming connections due to anxiety or depression, which they are more likely to experience, and as a result isolate themselves.[90][91]

Other behavioral characteristics include abnormal responses to sensations (such as sights, sounds, touch, taste and smell) and problems keeping a consistent speech rhythm. The latter problem influences social skills, leading to potential problems in understanding for interlocutors. Autistic people's behavioral characteristics typically influence development, language, and social competence. Their behavioral characteristics can be observed as perceptual disturbances, disturbances of development rate, relating, speech and language, and motility.[92]

The second core symptom of autism spectrum is a pattern of restricted and repetitive behaviors, activities, and interests. In order to be diagnosed with ASD under the DSM-5-TR, a person must have at least two of the following behaviors:[41][93]

Autistic people can display many forms of repetitive or restricted behavior, which the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) categorizes as follows.[96]


Self-injurious behaviors are relatively common in autistic people, and can include head-banging, self-cutting, self-biting, and hair-pulling.[97] Some of these can result in serious injury or death.[97] Following are theories about the cause of self-injurious behavior in children with developmental delay, including autistic children:[98]

The suicide rate for verbal autistics is nine times that of the general population.[100]


Some studies have supported the common belief that autistic people become exhausted or burnt out in some situations.[101][102][103][104]

Other features

Autistic people may have symptoms[a] that do not contribute to the official diagnosis, but that can affect the person or the family.[105]

Problematic digital media use

See also: Screen time, Internet addiction disorder, and Video game addiction

In September 2018, the Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders published a systematic review of 47 studies published from 2005 to 2016 that concluded that associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and screen time was inconclusive.[117] In May 2019, the Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics published a systematic review of 16 studies that found that children and adolescents with ASD are exposed to more screen time than typically developing peers and that the exposure starts at a younger age.[118] In April 2021, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders published a systematic review of 12 studies of video game addiction in ASD subjects that found that children, adolescents, and adults with ASD are at greater risk of video game addiction than those without ASD, and that the data from the studies suggested that internal and external factors (sex, attention and oppositional behavior problems, social aspects, access and time spent playing video games, parental rules, and game genre) were significant predictors of video game addiction in ASD subjects.[119] In March 2022, the Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders published a systematic review of 21 studies investigating associations between ASD, problematic internet use, and gaming disorder where the majority of the studies found positive associations between the disorders.[120]

In August 2022, the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction published a review of 15 studies that found that high rates of video game use in boys and young males with ASD was predominantly explained by video game addiction, but also concluded that greater video game use could be a function of ASD restricted interest and that video game addiction and ASD restricted interest could have an interactive relationship.[121] In December 2022, the Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders published a systematic review of 10 studies researching the prevalence of problematic internet use with ASD that found that ASD subjects had more symptoms of problematic internet use than control group subjects, had higher screen time online and an earlier age of first-time use of the internet, and also greater symptoms of depression and ADHD.[122] In July 2023, Cureus published a systematic review of 11 studies that concluded that earlier and longer screen time exposure for children was associated with higher risk of a child developing ASD.[123] In December 2023, JAMA Network Open published a meta-analysis of 46 studies comprising 562,131 subjects that concluded that while screen time may pose a developmental risk of ASD in childhood, associations between ASD and screen time were not statistically significant when accounting for publication bias.[124]

Possible causes

Main article: Causes of autism

Exactly what causes autism remains unknown.[125][126][127][128] It was long mostly presumed that there is a common cause at the genetic, cognitive, and neural levels for the social and non-social components of ASD's symptoms, described as a triad in the classic autism criteria.[129] But it is increasingly suspected that autism is instead a complex disorder whose core aspects have distinct causes that often cooccur.[129][130] It is unlikely that ASD has a single cause;[130] many risk factors identified in the research literature may contribute to ASD. These include genetics, prenatal and perinatal factors (meaning factors during pregnancy or very early infancy), neuroanatomical abnormalities, and environmental factors. It is possible to identify general factors, but much more difficult to pinpoint specific ones. Given the current state of knowledge, prediction can only be of a global nature and so requires the use of general markers.[clarification needed][131]

Biological subgroups

Research into causes has been hampered by the inability to identify biologically meaningful subgroups within the autistic population[132] and by the traditional boundaries between the disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, neurology and pediatrics.[133] Newer technologies such as fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging can help identify biologically relevant phenotypes (observable traits) that can be viewed on brain scans, to help further neurogenetic studies of autism;[134] one example is lowered activity in the fusiform face area of the brain, which is associated with impaired perception of people versus objects.[135] It has been proposed to classify autism using genetics as well as behavior.[136]

Syndromic autism and non-syndromic autism

Main article: Syndromic autism

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be classified into two categories: "syndromic autism" and "non-syndromic autism".

Syndromic autism refers to cases where ASD is one of the characteristics associated with a broader medical condition or syndrome, representing about 25% of ASD cases. The causes of syndromic autism are often known, and monogenic disorders account for approximately 5% of these cases.

Non-syndromic autism, also known as classic or idiopathic autism, represents the majority of cases, and its cause is typically polygenic and unknown.


Main articles: Heritability of autism and Epigenetics of autism

See also: Missing heritability problem

Hundreds of different genes are implicated in susceptibility to developing autism,[137] most of which alter the brain structure in a similar way.

Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations with major effects, or by rare multi-gene interactions of common genetic variants.[138][139] Complexity arises due to interactions among multiple genes, the environment, and epigenetic factors which do not change DNA sequencing but are heritable and influence gene expression.[140] Many genes have been associated with autism through sequencing the genomes of affected people and their parents.[141] But most of the mutations that increase autism risk have not been identified. Typically, autism cannot be traced to a Mendelian (single-gene) mutation or to a single chromosome abnormality, and none of the genetic syndromes associated with ASD have been shown to selectively cause ASD.[138] Numerous genes have been found, with only small effects attributable to any particular gene.[138] Most loci individually explain less than 1% of cases of autism.[142] As of 2018, it appeared that between 74% and 93% of ASD risk is heritable.[93] After an older child is diagnosed with ASD, 7% to 20% of subsequent children are likely to be as well.[93] If parents have one autistic child, they have a 2% to 8% chance of having a second child who is autistic. If the autistic child is an identical twin, the other will be affected 36% to 95% of the time. A fraternal twin is affected up to 31% of the time.[medical citation needed] The large number of autistic people with unaffected family members may result from spontaneous structural variation, such as deletions, duplications or inversions in genetic material during meiosis.[143][144] Hence, a substantial fraction of autism cases may be traceable to genetic causes that are highly heritable but not inherited: that is, the mutation that causes the autism is not present in the parental genome.[145][verification needed]

As of 2018, understanding of genetic risk factors had shifted from a focus on a few alleles to an understanding that genetic involvement in ASD is probably diffuse, depending on a large number of variants, some of which are common and have a small effect, and some of which are rare and have a large effect. The most common gene disrupted with large effect rare variants appeared to be CHD8, but less than 0.5% of autistic people have such a mutation. The gene CHD8 encodes the protein chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 8, which is a chromatin regulator enzyme that is essential during fetal development. CHD8 is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–dependent enzyme.[146][147][148] The protein contains an Snf2 helicase domain that is responsible for the hydrolysis of ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP).[148] CHD8 encodes a DNA helicase that functions as a repressor of transcription, remodeling chromatin structure by altering the position of nucleosomes. CHD8 negatively regulates Wnt signaling. Wnt signaling is important in the vertebrate early development and morphogenesis. It is believed that CHD8 also recruits the linker histone H1 and causes the repression of β-catenin and p53 target genes.[146] The importance of CHD8 can be observed in studies where CHD8-knockout mice died after 5.5 embryonic days because of widespread p53-induced apoptosis. Some studies have determined the role of CHD8 in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). CHD8 expression significantly increases during human mid-fetal development.[146] The chromatin remodeling activity and its interaction with transcriptional regulators have shown to play an important role in ASD aetiology.[147] The developing mammalian brain has conserved CHD8 target regions that are associated with ASD risk genes.[149] The knockdown of CHD8 in human neural stem cells results in dysregulation of ASD risk genes that are targeted by CHD8.[150] Recently CHD8 has been associated with the regulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs),[151] and the regulation of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) initiation, via regulation of Xist long non-coding RNA,[ambiguous] the master regulator of XCI,[ambiguous] though competitive binding to Xist regulatory regions.[152]

Some ASD is associated with clearly genetic conditions, like fragile X syndrome, but only around 2% of autistic people have fragile X.[93] Hypotheses from evolutionary psychiatry suggest that these genes persist because they are linked to human inventiveness, intelligence or systemising.[153][154]

Current research suggests that genes that increase susceptibility to ASD are ones that control protein synthesis in neuronal cells in response to cell needs, activity and adhesion of neuronal cells, synapse formation and remodeling, and excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmitter balance. Therefore, although up to 1,000 different genes are thought to increase the risk of ASD, all of them eventually affect normal neural development and connectivity between different functional areas of the brain in a similar manner that is characteristic of an ASD brain. Some of these genes are known to modulate production of the GABA neurotransmitter, the nervous system's main inhibitory neurotransmitter. These GABA-related genes are under-expressed in an ASD brain. On the other hand, genes controlling expression of glial and immune cells in the brain, e.g. astrocytes and microglia, respectively, are over-expressed, which correlates with increased number of glial and immune cells found in postmortem ASD brains. Some genes under investigation in ASD pathophysiology are those that affect the mTOR signaling pathway, which supports cell growth and survival.[155]

All these genetic variants contribute to the development of the autism spectrum, but it cannot be guaranteed that they are determinants for the development.[156]

ASD may be under-diagnosed in women and girls due to an assumption that it is primarily a male condition,[157] but genetic phenomena such as imprinting and X linkage have the ability to raise the frequency and severity of conditions in males, and theories have been put forward for a genetic reason why males are diagnosed more often, such as the imprinted brain hypothesis and the extreme male brain theory.[158][159][160]

Early life

See also: Refrigerator mother theory

Several prenatal and perinatal complications have been reported as possible risk factors for autism. These risk factors include maternal gestational diabetes, maternal and paternal age over 30,[161][162][163] bleeding during pregnancy after the first trimester, use of certain prescription medication (e.g. valproate) during pregnancy, and meconium in the amniotic fluid. Research is not conclusive on the relation of these factors to autism, but each of them has been identified more frequently in children with autism compared to their siblings who do not have autism and other typically developing youth.[164] While it is unclear if any single factors during the prenatal phase affect the risk of autism,[165] complications during pregnancy may be a risk.[165]

There are also studies being done to test whether certain types of regressive autism have an autoimmune basis.[166]

Maternal nutrition and inflammation during preconception and pregnancy influences fetal neurodevelopment. Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with ASD, in both term and preterm infants.[167] Maternal inflammatory and autoimmune diseases may damage fetal tissues, aggravating a genetic problem or damaging the nervous system.[168] Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have found that maternal prenatal infections, prenatal antibiotic exposure, and post-term pregnancies are associated with increased risk of ASD in children.[169][170][171]

Exposure to air pollution during child pregnancy, especially heavy metals and particulates, may increase the risk of autism.[172][173] Environmental factors that have been claimed without evidence to contribute to or exacerbate autism include certain foods, infectious diseases, solvents, PCBs, phthalates and phenols used in plastic products, pesticides, brominated flame retardants, alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs, vaccines,[174] and prenatal stress. Some, such as the MMR vaccine, have been completely disproven.[175][176][177][178]

Disproven vaccine hypothesis

Main articles: Vaccines and autism and MMR vaccine and autism

Parents may first become aware of ASD symptoms in their child around the time of a routine vaccination. This has led to unsupported and disproven theories blaming vaccine "overload", the vaccine preservative thiomersal, or the MMR vaccine for causing autism spectrum disorder.[179] In 1998, British physician and academic Andrew Wakefield led a fraudulent, litigation-funded study that suggested that the MMR vaccine may cause autism.[180][181][182][183][184]

Two versions of the vaccine causation hypothesis were that autism results from brain damage caused by either the MMR vaccine itself, or by mercury used as a vaccine preservative.[185] No convincing scientific evidence supports these claims.[17] They are biologically implausible,[179] and further evidence continues to refute them, including the observation that the rate of autism continues to climb despite elimination of thimerosal from most routine vaccines given to children from birth to 6 years of age.[186][187][188][189][190]

A 2014 meta-analysis examined ten major studies on autism and vaccines involving 1.25 million children worldwide; it concluded that neither the vaccine preservative thimerosal (mercury), nor the MMR vaccine, which has never contained thimerosal,[191] lead to the development of ASDs.[192] Despite this, misplaced parental concern has led to lower rates of childhood immunizations, outbreaks of previously controlled childhood diseases in some countries, and the preventable deaths of several children.[193][194]

Etiological hypotheses

Several hypotheses have been presented that try to explain how and why autism develops by integrating known causes (genetic and environmental effects) and findings (neurobiological and somatic). Some are more comprehensive, such as the Pathogenetic Triad, which proposes and operationalizes three core features (an autistic personality, cognitive compensation, neuropathological burden) that interact to cause autism,[195] and the Intense World Theory, which explains autism through a hyper-active neurobiology that leads to an increased perception, attention, memory, and emotionality.[196] There are also simpler hypotheses that explain only individual parts of the neurobiology or phenotype of autism, such as mind-blindness (a decreased ability for theory of mind), the weak central coherence theory, or the extreme male brain and empathising–systemising theory.

Evolutionary hypotheses

See also: Evolutionary psychology and Pleiotropy § Autism and schizophrenia

Research exploring the evolutionary benefits of autism and associated genes has suggested that autistic people may have played a "unique role in technological spheres and understanding of natural systems" in the course of human development.[197][198] It has been suggested that autism may have arisen as "a slight trade off for other traits that are seen as highly advantageous", providing "advantages in tool making and mechanical thinking", with speculation that the condition may "reveal itself to be the result of a balanced polymorphism, like sickle cell anemia, that is advantageous in a certain mixture of genes and disadvantageous in specific combinations".[199] In 2011, a paper in Evolutionary Psychology proposed that autistic traits, including increased spatial intelligence, concentration and memory, could have been naturally selected to enable self-sufficient foraging in a more (although not completely) solitary environment. This is called the "Solitary Forager Hypothesis".[200][201][202] A 2016 paper examines Asperger syndrome as "an alternative prosocial adaptive strategy" that may have developed as a result of the emergence of "collaborative morality" in the context of small-scale hunter-gathering, i.e., where "a positive social reputation for making a contribution to group wellbeing and survival" becomes more important than complex social understanding.[203]

Some multidisciplinary research suggests that recent human evolution may be a driving force in the rise of a number of medical conditions, including autism, in recent human populations. Studies in evolutionary medicine indicate that as cultural evolution outpaces biological evolution, disorders linked to bodily dysfunction increase in prevalence due to lack of contact with pathogens and negative environmental conditions that once widely affected ancestral populations. Because natural selection favors reproduction over health and longevity, the lack of this impetus to adapt to certain harmful circumstances creates a tendency for genes in descendant populations to over-express themselves, which may cause a wide array of maladies, ranging from mental disorders to autoimmune diseases.[204] Conversely, noting the failure to find specific alleles that reliably cause autism or rare mutations that account for more than 5% of the heritable variation in autism established by twin and adoption studies, research in evolutionary psychiatry has concluded that it is unlikely that there is selection pressure for autism when considering that, like schizophrenics, autistic people and their siblings tend to have fewer offspring on average than non-autistic people, and instead that autism is probably better explained as a by-product of adaptive traits caused by antagonistic pleiotropy and by genes that are retained due to a fitness landscape with an asymmetric distribution.[205][206]


Main articles: Mechanism of autism and Pathophysiology of autism


Main article: Diagnosis of autism

Conditions correlated or comorbid to autism

Main article: Conditions comorbid to autism spectrum disorders

Autism is correlated or comorbid with several personality traits/disorders.[135] Comorbidity may increase with age and may worsen the course of youth with ASDs and make intervention and treatment more difficult. Distinguishing between ASDs and other diagnoses can be challenging because the traits of ASDs often overlap with symptoms of other disorders, and the characteristics of ASDs make traditional diagnostic procedures difficult.[207][208]


