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Norm Augustine
United States Secretary of the Army
In office
July 3, 1975 – August 5, 1975
PresidentGerald Ford
Preceded byBo Callaway
Succeeded byMartin Richard Hoffmann
United States Under Secretary of the Army
In office
May 1975 – July 1977
PresidentGerald Ford
Jimmy Carter
Preceded byHerman R. Staudt
Succeeded byWalter B. LaBerge
Personal details
Norman Ralph Augustine

(1935-07-27) July 27, 1935 (age 88)
Denver, Colorado, U.S.
EducationPrinceton University (BS, MS)

Norman Ralph "Norm" Augustine (born July 27, 1935) is a U.S. aerospace businessman who served as United States Under Secretary of the Army from 1975 to 1977. Augustine served as chairman and CEO of the Lockheed Martin Corporation. He was chairman of the Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee.

In 1983, Augustine was elected as a member into the National Academy of Engineering for imaginative blending of the skills of engineer, analyst, and manager to accomplish important aerospace engineering projects.


Augustine was raised in Colorado and attended Princeton University, from where he graduated magna cum laude with a B.S.E. in Aeronautical Engineering and an M.S.E. He completed a 295-page senior thesis titled "Preliminary Design for a Supersonic Trainer" with John W. Bittig and Douglas N. Beatty.[1] He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, Tau Beta Pi and Sigma Xi.

In 1958 he joined the Douglas Aircraft Company in California, where he worked as a research engineer, program manager and chief engineer. Beginning in 1965, he served in the Office of the Secretary of Defense as Assistant Director of Defense Research and Engineering. He joined LTV Missiles and Space Company in 1970, serving as vice president of advanced programs and marketing. In 1973 he returned to the government as Assistant Secretary of the Army and in 1975 became Under Secretary of the Army, and later Acting Secretary of the Army. Joining Martin Marietta Corporation in 1977 as vice president of technical operations, he was elected as CEO in 1987 and chairman in 1988, having previously been president and COO. In 1990, he chaired the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, known as the Augustine Committee. He served as president of the Lockheed Martin Corporation upon the formation of that company in 1995, and became CEO later that year. He retired as chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin in August 1997, when he became a lecturer with the rank of professor[2] on the faculty of Princeton University where he served until July 1999.

In 1999 he helped found In-Q-Tel, a venture capital firm sponsored by the CIA with a mandate to support United States intelligence by investing in advanced technology.[3][4]

Augustine was chairman and principal officer of the American Red Cross for nine years, chairman of the National Academy of Engineering, president and chairman of the Association of the United States Army, chairman of the Aerospace Industries Association, and chairman of the Defense Science Board. He is a former president of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the Boy Scouts of America. He is a former member of the board of directors of ConocoPhillips, Black & Decker, Procter & Gamble and Lockheed Martin, and was a member of the board of trustees of Colonial Williamsburg. He is a regent of the University System of Maryland, trustee emeritus of Johns Hopkins and a former member of the board of trustees of Princeton and MIT. He is a member of the advisory board to the Department of Homeland Security, was a member of the Hart/Rudman Commission on National Security, and served for 16 years on the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. He is a member of the guiding coalition of the Project on National Security Reform. He is a member of the American Philosophical Society,[5] the National Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Explorers Club.

In May 2009 Augustine was named as chairman of the Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee, that was tasked to review NASA's plans for the Moon, Mars and beyond.[6]

In March 2011 Augustine agreed to serve as chair of the U.S. Antarctic Program Blue Ribbon Panel to assess U.S. activities in the South Pole. In July 2011, Augustine became a member of the United States Energy Security Council,[7] which seeks to diminish oil's monopoly over the US transportation sector and is sponsored by the Institute for the Analysis of Global Security (IAGS).[7] He currently sits on the America Abroad Media advisory board,[8] the advisory board of Feynman School, a school for academically gifted children in STEM fields,[9] and on the board of advisors of the Code of Support Foundation, a nonprofit military services organization.[10]

Augustine has been presented the National Medal of Technology by the President of the United States and received the Joint Chiefs of Staff Distinguished Public Service Award. He has five times received the Department of Defense's highest civilian decoration, the Distinguished Civilian Service Award. He is co-author of The Defense Revolution and Shakespeare In Charge and author of Augustine's Laws and Augustine's Travels. He holds 34 honorary degrees and was selected by Who's Who in America and the Library of Congress as one of “Fifty Great Americans” on the occasion of Who's Who's fiftieth anniversary. He has traveled in over 130 countries and stood on both the North and South Poles of the earth.


Graphical plot of Augustine's law Number XVI: "In the year 2054, the entire defense budget will purchase just one aircraft."[11]


  1. ^ Bittig, John W.; Beatty, Douglas N.; Augustine, Norman R. Princeton University. Department of Aeronautical Engineering (ed.). Preliminary Design for a Supersonic Trainer (Thesis). Archived from the original on August 5, 2020. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  2. ^ "Norman Augustine to Join the Faculty of Princeton University's School of Engineering and Applied Science". Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  3. ^ Powers, Shawn M; Jablonski, Michael (April 2015). The Real Cyber War. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press. pp. 63–69. ISBN 978-0-252-09710-2. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
  4. ^ Yannuzzi, Rick E. (2007). "In-Q-Tel: A new partnership between the CIA and the private sector". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015.
  5. ^ "APS Member History". Archived from the original on December 8, 2021. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  6. ^ Mirelson, Doc (June 1, 2009). "NASA Announces Members of Human Space Flight Review Committee". Archived from the original on June 5, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  7. ^ a b "Energy and Security Research". Archived from the original on July 6, 2012. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  8. ^ "Norman Augustine | America Abroad Media". Archived from the original on June 17, 2016. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  9. ^ "Advisory Board". Feynman School. October 11, 2013. Archived from the original on October 18, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  10. ^ "Code of Support Foundation advisory board". Archived from the original on October 23, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2017.
  11. ^ Norman Ralph Augustine (1984). Augustine's Laws. ISBN 978-1-56347-240-4.
  12. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  13. ^ "1992 NATIONAL SPACE TROPHY RECIPIENT" (Press release). Rotary National Award for Space Achievement Foundation. April 4, 2011. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  14. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on December 15, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
  15. ^ "Eminent Member Recognition". Archived from the original on May 27, 2019. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  16. ^ "Public Welfare Award". National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on October 1, 2017. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
  17. ^ "J. C. Hunsaker Award in Aeronautical Engineering". National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on September 24, 2016. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
  18. ^ "Distinguished Achievement Awards". Wings Club. Archived from the original on September 28, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
  19. ^ "Space Flight Award | American Astronautical Society". Archived from the original on May 16, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2022.
  20. ^ "JSPG Advisory Board". Archived from the original on April 2, 2018. Retrieved January 12, 2017.
  21. ^ "The 2015 recipient of International Von Karman Wings Award is Mr. Norman Augustine". The Aerospace Historical Society and California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2015.


Political offices Preceded byHerman R. Staudt United States Under Secretary of the Army 1975–1977 Succeeded byWalter B. LaBerge Preceded byBo Callaway United States Secretary of the ArmyActing 1975 Succeeded byMartin Richard Hoffmann Preceded byEugene Fubini Chair of the Defense Science Board 1982–1986 Succeeded byCharles Fowler Business positions Preceded byThomas Pownall CEO of Martin Marietta 1987–1995 Position abolished New office CEO of Lockheed Martin 1995–1997 Succeeded byVance D. Coffman Non-profit organization positions Preceded byJohn L. Clendenin National President of the Boy Scouts of America 1994–1996 Succeeded byJohn W. Creighton Jr.