Research indicates that autistic people are significantly more likely to be LGBT than the general population.[209] There is tentative evidence that gender dysphoria occurs more frequently in autistic people.[210][211] A 2021 anonymized online survey of 16- to 90-year-olds revealed that autistic males are more likely to identify as bisexual than their non-autistic peers, while autistic females are more likely to identify as homosexual than non-autistic females do.[212]

People on the autism spectrum are significantly more likely to be non-theistic than members of the general population.[213]



Main article: Autism therapies

See also: Autism-friendly

There is no treatment as such for autism,[247] and many sources advise that this is not an appropriate goal,[248][249] although treatment of co-occurring conditions remains an important goal.[250] There is no cure for autism as of 2024, nor can any of the known treatments significantly reduce brain mutations caused by autism, although those who require little to no support are more likely to experience a lessening of symptoms over time.[251][252][253] Several interventions can help children with autism,[254] and no single treatment is best, with treatment typically tailored to the child's needs.[255] Studies of interventions have methodological problems that prevent definitive conclusions about efficacy,[256] but the development of evidence-based interventions has advanced.[18]

The main goals of treatment are to lessen associated deficits and family distress, and to increase quality of life and functional independence. In general, higher IQs are correlated with greater responsiveness to treatment and improved treatment outcomes.[257][18] Behavioral, psychological, education, and/or skill-building interventions may be used to assist autistic people to learn life skills necessary for living independently,[258] as well as other social, communication, and language skills. Therapy also aims to reduce challenging behaviors and build upon strengths.[259]

Intensive, sustained special education programs and behavior therapy early in life may help children acquire self-care, language, and job skills.[255] Although evidence-based interventions for autistic children vary in their methods, many adopt a psychoeducational approach to enhancing cognitive, communication, and social skills while minimizing problem behaviors. While medications have not been found to help with core symptoms, they may be used for associated symptoms, such as irritability, inattention, or repetitive behavior patterns.[260]

Non-pharmacological interventions

Intensive, sustained special education or remedial education programs and behavior therapy early in life may help children acquire self-care, social, and job skills. Available approaches include applied behavior analysis, developmental models, structured teaching, speech and language therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy,[261] social skills therapy, and occupational therapy.[262] Among these approaches, interventions either treat autistic features comprehensively, or focus treatment on a specific area of deficit.[18] Generally, when educating those with autism, specific tactics may be used to effectively relay information to these people. Using as much social interaction as possible is key in targeting the inhibition autistic people experience concerning person-to-person contact. Additionally, research has shown that employing semantic groupings, which involves assigning words to typical conceptual categories, can be beneficial in fostering learning.[263]

There has been increasing attention to the development of evidence-based interventions for autistic young children. Three theoretical frameworks outlined for early childhood intervention include applied behavior analysis (ABA), the developmental social-pragmatic model (DSP) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).[261][18] Although ABA therapy has a strong evidence base, particularly in regard to early intensive home-based therapy, ABA's effectiveness may be limited by diagnostic severity and IQ of the person affected by ASD.[264] The Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology has published a paper deeming two early childhood interventions "well-established": individual comprehensive ABA, and focused teacher-implemented ABA combined with DSP.[18]

Many people, including autistic adults, have criticized ABA, calling it unhelpful, unethical, and even abuse.[8][265][266][267] Autistic scholar Nick Walker, who experienced ABA as a child, has said that, through ABA, autistic children are "abused, coerced, and traumatized into imitating the outward behavior of neurotypical children, at the expense of their long-term psychological well-being."[8] Sandoval-Norton et al. also discuss the "unintended but damaging consequences, such as prompt dependency, psychological abuse and compliance" that result in autistic people facing challenges as they transition into adulthood.[265] Some ABA advocates have responded to such critiques that, instead of stopping ABA, there should be movement to increase protections and ethical compliance when working with autistic children.[268]

Another evidence-based intervention that has demonstrated efficacy is a parent training model, which teaches parents how to implement various ABA and DSP techniques themselves.[18] Various DSP programs have been developed to explicitly deliver intervention systems through at-home parent implementation.

In October 2015, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) proposed new evidence-based recommendations for early interventions in ASD for children under 3.[269] These recommendations emphasize early involvement with both developmental and behavioral methods, support by and for parents and caregivers, and a focus on both the core and associated symptoms of ASD.[269] But a Cochrane review found no evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is effective in reducing behavioral problems associated with autism in most autistic children, though it did improve IQ and language skills.[270] The Cochrane review acknowledged that this may be due to the low quality of studies available on EIBI and therefore providers should recommend EIBI based on their clinical judgment and the family's preferences.[270] No adverse effects of EIBI treatment were found.[270] A meta-analysis in that same database indicates that due to the heterology in ASD, children progress to differing early intervention modalities based on ABA.[19]

ASD treatment generally focuses on behavioral and educational interventions to target its two core symptoms: social communication deficits and restricted, repetitive behaviors.[271] If symptoms continue after behavioral strategies have been implemented, some medications can be recommended to target specific symptoms or co-existing problems such as restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs), anxiety, depression, hyperactivity/inattention and sleep disturbance.[271] Melatonin, for example, can be used for sleep problems.[272]

Several parent-mediated behavioral therapies target social communication deficits in children with autism, but their efficacy in treating RRBs is uncertain.[273]


A young child points, in front of a woman who smiles and points in the same direction.
An autistic three-year-old points to fish in an aquarium, as part of an experiment on the effect of intensive shared-attention training on language development.[274]

Educational interventions often used include applied behavior analysis (ABA), developmental models, structured teaching, speech and language therapy and social skills therapy.[255] Among these approaches, interventions either treat autistic features comprehensively, or focalize treatment on a specific area of deficit.[18]

The quality of research for early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI)—a treatment procedure incorporating over 30 hours per week of the structured type of ABA that is carried out with very young children—is low; more vigorous research designs with larger sample sizes are needed.[270] Two theoretical frameworks outlined for early childhood intervention include structured and naturalistic ABA interventions, and developmental social pragmatic models (DSP).[18] One interventional strategy utilizes a parent training model, which teaches parents how to implement various ABA and DSP techniques, allowing for parents to disseminate interventions themselves.[18] Various DSP programs have been developed to explicitly deliver intervention systems through at-home parent implementation. Despite the recent development of parent training models, these interventions have demonstrated effectiveness in numerous studies, being evaluated as a probable efficacious mode of treatment.[18] Early, intensive ABA therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in enhancing communication and adaptive functioning in preschool children;[255][275] it is also well-established for improving the intellectual performance of that age group.[255]

In 2018, a Cochrane meta-analysis database concluded that some recent research is beginning to suggest that because of the heterology of ASD, there are two different ABA teaching approaches to acquiring spoken language: children with higher receptive language skills respond to 2.5 to 20 hours per week of the naturalistic approach, whereas children with lower receptive language skills require 25 hours per week of discrete trial training—the structured and intensive form of ABA.[19] A 2023 randomized control trial study of 168 participants showed similar findings.[20]

Similarly, a teacher-implemented intervention that utilizes a more naturalistic form of ABA combined with a developmental social pragmatic approach has been found to be beneficial in improving social-communication skills in young children, although there is less evidence in its treatment of global symptoms.[18] Neuropsychological reports are often poorly communicated to educators, resulting in a gap between what a report recommends and what education is provided.[276] The appropriateness of including children with varying severity of autism spectrum disorders in the general education population is a subject of current debate among educators and researchers.[277]

Pharmacological interventions

Medications may be used to treat ASD symptoms that interfere with integrating a child into home or school when behavioral treatment fails.[278] They may also be used for associated health problems, such as ADHD, anxiety, or if the person is hurting themself or aggressive with others,[278][279] but their routine prescription for ASD's core features is not recommended.[280] More than half of US children diagnosed with ASD are prescribed psychoactive drugs or anticonvulsants, with the most common drug classes being antidepressants, stimulants, and antipsychotics.[281][282] The atypical antipsychotic drugs risperidone and aripiprazole are FDA-approved for treating associated aggressive and self-injurious behaviors.[260][283] But their side effects must be weighed against their potential benefits, and autistic people may respond atypically.[260] Side effects may include weight gain, tiredness, drooling, and aggression.[260] Some emerging data show positive effects of aripiprazole and risperidone on restricted and repetitive behaviors (i.e., stimming; e.g., flapping, twisting, complex whole-body movements),[280] but due to the small sample size and different focus of these studies and the concerns about its side effects, antipsychotics are not recommended as primary treatment of RRBs.[284] SSRI antidepressants, such as fluoxetine and fluvoxamine, have been shown to be effective in reducing repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, while the stimulant medication methylphenidate is beneficial for some children with co-morbid inattentiveness or hyperactivity.[255] There is scant reliable research about the effectiveness or safety of drug treatments for adolescents and adults with ASD.[285] No known medication relieves autism's core symptoms of social and communication impairments.[260]

Alternative medicine

A multitude of alternative therapies have been researched and implemented, and many have resulted in harm to autistic people.[262] A 2020 systematic review on adults with autism provided evidence that mindfulness-based interventions may decrease stress, anxiety, ruminating thoughts, anger, and aggression and improve mental health.[286]

Although popularly used as an alternative treatment for autistic people, as of 2018 there is no good evidence to recommend a gluten- and casein-free diet as a standard treatment.[287][288][289] A 2018 review concluded that it may be a therapeutic option for specific groups of children with autism, such as those with known food intolerances or allergies, or with food intolerance markers. The authors analyzed the prospective trials conducted to date that studied the efficacy of the gluten- and casein-free diet in children with ASD (4 in total). All of them compared gluten- and casein-free diet versus normal diet with a control group (2 double-blind randomized controlled trials, 1 double-blind crossover trial, 1 single-blind trial). In two of the studies, whose duration was 12 and 24 months, a significant improvement in ASD symptoms (efficacy rate 50%) was identified. In the other two studies, whose duration was 3 months, no significant effect was observed.[287] The authors concluded that a longer duration of the diet may be necessary to achieve the improvement of the ASD symptoms.[287] Other problems documented in the trials carried out include transgressions of the diet, small sample size, the heterogeneity of the participants and the possibility of a placebo effect.[289][290][291] In the subset of people who have gluten sensitivity there is limited evidence that suggests that a gluten-free diet may improve some autistic behaviors.[292][293][294]

The preference that autistic children have for unconventional foods can lead to reduction in bone cortical thickness with this risk being greater in those on casein-free diets, as a consequence of the low intake of calcium and vitamin D; however, suboptimal bone development in ASD has also been associated with lack of exercise and gastrointestinal disorders.[295] In 2005, botched chelation therapy killed a five-year-old child with autism.[296][297] Chelation is not recommended for autistic people since the associated risks outweigh any potential benefits.[298] Another alternative medicine practice with no evidence is CEASE therapy, a pseudoscientific mixture of homeopathy, supplements, and "vaccine detoxing".[299]

Results of a systematic review on interventions to address health outcomes among autistic adults found emerging evidence to support mindfulness-based interventions for improving mental health. This includes decreasing stress, anxiety, ruminating thoughts, anger, and aggression.[300] An updated Cochrane review (2022) found evidence that music therapy likely improves social interactions, verbal communication, and nonverbal communication skills.[301] There has been early research on hyperbaric treatments in children with autism.[302] Studies on pet therapy have shown positive effects.[303]


While infection with rubella during pregnancy causes fewer than 1% of cases of autism,[304] vaccination against rubella can prevent many of those cases.[305]


Main article: Prognosis of autism

There is no evidence of a cure for autism.[255][135] The degree of symptoms can decrease, occasionally to the extent that people lose their diagnosis of ASD;[306][307] this occurs sometimes after intensive treatment[308] and sometimes not. It is not known how often this outcome happens,[309] with reported rates in unselected samples ranging from 3% to 25%.[306][307] Although core difficulties tend to persist, symptoms often become less severe with age.[140] Acquiring language before age six, having an IQ above 50, and having a marketable skill all predict better outcomes; independent living is unlikely in autistic people with higher support needs.[310]

The prognosis of autism describes the developmental course, gradual autism development, regressive autism development, differential outcomes, academic performance and employment.


Main article: Epidemiology of autism

Bar chart versus time. The graph rises steadily from 1996 to 2007, from about 0.7 to about 5.3. The trend curves slightly upward.
Reports of autism cases per 1,000 children rose considerably in the US from 1996 to 2007. It is unknown how much growth came from changes in rates of autism.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates about 1 in 100 children had autism during the period from 2012 to 2021 as that was the average estimate in studies published during that period with a trend of increasing prevalence over time. However, the study's 1% figure may reflect an underestimate of prevalence in low- and middle-income countries.[5][311] The number of people diagnosed has increased considerably since the 1990s, which may be partly due to increased recognition of the condition.[312]

While rates of ASD are consistent across cultures, they vary greatly by gender, with boys diagnosed far more frequently than girls: 1 in 70 boys, but only 1 in 315 girls at eight years of age.[313] Girls, however, are more likely to have associated cognitive impairment, suggesting that less severe forms of ASD are likely being missed in girls and women.[314] Prevalence differences may be a result of gender differences in expression of clinical symptoms, with women and girls with autism showing less atypical behaviors and, therefore, less likely to receive an ASD diagnosis.[315]

Using DSM-5 criteria, 92% of the children diagnosed per DSM-IV with one of the disorders which is now considered part of ASD will still meet the diagnostic criteria of ASD. However, if both ASD and the social (pragmatic) communication disorder categories of DSM-5 are combined, the prevalence of autism is mostly unchanged from the prevalence per the DSM-IV criteria. The best estimate for prevalence of ASD is 0.7% or 1 child in 143 children.[316] Relatively mild forms of autism, such as Asperger's as well as other developmental disorders, are included in the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.[317] ASD rates were constant between 2014 and 2016 but twice the rate compared to the time period between 2011 and 2014 (1.25 vs 2.47%). A Canadian meta-analysis from 2019 confirmed these effects as the profiles of autistic people became less and less different from the profiles of the general population.[318] In the US, the rates for diagnosed ASD have been steadily increasing since 2000 when records began being kept.[319] While it remains unclear whether this trend represents a true rise in incidence, it likely reflects changes in ASD diagnostic criteria, improved detection, and increased public awareness of autism.[320] In 2012, the NHS estimated that the overall prevalence of autism among adults aged 18 years and over in the UK was 1.1%.[321] A 2016 survey in the United States reported a rate of 25 per 1,000 children for ASD.[322] Rates of autism are poorly understood in many low- and middle-income countries, which affects the accuracy of global ASD prevalence estimates,[323] but it is thought that most autistic people live in low- and middle-income countries.[324]

In 2020, the Centers for Disease Control's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network reported that approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States (1 in 34 boys, and 1 in 144 girls) is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), based on data collected in 2016.[325][326] This estimate is a 10% increase from the 1 in 59 rate in 2014, a 105% increase from the 1 in 110 rate in 2006, and a 176% increase from the 1 in 150 rate in 2000.[325] Diagnostic criteria for ASD have changed significantly since the 1980s; for example, U.S. special-education autism classification was introduced in 1994.[174]

In the UK, from 1998 to 2018, the autism diagnoses increased by 787%.[312] This increase is largely attributable to changes in diagnostic practices, referral patterns, availability of services, age at diagnosis, and public awareness[327][328][329] (particularly among women),[312] though unidentified environmental risk factors cannot be ruled out.[330] The available evidence does not rule out the possibility that autism's true prevalence has increased;[327] a real increase would suggest directing more attention and funding toward psychosocial factors and changing environmental factors instead of continuing to focus on genetics.[331] It has been established that vaccination is not a risk factor for autism and is not a cause of any increase in autism prevalence rates, if any change in the rate of autism exists at all.[192]

Males have higher likelihood of being diagnosed with ASD than females. The sex ratio averages 4.3:1 and is greatly modified by cognitive impairment: it may be close to 2:1 with intellectual disability and more than 5.5:1 without.[174] Several theories about the higher prevalence in males have been investigated, but the cause of the difference is unconfirmed;[332] one theory is that females are underdiagnosed.[333]

The risk of developing autism is greater with older fathers than with older mothers; two potential explanations are the known increase in mutation burden in older sperm, and the hypothesis that men marry later if they carry genetic liability and show some signs of autism.[27] Most professionals believe that race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background do not affect the occurrence of autism.[334]


Main article: History of autism

Society and culture

Main article: Societal and cultural aspects of autism

An autistic culture has emerged, accompanied by the autistic rights and neurodiversity movements, that argues autism should be accepted as a difference to be accommodated instead of cured,[335][336][337][338][339] although a minority of autistic people might still accept a cure.[340] Worldwide, events related to autism include World Autism Awareness Day, Autism Sunday, Autistic Pride Day, Autreat, and others.[341][342][343][344]

Social-science scholars study those with autism in hopes to learn more about "autism as a culture, transcultural comparisons ... and research on social movements."[345] Many autistic people have been successful in their fields.[346]

Neurodiversity movement

Some autistic people, as well as a growing number of researchers,[7] have advocated a shift in attitudes toward the view that autism spectrum disorder is a difference, rather than a disease that must be treated or cured.[347][348] Critics have bemoaned the entrenchment of some of these groups' opinions.[349][350][351][352]

The neurodiversity movement and the autism rights movement are social movements within the context of disability rights, emphasizing the concept of neurodiversity, which describes the autism spectrum as a result of natural variations in the human brain rather than a disorder to be cured.[337][100] The autism rights movement advocates including greater acceptance of autistic behaviors; therapies that focus on coping skills rather than imitating the behaviors of those without autism;[353] and the recognition of the autistic community as a minority group.[353][354]

Autism rights or neurodiversity advocates believe that the autism spectrum is genetic and should be accepted as a natural variation in the human genome.[337] These movements are not without detractors; a common argument against neurodiversity activists is that most of them have relatively low support needs, or are self-diagnosed, and do not represent the views of autistic people with higher support needs.[354][355][356] Jacquiline den Houting explores this critique, determining that the voices of low-support needs autistics are "some of the most influential within the neurodiversity movement, although admittedly these voices are a minority within the advocacy community"; she suggests this is in part a shortcoming of the wider neurotypical community, referencing non-speaking self-advocate Amy Sequenzia's writing.[357][358][undue weight? ] Pier Jaarsma and Stellan Welin make the argument that only high-functioning autistic people should be included under the neurodiversity banner, as low-functioning autists' condition may rightfully be viewed as a disability.[359] The concept of neurodiversity is contentious in autism advocacy and research groups and has led to infighting.[360][361]

Symbols and flags

Over the years, multiple organizations have tried to capture the essence of autism in symbols. In 1963, the board for the National Autistic Society, led by Gerald Gasson, proposed the "puzzle piece" as a symbol for autism, because it fit their view of autism as a "puzzling condition".[362] In 1999, the Autism Society adopted the puzzle ribbon as the universal sign of autism awareness.[362] In 2004, neurodiversity advocates Amy and Gwen Nelson conjured the "rainbow infinity symbol". It was initially the logo for their website, Aspies for Freedom. Nowadays, the prismatic colors are often associated with the neurodiversity movement in general.[363] The autism spectrum has also been symbolized by the infinity symbol itself.[364] In 2018, Julian Morgan wrote the article "Light It Up Gold", a response to Autism Speaks's "Light It Up Blue" campaign, launched in 2007.[365][366] Aurum is Latin for gold,[363] and gold has been used to symbolize autism, since both words start with "Au". The flag implements a gradient to represent the Pride Movement and incorporates a golden infinity symbol as its focal point.[367] While flags are symbols of solidarity, they may trigger negative associations, such as apparent rivalry among two or more flags.[368] For this reason, flags are sought that can be tailored to the personal preferences of any neurotype.[369][370]


Families who care for an autistic child face added stress from a number of different causes.[371][372] Parents may struggle to understand the diagnosis and to find appropriate care options. They often take a negative view of the diagnosis, and may struggle emotionally.[373] More than half of parents over age 50 are still living with their child, as about 85% of autistic people have difficulties living independently.[374] Some studies also find decreased earnings among parents who care for autistic children.[375][376] Siblings of children with ASD report greater admiration and less conflict with the affected sibling than siblings of unaffected children, like siblings of children with Down syndrome. But they reported lower levels of closeness and intimacy than siblings of children with Down syndrome; siblings of autistic people have a greater risk of negative well-being and poorer sibling relationships as adults.[377]

See also


  1. ^ Autistic people prefer "traits" over "symptoms".[citation needed]


  1. ^ a b c d Bonati M, Cartabia M, Clavenna A (January 2022). "Still too much delay in recognition of autism spectrum disorder". Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences. 31 (e1). Cambridge University Press: e1. doi:10.1017/S2045796021000822. LCCN 2011243374. OCLC 727338545. PMC 8786613. PMID 35012703. S2CID 245851335.
  2. ^ Pezzimenti F, Han GT, Vasa RA, Gotham K (2019). "Depression in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 28 (3): 397–409. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2019.02.009. PMC 6512853. PMID 31076116.
  3. ^ "At the intersection of autism and trauma". Spectrum News. 26 September 2018. Archived from the original on 17 November 2022. Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  4. ^ "Autism's drug problem". Spectrum News. 19 April 2017. Archived from the original on 11 November 2022. Retrieved 11 November 2022.
  5. ^ a b Zeidan J, Fombonne E, Scorah J, Ibrahim A, Durkin MS, Saxena S, Yusuf A, Shih A, Elsabbagh M (15 May 2022). "Global prevalence of autism: A systematic review update". Autism Research. 15 (5): 778–790. doi:10.1002/aur.2696. ISSN 1939-3806. PMC 9310578. PMID 35238171.
  6. ^ "COVID-19 guide – Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC)". NHS England. National Health Service, United Kingdom. 7 June 2020. Archived from the original on 12 June 2023. Retrieved 12 June 2023. ASC is a 'spectrum condition' meaning that, while all people with autism share certain difficulties, their condition affects them in different ways.
  7. ^ a b Pellicano E, den Houting J (April 2022). "Annual Research Review: Shifting from 'normal science' to neurodiversity in autism science". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 63 (4): 381–396. doi:10.1111/jcpp.13534. eISSN 1469-7610. ISSN 0021-9630. OCLC 01307942. PMC 9298391. PMID 34730840. S2CID 241118562.
  8. ^ a b c Walker N (2021). Neuroqueer Heresies. Autonomous Press. ISBN 978-1-945955-26-6.
  9. ^ Bailin A (6 June 2019). "Clearing Up Some Misconceptions about Neurodiversity". Scientific American Blog Network. Nature America, Inc. Archived from the original on 29 June 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  10. ^ Robison JE (2020). "My Time with Autism Speaks". In Kapp SK (ed.). Autistic Community and the Neurodiversity Movement: Stories from the Frontline. Singapore: Springer. pp. 221–232. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-8437-0_16. ISBN 978-981-13-8437-0. S2CID 210496353.
  11. ^ Opar A (24 April 2019). "In search of truce in the autism wars". Spectrum. Simons Foundation. doi:10.53053/VRKL4748. S2CID 249140855. Archived from the original on 8 July 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  12. ^ Mandy W, Lai MC (March 2016). "Annual Research Review: The role of the environment in the developmental psychopathology of autism spectrum condition". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 57 (3): 271–292. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12501. eISSN 1469-7610. ISSN 0021-9630. OCLC 01307942. PMID 26782158.
  13. ^ Rosen NE, Lord C, Volkmar FR (December 2021). "The Diagnosis of Autism: From Kanner to DSM-III to DSM-5 and Beyond". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 51 (12): 4253–4270. doi:10.1007/s10803-021-04904-1. PMC 8531066. PMID 33624215.
  14. ^ Losh M, Adolphs R, Piven J (2011). "The Broad Autism Phenotype". Autism Spectrum Disorders. Oxford University Press. pp. 457–476. doi:10.1093/med/9780195371826.003.0031. ISBN 978-0-19-996521-2.
  15. ^ Chapman R, Veit W (November 2021). "Correction to: The essence of autism: fact or artefact?". Molecular Psychiatry. 26 (11): 7069. doi:10.1038/s41380-021-01057-6. PMID 34697454. S2CID 239771302.
  16. ^ Wazana A, Bresnahan M, Kline J (June 2007). "The autism epidemic: fact or artifact?". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 46 (6): 721–730. doi:10.1097/chi.0b013e31804a7f3b. PMID 17513984.
  17. ^ a b DeStefano F, Shimabukuro TT (September 2019). "The MMR Vaccine and Autism". Annual Review of Virology. 6 (1): 585–600. doi:10.1146/annurev-virology-092818-015515. PMC 6768751. PMID 30986133.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Smith T, Iadarola S (2015). "Evidence Base Update for Autism Spectrum Disorder". Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 44 (6). Taylor & Francis: 897–922. doi:10.1080/15374416.2015.1077448. ISSN 1537-4416. PMID 26430947.
  19. ^ a b c Brignell A, Chenausky KV, Song H, Zhu J, Suo C, Morgan AT (November 2018). "Communication interventions for autism spectrum disorder in minimally verbal children". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2018 (11): CD012324. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012324.pub2. PMC 6516977. PMID 30395694.
  20. ^ a b Kasari C, Shire S, Shih W, Landa R, Levato L, Smith T (June 2023). "Spoken language outcomes in limited language preschoolers with autism and global developmental delay: RCT of early intervention approaches". Autism Research. 16 (6): 1236–1246. doi:10.1002/aur.2932. PMC 10460274. PMID 37070270.
  21. ^ Yu Q, Li E, Li L, Liang W (May 2020). "Efficacy of Interventions Based on Applied Behavior Analysis for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis". Psychiatry Investigation. 17 (5): 432–443. doi:10.30773/pi.2019.0229. PMC 7265021. PMID 32375461.
  22. ^ Kirkham P (1 April 2017). "'The line between intervention and abuse' – autism and applied behaviour analysis". History of the Human Sciences. 30 (2): 107–126. doi:10.1177/0952695117702571. ISSN 0952-6951. S2CID 152017417.
  23. ^ "Medication Treatment for Autism". 19 April 2021. Archived from the original on 7 February 2023. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  24. ^ "Why Asperger's Syndrome is no longer listed in the DSM". Archived from the original on 26 December 2022. Retrieved 26 December 2022.
  25. ^ "Diagnostic Criteria | Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) | NCBDDD | CDC". 2 November 2022. Archived from the original on 16 August 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  26. ^ "ICD-11 for Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  27. ^ a b Geschwind DH (October 2008). "Autism: many genes, common pathways?". Cell. 135 (3): 391–395. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.10.016. PMC 2756410. PMID 18984147.
  28. ^ Happé F (1999). "Understanding assets and deficits in autism: why success is more interesting than failure" (PDF). Psychologist. 12 (11): 540–547. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2012.
  29. ^ Wing L (December 1997). "The autistic spectrum". The Lancet. 350 (9093): 1761–1766. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)09218-0. PMID 9413479. S2CID 7165992.
  30. ^ "Diagnostic criteria – a guide for all audiences". National Autistic Society. Archived from the original on 21 September 2023. Retrieved 1 December 2022.
  31. ^ a b Pickett D, Anderson RN (18 July 2018). Status on ICD-11: The WHO Launch (PDF) (Report). CDC/NCHS. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 March 2023. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  32. ^ "ICD vs. DSM". APA Monitor. Vol. 40, no. 9. American Psychological Association. 2009. p. 63. Archived from the original on 29 December 2022. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  33. ^ Mezzich JE (2002). "International surveys on the use of ICD-10 and related diagnostic systems". Psychopathology. 35 (2–3): 72–75. doi:10.1159/000065122. PMID 12145487. S2CID 35857872.
  34. ^ Goldberg D (January 2010). "The classification of mental disorder: a simpler system for DSM–V and ICD–11". Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. 16 (1): 14–19. doi:10.1192/apt.bp.109.007120.
  35. ^ Waterhouse L, Mottron L (2 May 2023). "Editorial: Is autism a biological entity?". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 14. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1180981. PMC 10185896. PMID 37200904.
  36. ^ a b c Sarovic D (16 November 2021). "A Unifying Theory for Autism: The Pathogenetic Triad as a Theoretical Framework". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 12. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.767075. PMC 8637925. PMID 34867553.
  37. ^ a b Chawner S (2 September 2022). "Autism: A model of neurodevelopmental diversity informed by genomics". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 13. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2022.981691. PMC 9479184. PMID 36117659.
  38. ^ "WHO releases new International Classification of Diseases (ICD 11)". World Health Organisation (Press Release). Archived from the original on 25 December 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  39. ^ ICD-11.
  40. ^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Arlington County: American Psychiatric Association, 18 May 2013, doi:10.1176/APPI.BOOKS.9780890425596, OCLC 830807378, OL 27587204M, Wikidata Q3064664
  41. ^ a b c d e DSM-5-TR.
  42. ^ DSM-5-TR, "Autism spectrum disorder encompasses disorders previously referred to as early infantile autism, childhood autism, Kanner's autism, high-functioning autism, atypical autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, childhood disintegrative disorder, and Asperger's disorder".
  43. ^ DSM-5-TR, "It may be helpful to note level of support needed for each of the two core psychopathological domains in Table 2 (e.g., 'requiring very substantial support for deficits in social communication and requiring substantial support for restricted, repetitive behaviors')".
  44. ^ Kulage KM, Smaldone AM, Cohn EG (August 2014). "How will DSM-5 affect autism diagnosis? A systematic literature review and meta-analysis". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 44 (8): 1918–1932. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2065-2. PMID 24531932. S2CID 18865395.
  45. ^ "DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria". U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  46. ^ "F84. Pervasive developmental disorders". ICD-10: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: Tenth Revision. World Health Organization. 2007. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
  47. ^ Loukusa S (2021). "Autism Spectrum Disorder". In Cummings L (ed.). Handbook of Pragmatic Language Disorders. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 45–78. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-74985-9_3. ISBN 978-3-030-74984-2. OCLC 1269056169. S2CID 239160368.
  48. ^ Pinel JP (2011). Biopsychology (8th ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson. p. 235. ISBN 978-0-205-03099-6. OCLC 1085798897.
  49. ^ Hollander E, Hagerman R, Fein D, eds. (2018). "Cognitive Assessment". Autism Spectrum Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9781615371921. ISBN 978-1-61537-192-1.
  50. ^ Autism spectrum disorder in adults: diagnosis and management, NICE, 14 June 2021, CG142, archived from the original on 2 September 2023, retrieved 24 October 2021
  51. ^ "About autism spectrum disorder (ASD)". Government of Canada. 18 January 2016. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  52. ^ "What are the signs and symptoms of ASD?". Government of Canada. 18 January 2016. Archived from the original on 1 June 2023. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  53. ^ National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (25 March 2020). "What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 21 September 2023. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  54. ^ Piven J, Palmer P, Jacobi D, Childress D, Arndt S (February 1997). "Broader autism phenotype: evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence autism families". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 154 (2): 185–190. doi:10.1176/ajp.154.2.185. PMID 9016266.
  55. ^ Frye RE (August 2018). "Social Skills Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Potential Biological Origins and Progress in Developing Therapeutic Agents". CNS Drugs. 32 (8): 713–734. doi:10.1007/s40263-018-0556-y. PMC 6105175. PMID 30105528.
  56. ^ a b c Crompton CJ (20 May 2020). "Autistic peer-to-peer information transfer is highly effective". Autism. 24 (7): 1704–1712. doi:10.1177/1362361320919286. PMC 7545656. PMID 32431157.
  57. ^ a b Heasman B, Alex G (2019). "Neurodivergent intersubjectivity: Distinctive features of how autistic people create shared understanding" (PDF). Autism. 23 (4): 910–921. doi:10.1177/1362361318785172. PMC 6512057. PMID 30073872. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 November 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  58. ^ DeBrabander KM, Morrison KE, Jones DR, Faso DJ, Chmielewski M, Sasson NJ (13 December 2019). "Do First Impressions of Autistic Adults Differ Between Autistic and Nonautistic Observers?". Autism in Adulthood. 1 (4): 250–257. doi:10.1089/aut.2019.0018. PMC 8992824. PMID 36601322.
  59. ^ "Basics About Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 31 March 2022. Archived from the original on 21 September 2023. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  60. ^ Grove R, Hoekstra RA, Wierda M, Begeer S (20 May 2020). "Special interests and subjective wellbeing in autistic adults". Autism Research. 11 (5): 766–775. doi:10.1002/aur.1931. hdl:1871.1/d5c70844-3d23-4e71-8c5d-82533196b003. PMID 29427546. S2CID 205456773. Archived from the original on 26 November 2023. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  61. ^ Murray D, Lesser M, Lawson W (May 2005). "Attention, monotropism and the diagnostic criteria for autism". Autism Research. 9 (2): 139–156. doi:10.1177/1362361305051398. PMID 15857859. S2CID 6476917.
  62. ^ Baron-Cohen S, Knickmeyer RC, Belmonte MK (4 November 2005). "Sex differences in the brain: implications for explaining autism" (PDF). Science. 310 (5749): 819–823. Bibcode:2005Sci...310..819B. doi:10.1126/science.1115455. PMID 16272115. S2CID 44330420. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 May 2017. Retrieved 10 September 2023.
  63. ^ Klin A, Volkmar FR, Sparrow SS (2000). "Introduction". In Klin A, Volkmar FR, Sparrow SS (eds.). Asperger syndrome. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 1–24. ISBN 1-57230-534-7.
  64. ^ Gernsbacher MA (6 August 2017). "Editorial Perspective: The use of person-first language in scholarly writing may accentuate stigma". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 58 (7): 859–861. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12706. PMC 5545113. PMID 28621486.
  65. ^ "DSM-5 Full Text Online". Archive.Today. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 10 January 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  66. ^ Hogeveen J, Grafman J (2021). "Alexithymia". Disorders of Emotion in Neurologic Disease. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 183. Elsevier. pp. 47–62. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-822290-4.00004-9. ISBN 978-0-12-822290-4. PMC 8456171. PMID 34389125.
  67. ^ Milton DE (October 2012). "On the ontological status of autism: the 'double empathy problem'". Disability & Society. 27 (6): 883–887. doi:10.1080/09687599.2012.710008. ISSN 0968-7599. S2CID 54047060. Archived from the original on 8 March 2023. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  68. ^ Milton D, Gurbuz E, López B (November 2022). "The 'double empathy problem': Ten years on". Autism. 26 (8): 1901–1903. doi:10.1177/13623613221129123. ISSN 1362-3613. PMID 36263746. S2CID 253020669. Archived from the original on 25 February 2023. Retrieved 25 February 2023.
  69. ^ Crompton CJ, Debrabander K, Heasman B, Milton D, Sasson NJ (2021). "Double Empathy: Why Autistic People Are Often Misunderstood". Frontiers for Young Minds. 9. doi:10.3389/frym.2021.554875. hdl:20.500.11820/94ee032a-6103-470a-bc06-08337dd6b512.
  70. ^ Sasson NJ, Faso DJ, Nugent J, Lovell S, Kennedy DP, Grossman RB (1 February 2017). "Neurotypical Peers are Less Willing to Interact with Those with Autism based on Thin Slice Judgments". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 40700. Bibcode:2017NatSR...740700S. doi:10.1038/srep40700. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5286449. PMID 28145411.
  71. ^ Hamilton AF (2009). "Goals, intentions and mental states: challenges for theories of autism". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 50 (8): 881–92. CiteSeerX doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02098.x. PMID 19508497.
  72. ^ a b c Mitchell P, Sheppard E, Cassidy S (4 January 2021). "Autism and the double empathy problem: Implications for development and mental health". British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 39 (1): 1–18, vi. doi:10.1111/bjdp.12350. PMID 33393101. S2CID 230489027.
  73. ^ Bothan M, Cage E (24 November 2022). ""Autism research is in crisis": A mixed method study of researcher's constructions of autistic people and autism research". Frontiers in Psychology. 13. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1050897. PMC 9730396. PMID 36506950.
  74. ^ a b Bal VH, Kim SH, Fok M, Lord C (12 August 2018). "Autism Spectrum Disorder symptoms from 2 to 19: Implications for diagnosing adolescents and young adults". Autism Research. 12 (1): 89–99. doi:10.1002/aur.2004. PMC 6600818. PMID 30101492.
  75. ^ a b "Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children". NIDCD. 18 August 2015. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  76. ^ a b Johnson CP, Myers SM (November 2007). "Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders". Pediatrics. 120 (5): 1183–1215. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2361. PMID 17967920. Archived from the original on 8 February 2009.
  77. ^ Tager-Flusberg H, Caronna E (June 2007). "Language disorders: autism and other pervasive developmental disorders". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 54 (3): 469–81, vi. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2007.02.011. PMID 17543905. S2CID 13615727.
  78. ^ National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (26 February 2015). "Signs & Symptoms: Autism Spectrum Disorder". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 10 March 2015. (Also available in Spanish.)
  79. ^ "Autism: Overview". American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  80. ^ Cohen D, Grandin T (25 October 2005). "Temple Grandin: 'I'm an anthropologist from Mars'". The Guardian. Kings Place, London: Scott Trust. eISSN 1756-3224. ISSN 0261-3077. OCLC 60623878. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  81. ^ a b Vicker B. "Social communication and language characteristics associated with high-functioning, verbal children and adults with autism spectrum disorder". Indiana Resource Center for Autism. Archived from the original on 14 December 2018. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  82. ^ a b Fusaroli R, Lambrechts A, Bang D, Bowler DM, Gaigg SB (March 2017). "Is voice a marker for Autism spectrum disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis" (PDF). Autism Research. 10 (3): 384–407. doi:10.1002/aur.1678. PMID 27501063. S2CID 13772771. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 March 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  83. ^ Lawson W (2001). Understanding and Working With the Spectrum of Autism: An Insider's View. London UK, & Philadelphia PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 33. ISBN 978-1-85302-971-4.
  84. ^ Finke E (16 May 2022). "The Kind of Friend I Think I Am: Perceptions of Autistic and Non‑autistic Young Adults". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 53 (8): 3047–3064. doi:10.1007/s10803-022-05573-4. PMID 35570241. S2CID 248812844. Archived from the original on 6 March 2024. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  85. ^ O'Connor RA, van den Bedem N, Blijd-Hoogewys EM, Stockmann L, Rieffe C (22 January 2022). "Friendship quality among autistic and non-autistic (pre-) adolescents: Protective or risk factor for mental health?". Autism. 26 (8): 2041–2051. doi:10.1177/13623613211073448. PMC 9597130. PMID 35068188.
  86. ^ van Roekel E, Scholte RH, Didden R (2010). "Bullying Among Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Perception". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 40 (1): 63–73. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2007.02.011. PMC 2809311. PMID 17543905. S2CID 13615727.
  87. ^ O'Connor RA, van den Bedem N, Blijd-Hoogewys EM, Stockmann L, Rieffe C (November 2022). "Sex differences in friendships and loneliness in autistic and non-autistic children across development". Molecular Autism. 4 (9): 9. doi:10.1186/s13229-023-00542-9. PMC 9960478. PMID 36829214.
  88. ^ Pearson A, Rose K (1 March 2021). "A Conceptual Analysis of Autistic Masking: Understanding the Narrative of Stigma and the Illusion of Choice". Autism in Adulthood. 3 (1): 52–60. doi:10.1089/aut.2020.0043. ISSN 2573-9581. PMC 8992880. PMID 36601266.
  89. ^ Petrolini V, Rodríguez-Armendariz E, Vicente A (2023). "Autistic camouflaging across the spectrum". New Ideas in Psychology. 68: 100992. doi:10.1016/j.newideapsych.2022.100992. hdl:10810/59712. S2CID 253316582.
  90. ^ "Engaging people on the autism spectrum". Autism Spectrum Australia. 7 October 2013. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020.
  91. ^ Holmes LG, Goebel RJ, Hollingue C, Zhu S, Zhang H, Shan W, Wang S, Caplan R, Sanchez A, Wharmby P, Chiang M, Person M, Rothman EF (2023). "Reductions in Depression and Anxiety Among Autistic Adults Participating in an Intervention to Promote Healthy Relationships". NLM. 77 (2). doi:10.5014/ajot.2023.050108. PMC 10137597. PMID 37040101.
  92. ^ Hinerman PS (1983). Teaching Autistic Children to Communicate. Rockville, Maryland: Aspens System Corporation. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-89443-884-4.
  93. ^ a b c d Lord C, Elsabbagh M, Baird G, Veenstra-Vanderweele J (August 2018). "Autism spectrum disorder". The Lancet. 392 (10146): 508–520. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31129-2. PMC 7398158. PMID 30078460. S2CID 51922565.
  94. ^ a b c Augustyn M. "Autism spectrum disorder: Clinical features". UpToDate. Archived from the original on 7 November 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  95. ^ DSM-5-TR, "Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment (e.g., apparent indifference to pain/temperature, adverse response to specific sounds or textures, excessive smelling or touching of objects, visual fascination with lights or movement)".
  96. ^ a b Lam KS, Aman MG (May 2007). "The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation in individuals with autism spectrum disorders". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 37 (5): 855–866. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0213-z. PMID 17048092. S2CID 41034513.
  97. ^ a b Minshawi NF, Hurwitz S, Fodstad JC, Biebl S, Morriss DH, McDougle CJ (April 2014). "The association between self-injurious behaviors and autism spectrum disorders". Psychology Research and Behavior Management. 7: 125–36. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S44635. PMC 3990505. PMID 24748827.
  98. ^ a b c d Oliver C, Richards C (October 2015). "Practitioner Review: Self-injurious behaviour in children with developmental delay" (PDF). Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Review). 56 (10): 1042–54. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12425. PMID 25916173. S2CID 206034400. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 August 2023. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  99. ^ Flowers J, Lantz J, Hamlin T, Simeonsson RJ (August 2020). "Associated Factors of Self-injury Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Community and Residential Treatment Setting". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 50 (8): 2987–3004. doi:10.1007/s10803-020-04389-4. PMID 32056114. S2CID 211111895.
  100. ^ a b Hill A (31 July 2023). "Autism could be seen as part of personality for some diagnosed, experts say". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 August 2023. Retrieved 1 August 2023.
  101. ^ Arnold SR, Higgins JM, Weise J, Desai A, Pellicano E, Trollor JN (10 October 2023). "Confirming the nature of autistic burnout". Autism. 27 (7): 1906–1918. doi:10.1177/13623613221147410. PMID 36637293 – via CrossRef.
  102. ^ Mantzalas J, Richdale AL, Adikari A, Lowe J, Dissanayake C (1 March 2022). "What Is Autistic Burnout? A Thematic Analysis of Posts on Two Online Platforms". Autism in Adulthood. 4 (1): 52–65. doi:10.1089/aut.2021.0021. PMC 8992925. PMID 36605565.
  103. ^ Raymaker DM, Teo AR, Steckler NA, Lentz B, Scharer M, Delos Santos A, Kapp SK, Hunter M, Joyce A, Nicolaidis C (1 June 2020). ""Having All of Your Internal Resources Exhausted Beyond Measure and Being Left with No Clean-Up Crew": Defining Autistic Burnout". Autism in Adulthood: Challenges and Management. 2 (2): 132–143. doi:10.1089/aut.2019.0079. PMC 7313636. PMID 32851204.
  104. ^ "Autistic Burnout: Causes and Prevention Tips". 13 September 2022.
  105. ^ a b Filipek PA, Accardo PJ, Baranek GT, Cook EH, Dawson G, Gordon B, et al. (December 1999). "The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 29 (6): 439–484. doi:10.1023/A:1021943802493. PMID 10638459. S2CID 145113684. This paper represents a consensus of representatives from nine professional and four parent organizations in the US.
  106. ^ Treffert DA (May 2009). "The savant syndrome: an extraordinary condition. A synopsis: past, present, future". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 364 (1522): 1351–1357. doi:10.1098/rstb.2008.0326. PMC 2677584. PMID 19528017.
  107. ^ Zhang Y, Han VZ (April 2018). "[Neurobiological mechanisms of autistic savant and acquired savant]" [Neurobiological mechanisms of autistic savant and acquired savant]. Sheng Li Xue Bao (in Chinese). 70 (2): 201–210. PMID 29691585.
  108. ^ Hughes JE, Ward J, Gruffydd E, Baron-Cohen S, Smith P, Allison C, Simner J (October 2018). "Savant syndrome has a distinct psychological profile in autism". Molecular Autism. 9: 53. doi:10.1186/s13229-018-0237-1. PMC 6186137. PMID 30344992.
  109. ^ Plaisted Grant K, Davis G (May 2009). "Perception and apperception in autism: rejecting the inverse assumption". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 364 (1522): 1393–1398. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0001. PMC 2677593. PMID 19528022.
  110. ^ a b Geschwind DH (2009). "Advances in autism". Annual Review of Medicine. 60: 367–380. doi:10.1146/ PMC 3645857. PMID 19630577.
  111. ^ Happé F, Frith U (August 1996). "The neuropsychology of autism". Brain. 119 (4). Oxford University Press: 1377–1400. doi:10.1093/brain/119.4.1377. PMID 8813299.
  112. ^ Ben-Sasson A, Hen L, Fluss R, Cermak SA, Engel-Yeger B, Gal E (January 2009). "A meta-analysis of sensory modulation symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 39 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1007/s10803-008-0593-3. PMID 18512135. S2CID 5208889.
  113. ^ Gargot T, Archambault D, Chetouani M, Cohen D, Johal W, Anzalone SM (10 January 2022). "Automatic Assessment of Motor Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review" (PDF). Cognitive Computation. 14 (2): 624–659. doi:10.1007/s12559-021-09940-8. ISSN 1866-9964. S2CID 248326222. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2022. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  114. ^ Fournier KA, Hass CJ, Naik SK, Lodha N, Cauraugh JH (October 2010). "Motor coordination in autism spectrum disorders: a synthesis and meta-analysis". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 40 (10): 1227–1240. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-0981-3. PMID 20195737. S2CID 3469612.
  115. ^ Wang LA, Petrulla V, Zampella CJ, Waller R, Schultz RT (2022). "Gross motor impairment and its relation to social skills in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and two meta-analyses". Psychological Bulletin. 148 (3–4): 273–300. doi:10.1037/bul0000358. ISSN 1939-1455. PMC 9894569. PMID 35511567.
  116. ^ Dominick KC, Davis NO, Lainhart J, Tager-Flusberg H, Folstein S (2007). "Atypical behaviors in children with autism and children with a history of language impairment". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 28 (2). Elsevier: 145–162. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2006.02.003. eISSN 1873-3379. ISSN 0891-4222. PMID 16581226.
  117. ^ Stiller A, Mößle T (2018). "Media Use Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a Systematic Review". Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 5 (3). Springer: 227–246. doi:10.1007/s40489-018-0135-7. S2CID 256395870.
  118. ^ Slobodin O, Heffler KF, Davidovitch M (2019). "Screen Media and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review". Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 40 (4). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 303–311. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000654. PMID 30908423. S2CID 85516383.
  119. ^ Craig F, Tenuta F, De Giacomo A, Trabacca A, Costabile A (2021). "A systematic review of problematic video-game use in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders". Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 82. Elsevier: 101726. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2021.101726. S2CID 233601150.
  120. ^ Murray A, Koronczai B, Király O, Griffiths MD, Mannion A, Leader G, Demetrovics Z (2021). "Autism, Problematic Internet Use and Gaming Disorder: A Systematic Review". Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 9. Springer: 120–140. doi:10.1007/s40489-021-00243-0. hdl:10379/16762.
  121. ^ Coutelle R, Weiner L, Paasche C, Pottelette J, Bertschy G, Schröder CM, Lalanne L (2022). "Autism Spectrum Disorder and Video Games: Restricted Interests or Addiction?". International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 20 (4). Springer: 2243–2264. doi:10.1007/s11469-021-00511-4. S2CID 232145871.
  122. ^ Normand CL, Fisher MH, Simonato I, Fecteau SM, Poulin MH (2021). "A Systematic Review of Problematic Internet Use in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder". Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 9 (4). Springer: 507–520. doi:10.1007/s40489-021-00270-x. S2CID 236314346.
  123. ^ Sarfraz S, Shlaghya G, Narayana SH, Mushtaq U, Ameen BS, Nie C, Nechi D, Mazhar IJ, Yasir M, Franchini AP (2023). "Early Screen-Time Exposure and Its Association With Risk of Developing Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review". Cureus. 15 (7). Springer Nature: e42292. doi:10.7759/cureus.42292. PMC 10442849. PMID 37614255.
  124. ^ Ophir Y, Rosenberg H, Tikochinski R, Dalyot S, Lipshits-Braziler Y (2023). "Screen Time and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". JAMA Network Open. 6 (12). American Medical Association: e2346775. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.46775. PMC 10709772. PMID 38064216.
  125. ^ Matson JL, Sturmey P, eds. (2022). Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorder: assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Autism and Child Psychopathology Series. Cham: Springer Nature. p. 18. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-88538-0. ISBN 978-3-030-88538-0. OCLC 1341298051. S2CID 251520573. To date no one genetic feature or environmental cause has proven etiological in explaining most cases autism or has been able to account for rising rates of autism.
  126. ^ Sauer AK, Stanton JE, Hans S, Grabrucker AM (2021). "Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology and Pathology". Written at Brisbane, Australia. In Grabrucker AM (ed.). Autism spectrum disorders. Andreas M. Grabrucker. Brisbane: Exon Publications (published 20 August 2021). pp. 1–16. doi:10.36255/exonpublications.autismspectrumdisorders.2021.etiology. ISBN 978-0-6450017-8-5. OCLC 1280592589. PMID 34495611. The cause of ASD is unknown, but several genetic and non-genetic risk factors have been characterized that, alone or in combination, are implicated in the development of ASD.
  127. ^ Kałużna-Czaplińska J, Żurawicz E, Jóźwik-Pruska J (2018). "Focus on the Social Aspect of Autism". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 48 (5). Springer Nature (published 29 November 2017): 1861–1867. doi:10.1007/s10803-017-3407-7. ISSN 1573-3432. PMC 5889772. PMID 29188587. Despite extensive ASD research lasting more than 60 years, its causes are still unknown.
  128. ^ Medavarapu S, Marella LL, Sangem A, Kairam R (2019). "Where is the Evidence? A Narrative Literature Review of the Treatment Modalities for Autism Spectrum Disorders". Cureus. 11 (1). Springer Nature (published 16 January 2019): e3901. doi:10.7759/cureus.3901. ISSN 2168-8184. PMC 6424545. PMID 30911457. It is important to realize that the etiology of autism is unknown and at present, there is no cure, although there are interventions that may be effective in alleviating some symptoms and improving skills that may help autistic persons lead more productive lives.
  129. ^ a b Happé F, Ronald A (December 2008). "The 'fractionable autism triad': a review of evidence from behavioural, genetic, cognitive and neural research". Neuropsychology Review. 18 (4): 287–304. doi:10.1007/s11065-008-9076-8. PMID 18956240. S2CID 13928876.
  130. ^ a b Happé F, Ronald A, Plomin R (October 2006). "Time to give up on a single explanation for autism". Nature Neuroscience. 9 (10): 1218–1220. doi:10.1038/nn1770. PMID 17001340.
  131. ^ Tager-Flusberg H (2010). "The origins of social impairments in autism spectrum disorder: studies of infants at risk". Neural Networks. 23 (8–9): 1072–6. doi:10.1016/j.neunet.2010.07.008. PMC 2956843. PMID 20800990.
  132. ^ Altevogt BM, Hanson SL, Leshner AI (June 2008). "Autism and the environment: challenges and opportunities for research". Pediatrics. 121 (6): 1225–1229. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3000. PMID 18519493. S2CID 24595814. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010.
  133. ^ Reiss AL (January 2009). "Childhood developmental disorders: an academic and clinical convergence point for psychiatry, neurology, psychology and pediatrics". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 50 (1–2): 87–98. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02046.x. eISSN 1469-7610. ISSN 0021-9630. OCLC 01307942. PMC 5756732. PMID 19220592.
  134. ^ Piggot J, Shirinyan D, Shemmassian S, Vazirian S, Alarcón M (November 2009). "Neural systems approaches to the neurogenetics of autism spectrum disorders". Neuroscience. 164 (1): 247–256. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.05.054. PMID 19482063. S2CID 207246176.
  135. ^ a b c Levy SE, Mandell DS, Schultz RT (November 2009). "Autism". The Lancet. 374 (9701): 1627–1638. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61376-3. PMC 2863325. PMID 19819542. (Erratum: doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61666-8,  [1])
  136. ^ Stephan DA (January 2008). "Unraveling autism". American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (1): 7–9. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.12.003. PMC 2253980. PMID 18179879.
  137. ^ Brown EA, Lautz JD, Davis TR, Gniffke EP, VanSchoiack AA, Neier SC, et al. (2018). "Clustering the autisms using glutamate synapse protein interaction networks from cortical and hippocampal tissue of seven mouse models". Molecular Autism. 9 (48): 48. doi:10.1186/s13229-018-0229-1. PMC 6139139. PMID 30237867.
  138. ^ a b c Abrahams BS, Geschwind DH (May 2008). "Advances in autism genetics: on the threshold of a new neurobiology". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 9 (5): 341–355. doi:10.1038/nrg2346. PMC 2756414. PMID 18414403.
  139. ^ Buxbaum JD (2009). "Multiple rare variants in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 11 (1): 35–43. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2009.11.1/jdbuxbaum. PMC 3181906. PMID 19432386.
  140. ^ a b Rapin I, Tuchman RF (October 2008). "Autism: definition, neurobiology, screening, diagnosis". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 55 (5): 1129–46, viii. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2008.07.005. PMID 18929056.
  141. ^ Sanders SJ, He X, Willsey AJ, Ercan-Sencicek AG, Samocha KE, Cicek AE, et al. (September 2015). "Insights into Autism Spectrum Disorder Genomic Architecture and Biology from 71 Risk Loci". Neuron. 87 (6): 1215–1233. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2015.09.016. PMC 4624267. PMID 26402605.
  142. ^ Persico AM, Napolioni V (August 2013). "Autism genetics". Behavioural Brain Research. 251: 95–112. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.06.012. PMID 23769996. S2CID 15721666.
  143. ^ Cook EH, Scherer SW (October 2008). "Copy-number variations associated with neuropsychiatric conditions". Nature. 455 (7215): 919–923. Bibcode:2008Natur.455..919C. doi:10.1038/nature07458. PMID 18923514. S2CID 4377899.
  144. ^ Brandler WM, Antaki D, Gujral M, Noor A, Rosanio G, Chapman TR, et al. (April 2016). "Frequency and Complexity of De Novo Structural Mutation in Autism". American Journal of Human Genetics. 98 (4): 667–679. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.02.018. PMC 4833290. PMID 27018473.
  145. ^ Beaudet AL (May 2007). "Autism: highly heritable but not inherited". Nature Medicine. 13 (5): 534–536. doi:10.1038/nm0507-534. PMID 17479094. S2CID 11673879.
  146. ^ a b c Nishiyama M, Oshikawa K, Tsukada Y, Nakagawa T, Iemura S, Natsume T, et al. (February 2009). "CHD8 suppresses p53-mediated apoptosis through histone H1 recruitment during early embryogenesis". Nature Cell Biology. 11 (2): 172–182. doi:10.1038/ncb1831. PMC 3132516. PMID 19151705.
  147. ^ a b Ronan JL, Wu W, Crabtree GR (May 2013). "From neural development to cognition: unexpected roles for chromatin". Nature Reviews Genetics. 14 (5): 347–359. doi:10.1038/nrg3413. PMC 4010428. PMID 23568486.
  148. ^ a b Thompson BA, Tremblay V, Lin G, Bochar DA (June 2008). "CHD8 is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factor that regulates beta-catenin target genes". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 28 (12): 3894–3904. doi:10.1128/mcb.00322-08. PMC 2423111. PMID 18378692.
  149. ^ Sugathan A, Biagioli M, Golzio C, Erdin S, Blumenthal I, Manavalan P, et al. (October 2014). "CHD8 regulates neurodevelopmental pathways associated with autism spectrum disorder in neural progenitors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111 (42): E4468–E4477. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111E4468S. doi:10.1073/pnas.1405266111. PMC 4210312. PMID 25294932.
  150. ^ Cotney J, Muhle RA, Sanders SJ, Liu L, Willsey AJ, Niu W, et al. (March 2015). "The autism-associated chromatin modifier CHD8 regulates other autism risk genes during human neurodevelopment". Nature Communications. 6 (1): 6404. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6.6404C. doi:10.1038/ncomms7404. PMC 4355952. PMID 25752243.
  151. ^ Wilkinson B, Grepo N, Thompson BL, Kim J, Wang K, Evgrafov OV, et al. (May 2015). "The autism-associated gene chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 8 (CHD8) regulates noncoding RNAs and autism-related genes". Translational Psychiatry. 5 (5): e568. doi:10.1038/tp.2015.62. PMC 4471293. PMID 25989142.
  152. ^ Cerase A, Young AN, Ruiz NB, Buness A, Sant GM, Arnold M, et al. (April 2021). "Chd8 regulates X chromosome inactivation in mouse through fine-tuning control of Xist expression". Communications Biology. 4 (1): 485. doi:10.1038/s42003-021-01945-1. PMC 8050208. PMID 33859315.
  153. ^ Crespi BJ (30 June 2016). "Autism As a Disorder of High Intelligence". Frontiers in Neuroscience. 10: 300. doi:10.3389/fnins.2016.00300. PMC 4927579. PMID 27445671.
  154. ^ Baron-Cohen S (10 November 2020). The pattern seekers: how autism drives human invention. Basic Books. ISBN 978-1-5416-4713-8. OCLC 1204602315.
  155. ^ Chen JA, Peñagarikano O, Belgard TG, Swarup V, Geschwind DH (2015). "The emerging picture of autism spectrum disorder: genetics and pathology". Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease (Review). 10: 111–44. doi:10.1146/annurev-pathol-012414-040405. PMID 25621659.
  156. ^ Werling DM, Brand H, An JY, Stone MR, Zhu L, Glessner JT, et al. (April 2018). "An analytical framework for whole-genome sequence association studies and its implications for autism spectrum disorder". Nature Genetics. 50 (5): 727–736. doi:10.1038/s41588-018-0107-y. PMC 5961723. PMID 29700473.
  157. ^ Devlin H (14 September 2018). "Thousands of autistic girls and women 'going undiagnosed' due to gender bias". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  158. ^ Crespi B, Badcock C (June 2008). "Psychosis and autism as diametrical disorders of the social brain" (PDF). The Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 31 (3): 241–61, discussion 261–320. doi:10.1017/S0140525X08004214. PMID 18578904. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 April 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  159. ^ Crespi B, Stead P, Elliot M (January 2010). "Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Comparative genomics of autism and schizophrenia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (Suppl 1): 1736–1741. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.1736C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0906080106. PMC 2868282. PMID 19955444.
  160. ^ Baron-Cohen S, Knickmeyer RC, Belmonte MK (November 2005). "Sex differences in the brain: implications for explaining autism" (PDF). Science. 310 (5749): 819–823. Bibcode:2005Sci...310..819B. doi:10.1126/science.1115455. PMID 16272115. S2CID 44330420. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  161. ^ Sandin S, Hultman CM, Kolevzon A, Gross R, MacCabe JH, Reichenberg A (2012). "Advancing Maternal Age Is Associated With Increasing Risk for Autism: A Review and Meta-Analysis". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 51 (5). Elsevier: 477–486.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2012.02.018. PMID 22525954.
  162. ^ de Kluiver H, Buizer-Voskamp JE, Dolan CV, Boomsma DI (2017). "Paternal age and psychiatric disorders: A review". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 174 (3). Wiley-Blackwell: 202–213. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.32508. PMC 5412832. PMID 27770494.
  163. ^ Wang C, Geng H, Liu W, Zhang G (2017). "Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal factors associated with autism: A meta-analysis". Medicine. 96 (18). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: e6696. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000006696. PMC 5419910. PMID 28471964.
  164. ^ Gardener H, Spiegelman D, Buka SL (August 2011). "Perinatal and neonatal risk factors for autism: a comprehensive meta-analysis". Pediatrics. 128 (2): 344–55. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-1036. PMC 3387855. PMID 21746727.
  165. ^ a b Gardener H, Spiegelman D, Buka SL (July 2009). "Prenatal risk factors for autism: comprehensive meta-analysis". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 195 (1): 7–14. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.051672. PMC 3712619. PMID 19567888.
  166. ^ Stefanatos GA (December 2008). "Regression in autistic spectrum disorders". Neuropsychology Review. 18 (4): 305–319. doi:10.1007/s11065-008-9073-y. PMID 18956241. S2CID 34658024.
  167. ^ Vohr BR, Poggi Davis E, Wanke CA, Krebs NF (April 2017). "Neurodevelopment: The Impact of Nutrition and Inflammation During Preconception and Pregnancy in Low-Resource Settings". Pediatrics (Review). 139 (Suppl 1): S38–S49. doi:10.1542/peds.2016-2828F. PMID 28562247. S2CID 28637473.
  168. ^ Samsam M, Ahangari R, Naser SA (August 2014). "Pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders: revisiting gastrointestinal involvement and immune imbalance". World Journal of Gastroenterology (Review). 20 (29): 9942–9951. doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i29.9942. PMC 4123375. PMID 25110424.
  169. ^ Jiang Hy, Xu Ll, Shao L, Xia Rm, Yu Zh, Ling Zx, Yang F, Deng M, Ruan B (2016). "Maternal infection during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 58. Elsevier: 165–172. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2016.06.005. PMID 27287966.
  170. ^ Lee E, Cho J, Kim KY (2019). "The Association between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Pre- and Postnatal Antibiotic Exposure in Childhood—A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (20). MDPI: 4042. doi:10.3390/ijerph16204042. PMC 6843945. PMID 31652518.
  171. ^ Jenabi E, Farashi S, Salehi AM, Parsapoor H (2023). "The association between post-term births and autism spectrum disorders: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis". European Journal of Medical Research. 28 (1). BioMed Central: 316. doi:10.1186/s40001-023-01304-2. PMC 10474756. PMID 37660041.
  172. ^ Lyall K, Schmidt RJ, Hertz-Picciotto I (April 2014). "Maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders". International Journal of Epidemiology. 43 (2): 443–464. doi:10.1093/ije/dyt282. PMC 3997376. PMID 24518932.
  173. ^ Lam J, Sutton P, Kalkbrenner A, Windham G, Halladay A, Koustas E, et al. (2016). "A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Multiple Airborne Pollutants and Autism Spectrum Disorder". PLOS ONE. 11 (9): e0161851. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1161851L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161851. PMC 5031428. PMID 27653281.
  174. ^ a b c Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J, Giarelli E, Grether JK, Levy SE, et al. (2007). "The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders". Annual Review of Public Health. 28: 235–58. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144007. PMID 17367287.
  175. ^ Kinney DK, Munir KM, Crowley DJ, Miller AM (October 2008). "Prenatal stress and risk for autism". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 32 (8): 1519–1532. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2008.06.004. PMC 2632594. PMID 18598714.
  176. ^ Hussain A, Ali S, Ahmed M, Hussain S (July 2018). "The Anti-vaccination Movement: A Regression in Modern Medicine". Cureus. 10 (7): e2919. doi:10.7759/cureus.2919. PMC 6122668. PMID 30186724.
  177. ^ Spencer JP, Trondsen Pawlowski RH, Thomas S (June 2017). "Vaccine Adverse Events: Separating Myth from Reality". American Family Physician. 95 (12): 786–794. PMID 28671426.
  178. ^ Di Pietrantonj C, Rivetti A, Marchione P, Debalini MG, Demicheli V (November 2021). "Vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in children". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021 (11): CD004407. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004407.pub5. PMC 8607336. PMID 34806766.
  179. ^ a b Gerber JS, Offit PA (February 2009). "Vaccines and autism: a tale of shifting hypotheses". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 48 (4): 456–461. doi:10.1086/596476. PMC 2908388. PMID 19128068.
  180. ^ Deer B (8 February 2009). "MMR doctor Andrew Wakefield fixed data on autism". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  181. ^ Boseley S (2 February 2010). "Lancet retracts 'utterly false' MMR paper". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 January 2021. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  182. ^ Stratton K, Ford A, Rusch E, Clayton EW, eds. (August 2011). "Influenza Vaccine". Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality. Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Medicine/National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/13164. ISBN 978-0-309-21435-3. PMID 24624471. Archived from the original on 27 August 2021. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  183. ^ Flaherty DK (October 2011). "The vaccine-autism connection: a public health crisis caused by unethical medical practices and fraudulent science". The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 45 (10): 1302–1304. doi:10.1345/aph.1Q318. PMID 21917556. S2CID 39479569.
  184. ^ Godlee F, Smith J, Marcovitch H (January 2011). "Wakefield's article linking MMR vaccine and autism was fraudulent". British Medical Journal. 342: c7452. doi:10.1136/bmj.c7452. PMID 21209060. S2CID 43640126.
  185. ^ Tan M, Parkin JE (November 2000). "Route of decomposition of thiomersal (thimerosal)". International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 208 (1–2): 23–34. doi:10.1016/S0378-5173(00)00514-7. PMID 11064208.
  186. ^ "Understanding Vaccines, Mercury and Thimerosal". Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 6 May 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  187. ^ Dona A (2006). "Immunizations and Autism: A Review of the Literature" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 33 (4): 341–346. doi:10.1017/S031716710000528X. PMID 17168158. S2CID 4670282. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  188. ^ "Thimerosal questions and answers". US FDA. 18 February 2021. Archived from the original on 18 April 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  189. ^ Waterhouse L (December 2008). "Autism overflows: increasing prevalence and proliferating theories". Neuropsychology Review. 18 (4): 273–286. doi:10.1007/s11065-008-9074-x. PMID 19015994. S2CID 8863638.
  190. ^ "87% of Flu Vaccine Doses have Reduced or "no" (only trace amounts of) Thimerosal". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 16 September 2022. Archived from the original on 7 July 2023. Retrieved 6 July 2023.
  191. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Thimerosal". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  192. ^ a b Taylor LE, Swerdfeger AL, Eslick GD (June 2014). "Vaccines are not associated with autism: an evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies". Vaccine. 32 (29): 3623–3629. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. PMID 24814559.
  193. ^ Vaccines and autism:
  194. ^ McBrien J, Murphy J, Gill D, Cronin M, O'Donovan C, Cafferkey MT (July 2003). "Measles outbreak in Dublin, 2000". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 22 (7): 580–584. doi:10.1097/00006454-200307000-00002. PMID 12867830.
  195. ^ Sarovic D (November 2021). "A Unifying Theory for Autism: The Pathogenetic Triad as a Theoretical Framework". Frontiers in Psychiatry (Review). 12: 767075. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.767075. PMC 8637925. PMID 34867553. S2CID 244119594.
  196. ^ Markram K, Markram H (21 December 2010). "The intense world theory - a unifying theory of the neurobiology of autism". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (Review). 4: 224. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2010.00224. PMC 3010743. PMID 21191475. The proposed neuropathology is hyper-functioning of local neural microcircuits, best characterized by hyper-reactivity and hyper-plasticity. Such hyper-functional microcircuits are speculated to become autonomous and memory trapped leading to the core cognitive consequences of hyper-perception, hyper-attention, hyper-memory and hyper-emotionality. The theory is centered on the neocortex and the amygdala, but could potentially be applied to all brain regions. (...) This may lead to obsessively detailed information processing of fragments of the world and an involuntarily and systematic decoupling of the autist from what becomes a painfully intense world.
  197. ^ Spikins P (27 March 2017). "How our autistic ancestors played an important role in human evolution". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  198. ^ Spikins P (6 March 2013). "The Stone Age Origins of Autism". In Fitzgerald M (ed.). Recent Advances in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Vol. II.
  199. ^ Lomelin DE (2010). "An Examination of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Relation to Human Evolution and Life History Theory". Nebraska Anthropologist. 57. Archived from the original on 9 May 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  200. ^ Reser JE (May 2011). "Conceptualizing the autism spectrum in terms of natural selection and behavioral ecology: the solitary forager hypothesis". Evolutionary Psychology. 9 (2): 207–238. doi:10.1177/147470491100900209. PMC 10480880. PMID 22947969. S2CID 25378900.
  201. ^ "Autism may have had advantages in humans' hunter-gatherer past, researcher believes". ScienceDaily. University of Southern California. 3 June 2011. Archived from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  202. ^ Rudacille D (8 July 2011). "Lonely hunters". Spectrum News. Archived from the original on 16 August 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  203. ^ Spikins P, Wright B, Hodgson D (1 October 2016). "Are there alternative adaptive strategies to human pro-sociality? The role of collaborative morality in the emergence of personality variation and autistic traits". Time and Mind. 9 (4): 289–313. doi:10.1080/1751696X.2016.1244949. ISSN 1751-696X. S2CID 151820168.
  204. ^ Harvard University (11 January 2020). "Ongoing human evolution could explain recent rise in certain disorders". ScienceDaily. Archived from the original on 6 February 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  205. ^ Nesse RM (2019). Good Reasons for Bad Feelings: Insights from the Frontier of Evolutionary Psychiatry. New York: Dutton. pp. 245–261. ISBN 978-1101985663.
  206. ^ Nesse RM (2016) [2005]. "43. Evolutionary Psychology and Mental Health". In Buss DM (ed.). The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, Volume 2: Integrations (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. pp. 1018–1019. ISBN 978-1118755808.
  207. ^ Helverschou SB, Bakken TL, Martinsen H (2011). "Psychiatric Disorders in People with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Phenomenology and Recognition". In Matson JL, Sturmey P (eds.). International handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. New York: Springer. pp. 53–74. ISBN 978-1-4419-8064-9. OCLC 746203105.
  208. ^ Underwood L, McCarthy J, Tsakanikos E (September 2010). "Mental health of adults with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 23 (5): 421–6. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32833cfc18. PMID 20613532. S2CID 13735841.
  209. ^ Graham Holmes L, Ames JL, Massolo ML, Nunez DM, Croen LA (1 April 2022). "Improving the Sexual and Reproductive Health and Health Care of Autistic People". Pediatrics. 149 (Supplement 4). American Academy of Pediatrics: e2020049437J. doi:10.1542/peds.2020-049437J. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 35363286. A substantial proportion of autistic adolescents and adults are LGBTQIA+. Autistic people are more likely to be transgender or gender nonconforming compared with non-autistic people, and findings from a recent autism registry study suggest that among autistic people able to self-report on a survey, up to 18% of men and 43% of women may be sexual minorities.
  210. ^ Van Der Miesen AI, Hurley H, De Vries AL (2016). "Gender dysphoria and autism spectrum disorder: A narrative review". International Review of Psychiatry. 28 (1): 70–80. doi:10.3109/09540261.2015.1111199. PMID 26753812. S2CID 20918937.
  211. ^ Glidden D, Bouman WP, Jones BA, Arcelus J (January 2016). "Gender Dysphoria and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review of the Literature". Sexual Medicine Reviews. 4 (1): 3–14. doi:10.1016/j.sxmr.2015.10.003. PMID 27872002. S2CID 3454600. Archived from the original on 3 November 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  212. ^ Weir E, Allison C, Baron-Cohen S (November 2021). "The sexual health, orientation, and activity of autistic adolescents and adults". Autism Research. 14 (11): 2342–2354. doi:10.17863/CAM.74771. PMID 34536071.
  213. ^ Norenzayan A, Gervais WM, Trzesniewski KH (2012). "Mentalizing deficits constrain belief in a personal God". PLOS ONE. 7 (5): e36880. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...736880N. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036880. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3364254. PMID 22666332.
  214. ^ Ballaban-Gil K, Tuchman R (2000). "Epilepsy and epileptiform EEG: association with autism and language disorders". Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 6 (4): 300–8. doi:10.1002/1098-2779(2000)6:4<300::AID-MRDD9>3.0.CO;2-R. PMID 11107195.
  215. ^ Spence SJ, Schneider MT (June 2009). "The role of epilepsy and epileptiform EEGs in autism spectrum disorders". Pediatric Research. 65 (6): 599–606. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31819e7168. PMC 2692092. PMID 19454962.
  216. ^ Wiznitzer M (September 2004). "Autism and tuberous sclerosis". Journal of Child Neurology. 19 (9): 675–9. doi:10.1177/08830738040190090701. PMID 15563013. S2CID 38157900.
  217. ^ Sala G, Hooley M, Attwood T (2019). "Autism and Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review of Sexuality and Relationship Education". Sexuality and Disability. 37 (3): 353–382. doi:10.1007/s11195-019-09577-4. S2CID 255011485.
  218. ^ Jensen M, Smolen C, Girirajan S (2020). "Gene discoveries in autism are biased towards comorbidity with intellectual disability". Journal of Medical Genetics. 57 (9): 647–652. doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106476. PMC 7483239. PMID 32152248.
  219. ^ Zafeiriou DI, Ververi A, Vargiami E (June 2007). "Childhood autism and associated comorbidities". Brain & Development. 29 (5): 257–272. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2006.09.003. PMID 17084999. S2CID 16386209.
  220. ^ Schenkman L (21 February 2023). "Dietary changes ease traits in rare autism-linked condition". Spectrum. Archived from the original on 25 March 2023. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  221. ^ Tangeraas T, Constante JR, Backe PH, Oyarzábal A, Neugebauer J, Weinhold N, Boemer F, Debray FG, Ozturk-Hism B, Evren G, Tuba EF, Ummuhan O, Footitt E, Davison J, Martinez C, Bueno C, Machado I, Rodríguez-Pombo P, Al-Sannaa N, De Los Santos M, López JM, Ozturkmen-Akay H, Karaca M, Tekin M, Pajares S, Ormazabal A, Stoway SD, Artuch R, Dixon M, Mørkrid L, García-Cazorla A (2 February 2023). "BCKDK deficiency: a treatable neurodevelopmental disease amenable to newborn screening". Brain. 146 (7): 3003–3013. doi:10.1093/brain/awad010. PMID 36729635.
  222. ^ Satterstrom FK, Kosmicki JA, Wang J, Breen MS, De Rubeis S, An JY, et al. (February 2020). "Large-Scale Exome Sequencing Study Implicates Both Developmental and Functional Changes in the Neurobiology of Autism". Cell. 180 (3): 568–584.e23. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.12.036. PMC 7250485. PMID 31981491.
  223. ^ Holder Jr JL, Hamdan FF, Michaud JL (2019). "SYNGAP1-Related Intellectual Disability". Gene Reviews (Review). PMID 30789692. Archived from the original on 2 April 2021. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  224. ^ O'Brien G, Pearson J (June 2004). "Autism and learning disability". Autism. 8 (2): 125–40. doi:10.1177/1362361304042718. PMID 15165430. S2CID 17372893.
  225. ^ Mash EJ, Barkley RA (2003). Child Psychopathology. New York: The Guilford Press. pp. 409–454. ISBN 978-1-57230-609-7.
  226. ^ White SW, Oswald D, Ollendick T, Scahill L (April 2009). "Anxiety in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders". Clinical Psychology Review. 29 (3): 216–229. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.01.003. PMC 2692135. PMID 19223098.
  227. ^ Lainhart J (1999). "Psychiatric problems in individuals with autism, their parents and siblings". International Review of Psychiatry. 11 (4): 278–298. doi:10.1080/09540269974177.
  228. ^ Chisholm K, Lin A, Abu-Akel A, Wood SJ (August 2015). "The association between autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A review of eight alternate models of co-occurrence" (PDF). Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 55: 173–83. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.04.012. PMID 25956249. S2CID 21450062. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  229. ^ Hamlyn J, Duhig M, McGrath J, Scott J (May 2013). "Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism—shared risk factors impacting on brain development". Neurobiology of Disease. 53: 3–9. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2012.10.023. PMID 23123588. S2CID 207067275.
  230. ^ Crespi BJ, Thiselton DL (October 2011). "Comparative immunogenetics of autism and schizophrenia". Genes, Brain and Behavior. 10 (7): 689–701. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2011.00710.x. PMID 21649858. S2CID 851655.
  231. ^ Markkanen E, Meyer U, Dianov GL (June 2016). "DNA Damage and Repair in Schizophrenia and Autism: Implications for Cancer Comorbidity and Beyond". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 17 (6): 856. doi:10.3390/ijms17060856. PMC 4926390. PMID 27258260.
  232. ^ Tsakanikos E, Costello H, Holt G, Sturmey P, Bouras N (July 2007). "Behaviour management problems as predictors of psychotropic medication and use of psychiatric services in adults with autism" (PDF). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 37 (6): 1080–5. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0248-1. PMID 17053989. S2CID 14272598. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
  233. ^ Rommelse NN, Franke B, Geurts HM, Hartman CA, Buitelaar JK (March 2010). "Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 19 (3): 281–95. doi:10.1007/s00787-010-0092-x. PMC 2839489. PMID 20148275.
  234. ^ Baranek GT (October 2002). "Efficacy of sensory and motor interventions for children with autism". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 32 (5): 397–422. doi:10.1023/A:1020541906063. PMID 12463517. S2CID 16449130.
  235. ^ a b Lugnegård T, Hallerbäck MU, Gillberg C (May 2012). "Personality disorders and autism spectrum disorders: what are the connections?". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 53 (4): 333–40. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2011.05.014. PMID 21821235.
  236. ^ Tantam D (December 1988). "Lifelong eccentricity and social isolation. II: Asperger's syndrome or schizoid personality disorder?". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 153: 783–91. doi:10.1192/bjp.153.6.783. PMID 3256377. S2CID 39433805.
  237. ^ Ekleberry SC (2008). "Cluster A - Schizoid Personality Disorder and Substance Use Disorders". Integrated Treatment for Co-Occurring Disorders: Personality Disorders and Addiction. Routledge. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-0-7890-3693-3.
  238. ^ Folstein SE, Rosen-Sheidley B (December 2001). "Genetics of autism: complex aetiology for a heterogeneous disorder". Nature Reviews Genetics. 2 (12): 943–955. doi:10.1038/35103559. PMID 11733747. S2CID 9331084.
  239. ^ Manzi B, Loizzo AL, Giana G, Curatolo P (March 2008). "Autism and metabolic diseases". Journal of Child Neurology. 23 (3): 307–314. doi:10.1177/0883073807308698. PMID 18079313. S2CID 30809774.
  240. ^ a b Israelyan N, Margolis KG (June 2018). "Serotonin as a link between the gut-brain-microbiome axis in autism spectrum disorders". Pharmacological Research (Review). 132: 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2018.03.020. PMC 6368356. PMID 29614380.
  241. ^ a b Wasilewska J, Klukowski M (2015). "Gastrointestinal symptoms and autism spectrum disorder: links and risks - a possible new overlap syndrome". Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics (Review). 6: 153–166. doi:10.2147/PHMT.S85717. PMC 5683266. PMID 29388597.
  242. ^ a b Rao M, Gershon MD (September 2016). "The bowel and beyond: the enteric nervous system in neurological disorders". Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology (Review). 13 (9): 517–528. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2016.107. PMC 5005185. PMID 27435372. immune dysregulation, GI inflammation, malfunction of the ANS, genetic and metabolic activity of the microbiome, and dietary metabolites may contribute to brain dysfunction and neuroinflammation depending upon individual genetic vulnerability
  243. ^ Richdale AL, Schreck KA (December 2009). "Sleep problems in autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, nature, & possible biopsychosocial aetiologies". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 13 (6): 403–411. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2009.02.003. PMID 19398354.
  244. ^ Al-Beltagi M (May 2021). "Autism medical comorbidities". World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics. 10 (3): 15–28. doi:10.5409/wjcp.v10.i3.15. PMC 8085719. PMID 33972922.
  245. ^ Mustafa H, Fessel J, Barwise J, Shannon J, Raj S, Dierich A, Biaggioni I, Robertson D, Warner S (January 2012). "Dysautonomia: Perioperative Implications". Anesthesiology. 116 (1): 205–215. doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e31823db712. PMC 3296831. PMID 22143168. S2CID 42572502.
  246. ^ Theoharides C, Angelidou A, Alysandratos K, Zhang B, Asadi S, Francis K, Taniato E, Kalegeromitros D (January 2022). "Mast cell activation and autism". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease. 1822 (1): 34–41. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2010.12.017. PMID 21193035.
  247. ^ "Fake and harmful autism 'treatments'". 2 May 2019. Archived from the original on 1 December 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  248. ^ "Making information and the words we use accessible". NHS England. Archived from the original on 16 July 2023. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  249. ^ "How to talk about autism". Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  250. ^ "The psychiatric management of autism in adults (CR228)". Royal College of Psychiatrists (UK). Archived from the original on 2 June 2023. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  251. ^ McPartland J, Klin A (October 2006). "Asperger's syndrome". Adolescent Medicine Clinics. 17 (3): 771–88, abstract xiii. doi:10.1016/j.admecli.2006.06.010 (inactive 31 January 2024). PMID 17030291.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2024 (link)
  252. ^ Woodbury-Smith MR, Volkmar FR (June 2008). "Asperger syndrome". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 18 (1): 2–11. doi:10.1007/s00787-008-0701-0. PMID 18563474. S2CID 12808995. Archived from the original on 31 March 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  253. ^ Coplan J, Jawad AF (July 2005). "Modeling clinical outcome of children with autistic spectrum disorders". Pediatrics. 116 (1): 117–22. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1118. PMID 15995041. S2CID 8440775.
  254. ^ "10 Facts about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)". Early Childhood Development | ACF. Archived from the original on 6 November 2019. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  255. ^ a b c d e f g Myers SM, Johnson CP (November 2007). "Management of children with autism spectrum disorders". Pediatrics. 120 (5): 1162–1182. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2362. PMID 17967921.
  256. ^ Ospina MB, Krebs Seida J, Clark B, Karkhaneh M, Hartling L, Tjosvold L, et al. (2008). "Behavioural and developmental interventions for autism spectrum disorder: a clinical systematic review". PLOS ONE. 3 (11): e3755. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.3755O. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003755. PMC 2582449. PMID 19015734.
  257. ^ Eldevik S, Hastings RP, Hughes JC, Jahr E, Eikeseth S, Cross S (May 2009). "Meta-analysis of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for children with autism". Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 38 (3). Taylor & Francis: 439–450. CiteSeerX doi:10.1080/15374410902851739. PMID 19437303. S2CID 205873629.
  258. ^ Matson JL, Dempsey T, Fodstad JC (November 2009). "The effect of Autism Spectrum Disorders on adaptive independent living skills in adults with severe intellectual disability". Research in Developmental Disabilities. 30 (6). Elsevier: 1203–1211. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2009.04.001. eISSN 1873-3379. PMID 19450950.
  259. ^ "NIMH » Autism Spectrum Disorder". National Institute of Mental Health (US). National Institutes of Health (US). Archived from the original on 23 April 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  260. ^ a b c d e Ji N, Findling RL (March 2015). "An update on pharmacotherapy for autism spectrum disorder in children and adolescents". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 28 (2): 91–101. doi:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000132. PMID 25602248. S2CID 206141453.
  261. ^ a b Wang X, Zhao J, Huang S, Chen S, Zhou T, Li Q, et al. (May 2021). "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review". Pediatrics. 147 (5). American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). doi:10.1542/peds.2020-049880. PMID 33888566. S2CID 233370479.
  262. ^ a b Myers SM, Johnson CP (November 2007). "Management of children with autism spectrum disorders". Pediatrics. 120 (5): 1162–1182. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2362. PMID 17967921. S2CID 1656920. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009.
  263. ^ Sigman M, Capps L (2002). Children with Autism: A Developmental Perspective. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. pp. 178–179. ISBN 978-0-674-05313-7.
  264. ^ Rogers SJ, Vismara LA (January 2008). "Evidence-based comprehensive treatments for early autism". Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 37 (1). Taylor & Francis: 8–38. doi:10.1080/15374410701817808. ISSN 1537-4416. PMC 2943764. PMID 18444052.
  265. ^ a b Sandoval-Norton AH, Shkedy G, Shkedy D (1 January 2019). Rushby JA (ed.). "How much compliance is too much compliance: Is long-term ABA therapy abuse?". Cogent Psychology. 6 (1). doi:10.1080/23311908.2019.1641258. ISSN 2331-1908.
  266. ^ Shkedy G, Shkedy D, Sandoval-Norton AH (June 2021). "Long-term ABA Therapy Is Abusive: A Response to Gorycki, Ruppel, and Zane". Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders. 5 (2): 126–134. doi:10.1007/s41252-021-00201-1. ISSN 2366-7532.
  267. ^ Anderson LK (April 2023). "Autistic experiences of applied behavior analysis". Autism. 27 (3): 737–750. doi:10.1177/13623613221118216. ISSN 1362-3613. PMID 35999706. S2CID 251766661. Archived from the original on 9 September 2023. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  268. ^ Gorycki KA, Ruppel PR, Zane T (31 December 2020). Navalta CP (ed.). "Is long-term ABA therapy abusive: A response to Sandoval-Norton and Shkedy". Cogent Psychology. 7 (1). doi:10.1080/23311908.2020.1823615. hdl:1808/31691. ISSN 2331-1908. Archived from the original on 29 April 2023. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  269. ^ a b Zwaigenbaum L, Bauman ML, Choueiri R, Kasari C, Carter A, Granpeesheh D, et al. (October 2015). "Early Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Under 3 Years of Age: Recommendations for Practice and Research". Pediatrics. 136 (Supplement 1): S60-81. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-3667E. PMC 9923898. PMID 26430170.
  270. ^ a b c d Reichow B, Hume K, Barton EE, Boyd BA (May 2018). "Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5 (10): CD009260. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009260.pub3. PMC 6494600. PMID 29742275.
  271. ^ a b Weissman L (March 2020). "Autism spectrum disorder in children and adolescents: Pharmacologic interventions". Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  272. ^ Williams Buckley A, Hirtz D, Oskoui M, et al. (March 2020). "Practice guideline: Treatment for insomnia and disrupted sleep behavior in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology". Neurology. 94 (9): 392–404. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000009033. PMC 7238942. PMID 32051244.
  273. ^ Harrop C (August 2015). "Evidence-based, parent-mediated interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder: The case of restricted and repetitive behaviors". Autism. 19 (6): 662–72. doi:10.1177/1362361314545685. PMID 25186943. S2CID 32326472.
  274. ^ Powell K (August 2004). "Opening a window to the autistic brain". PLOS Biology. 2 (8): E267. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020267. PMC 509312. PMID 15314667.
  275. ^ Virués-Ortega J (1 June 2010). "Applied behavior analytic intervention for autism in early childhood: Meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose–response meta-analysis of multiple outcomes". Clinical Psychology Review. 30 (4): 387–399. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.008. ISSN 0272-7358. PMID 20223569. Archived from the original on 3 November 2023. Retrieved 17 June 2023.
  276. ^ Kanne SM, Randolph JK, Farmer JE (December 2008). "Diagnostic and assessment findings: a bridge to academic planning for children with autism spectrum disorders". Neuropsychology Review. 18 (4): 367–384. doi:10.1007/s11065-008-9072-z. PMID 18855144. S2CID 21108225.
  277. ^ Simpson RL, de Boer-Ott SR, Smith-Myles B (2003). "Inclusion of Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders in General Education Settings". Topics in Language Disorders. 23 (2): 116–133. doi:10.1097/00011363-200304000-00005. S2CID 143733343. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011.
  278. ^ a b Sanchack KE, Thomas CA (December 2016). "Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles". American Family Physician. 94 (12): 972–979. PMID 28075089.
  279. ^ Iffland M, Livingstone N, Jorgensen M, Hazell P, Gillies D (9 October 2023). Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group (ed.). "Pharmacological intervention for irritability, aggression, and self-injury in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2023 (10): CD011769. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011769.pub2. PMC 10561353. PMID 37811711.
  280. ^ a b Siafis S, Çıray O, Wu H, Schneider-Thoma J, Bighelli I, Krause M, Rodolico A, Ceraso A, Deste G, Huhn M, Fraguas D, San José Cáceres A, Mavridis D, Charman T, Murphy DG, Parellada M, Arango C, Leucht S (2022). "Pharmacological and dietary-supplement treatments for autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis". Molecular Autism. 13 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/s13229-022-00488-4. PMC 8896153. PMID 35246237.
  281. ^ Oswald DP, Sonenklar NA (June 2007). "Medication use among children with autism spectrum disorders". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 17 (3): 348–355. doi:10.1089/cap.2006.17303. PMID 17630868.
  282. ^ Doyle CA, McDougle CJ (September 2012). "Pharmacologic treatments for the behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders across the lifespan". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 14 (3): 263–279. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2012.14.3/cdoyle. PMC 3513681. PMID 23226952.
  283. ^ Leskovec TJ, Rowles BM, Findling RL (2008). "Pharmacological treatment options for autism spectrum disorders in children and adolescents". Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 16 (2): 97–112. doi:10.1080/10673220802075852. PMID 18415882. S2CID 26112061.
  284. ^ Ameis SH, Kassee C, Corbett-Dick P, Cole L, Dadhwal S, Lai MC, et al. (November 2018). "Systematic review and guide to management of core and psychiatric symptoms in youth with autism". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 138 (5): 379–400. doi:10.1111/acps.12918. PMID 29904907. S2CID 49209337.
  285. ^ Broadstock M, Doughty C, Eggleston M (2007). "Systematic review of the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder". Autism. 11 (4): 335–348. doi:10.1177/1362361307078132. ISSN 1362-3613. PMID 17656398. S2CID 42629626.
  286. ^ Benevides TW, Shore SM, Andresen ML, Caplan R, Cook B, Gassner DL, et al. (August 2020). "Interventions to address health outcomes among autistic adults: A systematic review". Autism. 24 (6): 1345–1359. doi:10.1177/1362361320913664. PMC 7787674. PMID 32390461.
  287. ^ a b c Gogou M, Kolios G (June 2018). "Are therapeutic diets an emerging additional choice in autism spectrum disorder management?". World Journal of Pediatrics (Review). 14 (3): 215–223. doi:10.1007/s12519-018-0164-4. PMID 29846886. S2CID 44155118. Current literature knowledge provides evidence that ketogenic and casein/gluten-free diet may have their own place in our reserve for the therapeutic management of specific subsets of children with autism. ... More clinical studies about the effect of gluten/caseinfree diet in these patients are available. However, available data arise from studies with small sample size and are still controversial. In general, despite encouraging data, no definite proof still exists. Under this view, the use of therapeutic diets in children with autism should be restricted to specific subgroups, such as children with autism and epilepsy or specific inborn errors of metabolism (ketogenic diet), children with known food intolerance/allergy or even children with food intolerance markers (gluten- and casein-free diet). Their implementation should always be guided by health care practitioners.
  288. ^ Marí-Bauset S, Zazpe I, Mari-Sanchis A, Llopis-González A, Morales-Suárez-Varela M (December 2014). "Evidence of the gluten-free and casein-free diet in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review". Journal of Child Neurology. 29 (12): 1718–1727. doi:10.1177/0883073814531330. hdl:10171/37087. PMID 24789114. S2CID 19874518.
  289. ^ a b Millward C, Ferriter M, Calver S, Connell-Jones G (April 2008). Ferriter M (ed.). "Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD003498. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003498.pub3. PMC 4164915. PMID 18425890. Knivsberg 2002 "monitoring of the compliance with diet was not carried out" ... "several reports of children 'sneaking food' from siblings or classmates"
  290. ^ Hyman SL, Stewart PA, Foley J, Cain U, Peck R, Morris DD, et al. (January 2016). "The Gluten-Free/Casein-Free Diet: A Double-Blind Challenge Trial in Children with Autism". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 46 (1): 205–220. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2564-9. PMID 26343026. S2CID 12884691. 20 natural challenges when parents reported that children by mistake consumed foods containing gluten or casein.
  291. ^ Siafis S, Çıray O, Schneider-Thoma J, Bighelli I, Krause M, Rodolico A, Ceraso A, Deste G, Huhn M, Fraguas D, Mavridis D, Charman T, Murphy DG, Parellada M, Arango C, Leucht S (2020). "Placebo response in pharmacological and dietary supplement trials of autism spectrum disorder (ASD): systematic review and meta-regression analysis". Molecular Autism. 11 (1): 66. doi:10.1186/s13229-020-00372-z. PMC 7448339. PMID 32847616.
  292. ^ Buie T (May 2013). "The relationship of autism and gluten". Clinical Therapeutics (Review). 35 (5): 578–583. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.04.011. PMID 23688532. At this time, the studies attempting to treat symptoms of autism with diet have not been sufficient to support the general institution of a gluten-free or other diet for all children with autism. There may be a subgroup of patients who might benefit from a gluten-free diet, but the symptom or testing profile of these candidates remains unclear.
  293. ^ Volta U, Caio G, De Giorgio R, Henriksen C, Skodje G, Lundin KE (June 2015). "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a work-in-progress entity in the spectrum of wheat-related disorders". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology. 29 (3): 477–491. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2015.04.006. PMID 26060112. autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been hypothesized to be associated with NCGS [47,48]. Notably, a gluten- and casein-free diet might have a positive effect in improving hyperactivity and mental confusion in some patients with ASD. This very exciting association between NCGS and ASD deserves further study before conclusions can be firmly drawn
  294. ^ San Mauro Martín I, Garicano Vilar E, Collado Yurrutia L, Ciudad Cabañas MJ (December 2014). "[Is gluten the great etiopathogenic agent of disease in the XXI century?]" [Is gluten the great etiopathogenic agent of disease in the XXI century?]. Nutricion Hospitalaria (in Spanish). 30 (6): 1203–1210. doi:10.3305/nh.2014.30.6.7866. PMID 25433099.
  295. ^ Tye C, Runicles AK, Whitehouse AJ, Alvares GA (2019). "Characterizing the Interplay Between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comorbid Medical Conditions: An Integrative Review". Frontiers in Psychiatry (Review). 9: 751. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00751. PMC 6354568. PMID 30733689.
  296. ^ Levy SE, Hyman SL (October 2008). "Complementary and alternative medicine treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders". Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America (Review). 17 (4): 803–20, ix. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2008.06.004. PMC 2597185. PMID 18775371.
  297. ^ Brown MJ, Willis T, Omalu B, Leiker R (August 2006). "Deaths resulting from hypocalcemia after administration of edetate disodium: 2003-2005". Pediatrics. 118 (2): e534–e536. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-0858. PMID 16882789. S2CID 28656831. Archived from the original on 27 July 2009.
  298. ^ James S, Stevenson SW, Silove N, Williams K (May 2015). James S (ed.). "Chelation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Review) (5): CD010766. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010766. PMID 26106752.
  299. ^ Loftus Y (24 November 2021). "CEASE Therapy for Autism: the Controversy of a "Cure"". Autism Parenting Magazine. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  300. ^ Benevides TW, Shore SM, Andresen ML, Caplan R, Cook B, Gassner DL, et al. (August 2020). "Interventions to address health outcomes among autistic adults: A systematic review". Autism. 24 (6): 1345–1359. doi:10.1177/1362361320913664. PMC 7787674. PMID 32390461. S2CID 218586379.
  301. ^ Geretsegger M, Fusar-Poli L, Elefant C, Mössler KA, Vitale G, Gold C (May 2022). "Music therapy for autistic people". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2022 (5): CD004381. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004381.pub4. PMC 9082683. PMID 35532041.
  302. ^ Warren Z, Veenstra-VanderWeele J, Stone W, et al. (April 2011). Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders (Report No. 11-EHC029-EF). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). p. 8. PMID 21834171. Archived from the original on 8 June 2023. Retrieved 15 May 2022. Hyperbaric therapy, in which oxygen is administered in special chambers that maintain a higher air pressure, has shown possible effects in other chronic neurologic conditions and has also undergone preliminary exploration in ASDs.[needs update]
  303. ^ Rumayor CB, Thrasher AM (November 2017). "Reflections on Recent Research Into Animal-Assisted Interventions in the Military and Beyond". Current Psychiatry Reports. 19 (12): 110. doi:10.1007/s11920-017-0861-z. PMID 29177710. S2CID 207338873.
  304. ^ Duchan E, Patel DR (February 2012). "Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders". Pediatric Clinics of North America. 59 (1): 27–43, ix–x. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2011.10.003. PMID 22284791.
  305. ^ Lambert N, Strebel P, Orenstein W, Icenogle J, Poland GA (June 2015). "Rubella". Lancet. 385 (9984): 2297–2307. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60539-0. PMC 4514442. PMID 25576992.
  306. ^ a b Helt M, Kelley E, Kinsbourne M, Pandey J, Boorstein H, Herbert M, Fein D (December 2008). "Can children with autism recover? If so, how?". Neuropsychology Review. 18 (4): 339–366. CiteSeerX doi:10.1007/s11065-008-9075-9. PMID 19009353. S2CID 4317267.
  307. ^ a b Fein D, Barton M, Eigsti IM, Kelley E, Naigles L, Schultz RT, et al. (February 2013). "Optimal outcome in individuals with a history of autism". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 54 (2): 195–205. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12037. PMC 3547539. PMID 23320807.
  308. ^ Orinstein AJ, Helt M, Troyb E, Tyson KE, Barton ML, Eigsti IM, et al. (May 2014). "Intervention for optimal outcome in children and adolescents with a history of autism". Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 35 (4): 247–256. doi:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000037. PMC 4487510. PMID 24799263.
  309. ^ Rogers SJ, Vismara LA (January 2008). "Evidence-based comprehensive treatments for early autism". Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 37 (1). Taylor & Francis: 8–38. doi:10.1080/15374410701817808. PMC 2943764. PMID 18444052.
  310. ^ Tidmarsh L, Volkmar FR (September 2003). "Diagnosis and epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 48 (8): 517–525. doi:10.1177/070674370304800803. PMID 14574827. S2CID 38070709.
  311. ^ "Autism". World Health Organization. 30 March 2022. Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  312. ^ a b c Russell G, Stapley S, Newlove-Delgado T, Salmon A, White R, Warren F, et al. (August 2021). "Time trends in autism diagnosis over 20 years: a UK population-based cohort study". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 63 (6): 674–682. doi:10.1111/jcpp.13505. eISSN 1469-7610. hdl:10871/126929. ISSN 0021-9630. OCLC 01307942. PMID 34414570. S2CID 237242123. The figure starkly illustrates an overall 787% increase in recorded incidence of autism diagnosis over 20 years.
  313. ^ Maenner MJ, Shaw KA, Baio J, Washington A, Patrick M, DiRienzo M, et al. (March 2020). "Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2016". MMWR. Surveillance Summaries. 69 (4): 1–12. doi:10.15585/mmwr.ss6904a1. PMC 7119644. PMID 32214087.
  314. ^ ICD-11, "Females diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder are more frequently diagnosed with co-occurring disorders of intellectual development, suggesting that less severe presentations may go undetected as compared to males".
  315. ^ Tsakanikos E, Underwood L, Kravariti E, Bouras N, McCarthy J (2011). "Gender differences in co-morbid psychopathology and clinical management in adults with autism spectrum disorders". Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 5 (2): 803–808. doi:10.1016/j.rasd.2010.09.009. ISSN 1750-9467.
  316. ^ Hollander E, Hagerman RJ, Fein D (30 April 2018). Autism spectrum disorders (First ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing. ISBN 978-1-61537-192-1. OCLC 1022084798.
  317. ^ Baio J, Wiggins L, Christensen DL, et al. (April 2018). "Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years – Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014". MMWR. Surveillance Summaries. 67 (6): 1–23. doi:10.15585/mmwr.ss6706a1. PMC 5919599. PMID 29701730.
  318. ^ Rødgaard EM, Jensen K, Vergnes JN, Soulières I, Mottron L (August 2019). "Temporal Changes in Effect Sizes of Studies Comparing Individuals With and Without Autism: A Meta-analysis". JAMA Psychiatry. 76 (11): 1124–1132. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.1956. PMC 6704749. PMID 31433441.
  319. ^ "CDC estimates 1 in 68 school-aged children have autism; no change from previous estimate". CDC Newsroom. CDC. 31 March 2016. Archived from the original on 11 October 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  320. ^ Hill AP (2014). "Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders". In Volkmar FR (ed.). Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Diagnosis, Development, and Brain Mechanisms. Vol. 1. New York: Wiley. pp. 57–96. doi:10.1002/9781118911389. ISBN 978-1-118-91138-9.
  321. ^ Brugha T, Cooper SA, McManus S, Purdon S, Smith J, Scott FJ, et al. (31 January 2012). "Estimating the prevalence of autism spectrum conditions in adults: extending the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey" (PDF). The Information Centre for Health and Social Care. National Health Service, UK. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  322. ^ Mozes A (26 November 2018). "Report: Autism Rate Rises to 1 in 40 Children". WebMD. Archived from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  323. ^ "Autism". Archived from the original on 10 April 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2022.
  324. ^ Hahler EM, Elsabbagh M (1 March 2015). "Autism: A Global Perspective". Current Developmental Disorders Reports. 2 (1): 58–64. doi:10.1007/s40474-014-0033-3. ISSN 2196-2987. S2CID 73214418.
  325. ^ a b CDC (27 March 2020). "Data and Statistics on Autism Spectrum Disorder | CDC". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  326. ^ Maenner MJ, Warren Z, Williams AR, et al. (2023). "Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 sites, United States, 2020". MMWR. Surveillance Summaries. 72 (2): 1–14. doi:10.15585/mmwr.ss7202a1. ISSN 1546-0738. PMC 8639024. PMID 34855725. S2CID 257735672.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  327. ^ a b Fombonne E (June 2009). "Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders". Pediatric Research. 65 (6): 591–598. doi:10.1203/PDR.0b013e31819e7203. PMID 19218885.
  328. ^ Wing L, Potter D (2002). "The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: is the prevalence rising?". Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 8 (3): 151–161. doi:10.1002/mrdd.10029. PMID 12216059.
  329. ^ Gernsbacher MA, Dawson M, Goldsmith HH (April 2005). "Three Reasons Not to Believe in an Autism Epidemic". Current Directions in Psychological Science. 14 (2): 55–58. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00334.x. PMC 4232964. PMID 25404790.
  330. ^ Rutter M (January 2005). "Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: changes over time and their meaning". Acta Paediatrica. 94 (1): 2–15. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2005.tb01779.x. PMID 15858952. S2CID 79259285.
  331. ^ Szpir M (July 2006). "Tracing the origins of autism: a spectrum of new studies". Environmental Health Perspectives. 114 (7): A412–A418. doi:10.1289/ehp.114-a412. PMC 1513312. PMID 16835042.
  332. ^ Chaste P, Leboyer M (September 2012). "Autism risk factors: genes, environment, and gene-environment interactions". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 14 (3): 281–292. doi:10.31887/DCNS.2012.14.3/pchaste. PMC 3513682. PMID 23226953.
  333. ^ Schaafsma SM, Pfaff DW (August 2014). "Etiologies underlying sex differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 35 (3): 255–71. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2014.03.006. PMID 24705124. S2CID 7636860.
  334. ^ Bertoglio K, Hendren RL (March 2009). "New developments in autism". Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 32 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2008.10.004. PMID 19248913.
  335. ^ Shapiro J (26 June 2006). "Autism Movement Seeks Acceptance, Not Cures". NPR. Archived from the original on 10 May 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  336. ^ Trivedi B. "Autistic and proud of it". New Scientist. Reed Elsevier. ISSN 0262-4079. Archived from the original on 23 April 2019. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  337. ^ a b c Solomon A (25 May 2008). "The autism rights movement". New York Magazine. ISSN 0028-7369. Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
  338. ^ The Economic World. New York city: Chronicle Publishing Company. 1917. p. 366.
  339. ^ Silverman C (2008). "Fieldwork on another planet: social science perspectives on the autism spectrum". BioSocieties. 3 (3): 325–341. doi:10.1017/S1745855208006236. S2CID 145379758.
  340. ^ "Results and Analysis of the Autistic Not Weird 2022 Autism Survey - Autistic Not Weird". 23 March 2022. Archived from the original on 8 June 2023. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  341. ^ "World Autism Awareness Day, 2 April". United Nations. Archived from the original on 31 March 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  342. ^ Bascom J (18 June 2015). "Autistic Pride Day 2015: A Message to the Autistic Community". Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  343. ^ "Autism Sunday – Home". Autism Sunday. 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  344. ^ "About Autreat". 2013. Archived from the original on 1 December 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  345. ^ Silverman C (2008). "Fieldwork on Another Planet: Social Science Perspectives on the Autism Spectrum". BioSocieties. 3 (3): 325–341. doi:10.1017/S1745855208006236. ISSN 1745-8552. S2CID 145379758.
  346. ^ Russell G, Kapp SK, Elliott D, Elphick C, Gwernan-Jones R, Owens C (13 April 2019). "Mapping the Autistic Advantage from the Accounts of Adults Diagnosed with Autism: A Qualitative Study". Autism in Adulthood. 1 (2): 124–133. doi:10.1089/aut.2018.0035. PMC 6493410. PMID 31058260. S2CID 142504027.
  347. ^ Clarke J, van Amerom G (2007). "'Surplus suffering': differences between organizational understandings of Asperger's syndrome and those people who claim the 'disorder'". Disability & Society. 22 (7): 761–76. doi:10.1080/09687590701659618. S2CID 145736625.
  348. ^ Baron-Cohen S (2002). "Is Asperger syndrome necessarily viewed as a disability?". Focus Autism Other Dev Disabl. 17 (3): 186–91. doi:10.1177/10883576020170030801. S2CID 145629311. A preliminary, freely readable draft, with slightly different wording in the quoted text, is in: Baron-Cohen S (2002). "Is Asperger's syndrome necessarily a disability?" (PDF). Cambridge: Autism Research Centre. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2008.
  349. ^ "The Autism Rights Movement". 23 May 2008. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  350. ^ Morgan J (1 October 2016). "Autism spectrum disorder: difference or disability?". The Lancet Neurology. 15 (11): 1126. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30002-3. ISSN 1474-4422. S2CID 54341655.
  351. ^ Silverman C (1 September 2008). "Fieldwork on Another Planet: Social Science Perspectives on the Autism Spectrum". BioSocieties. 3 (3): 325–341. doi:10.1017/S1745855208006236. ISSN 1745-8560. S2CID 145379758.
  352. ^ "A medical condition or just a difference? The question roils autism community". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  353. ^ a b Ratner P (10 July 2016). "Should Autism Be Cured or Is "Curing" Offensive?". Big Think. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  354. ^ a b Jaarsma P, Welin S (March 2012). "Autism as a natural human variation: reflections on the claims of the neurodiversity movement". Health Care Analysis. 20 (1): 20–30. doi:10.1007/s10728-011-0169-9. PMID 21311979. S2CID 18618887.
  355. ^ McGee M (August 2012). "Neurodiversity". Contexts. 11 (3): 12–13. doi:10.1177/1536504212456175. S2CID 220720495.
  356. ^ Sarrett J (April 2016). "Biocertification and Neurodiversity the Role and Implications of Self-Diagnosis in Autistic Communities". Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  357. ^ den Houting J (2019). "Neurodiversity: An insider's perspective". Autism. 23 (2): 271–273. doi:10.1177/1362361318820762. PMID 30556743. S2CID 58767898.
  358. ^ Sequenzia A (7 December 2012). Bascom J (ed.). Loud Hands: Autistic People, Speaking. The Autistic Press. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-1-938800-02-3.
  359. ^ Jaarsma P, Welin S (1 March 2012). "Autism as a Natural Human Variation: Reflections on the Claims of the Neurodiversity Movement". Health Care Analysis. 20 (1): 20–30. doi:10.1007/s10728-011-0169-9. ISSN 1573-3394. PMID 21311979. S2CID 18618887.
  360. ^ Morgan J (1 October 2016). "Autism spectrum disorder: difference or disability?". The Lancet Neurology. 15 (11): 1126. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30002-3. ISSN 1474-4422. S2CID 54341655.
  361. ^ Silverman C (1 September 2008). "Fieldwork on Another Planet: Social Science Perspectives on the Autism Spectrum". BioSocieties. 3 (3): 325–341. doi:10.1017/S1745855208006236. ISSN 1745-8560. S2CID 145379758.
  362. ^ a b Solomon D (2 May 2018). "The History of the Autism Puzzle Piece Ribbon | Autism Career Coach Queens". Spectrum Strategies. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  363. ^ a b Morgan J (11 March 2018). "Going Gold For Autism Acceptance". Autistic UK CIC. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  364. ^ Muzikar D (20 April 2019). "The Autism Puzzle Piece: A symbol that's going to stay or go?". The Art of Autism. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  365. ^ Willingham E. "No Foolin': Forget About Autism Awareness And Lighting Up Blue". Forbes. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  366. ^ Franco J (2014). "Puzzle Piece Project and Autism Awareness Month" (PDF). Autism Speaks.
  367. ^ AU-TI (2021). "A New Autistic Pride Flag Has Suddenly Appeared & It's Amazing". AU-TI.
  368. ^ Shanafelt R (September 2008). "The nature of flag power: How flags entail dominance, subordination, and social solidarity". Politics and the Life Sciences. 27 (2): 13–27. doi:10.2990/27_2_13. ISSN 0730-9384. PMID 19267587. S2CID 34479212.
  369. ^ Du X, Jiao J, Tseng MM (2003). "Identifying customer need patterns for customization and personalization". Integrated Manufacturing Systems. 14 (5): 387–396. doi:10.1108/09576060310477799.
  370. ^ Kalyanaraman S, Sundar SS (1 March 2006). "The Psychological Appeal of Personalized Content in Web Portals: Does Customization Affect Attitudes and Behavior?". Journal of Communication. 56 (1): 110–132. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00006.x. ISSN 0021-9916.
  371. ^ Volkmar FR, Paul R, Pelphrey KA, Rogers SJ, eds. (2014). Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Volume Two: Assessment, Interventions, and Policy. Vol. 2 (4th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 301. ISBN 978-1-118-28220-5. LCCN 2013034363. OCLC 946133861. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  372. ^ Aguiar MC, de Pondé MP (March 2019). "Parenting a child with autism". Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria. 68 (1): 42–47. doi:10.1590/0047-2085000000223. ISSN 0047-2085. S2CID 165119472.
  373. ^ Levinovitz A (29 April 2015). "An Alternative-Medicine Believer's Journey Back to Science". WIRED. Retrieved 13 February 2017. The entire diagnosis and explanation took no more than 45 minutes. 'In the moment of diagnosis, it feels like the death of your hopes and dreams,' Louise [Laidler] says. There's a quiet grief in her voice, even though two decades have passed. 'In a way, it's even harder than a death, because you can't mourn and go on,' she says. 'You have to figure out how to care for your new child.'
  374. ^ Karst JS, Van Hecke AV (September 2012). "Parent and family impact of autism spectrum disorders: a review and proposed model for intervention evaluation". Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 15 (3): 247–77. doi:10.1007/s10567-012-0119-6. PMID 22869324. S2CID 19170894.
  375. ^ Montes G, Halterman JS (April 2008). "Association of childhood autism spectrum disorders and loss of family income". Pediatrics. 121 (4): e821–e826. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-1594. PMID 18381511. S2CID 55179. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010.
  376. ^ Montes G, Halterman JS (July 2008). "Child care problems and employment among families with preschool-aged children with autism in the United States". Pediatrics. 122 (1): e202–e208. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3037. PMID 18595965. S2CID 22686553. Archived from the original on 6 December 2009.
  377. ^ Orsmond GI, Seltzer MM (2007). "Siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorders across the life course" (PDF). Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. 13 (4): 313–320. CiteSeerX doi:10.1002/mrdd.20171. PMID 17979200. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2013.


Further reading