Oakland County, Michigan
County of Oakland
Top-to-bottom, left-to-right: Troy's skyline, Southfield's skyline, Rackham Fountain (at the Detroit Zoo), National Shrine of the Little Flower Basilica (Royal Oak), Downtown Pontiac, Downtown Royal Oak (downtown Detroit on the horizon)
Flag of Oakland County, Michigan
Official seal of Oakland County, Michigan
Official logo of Oakland County, Michigan
Location within the state of Michigan
Location within the state of Michigan
Cities and Townships in the county
Cities and Townships in the county
CountryUnited States
StateMichigan
MetroMetro Detroit
Incorporated1819 (created)
1820 (organized)[1][2]
County seatPontiac (Legislative and Judicial)
Waterford (Executive)
Largest city Troy
Government
 • ExecutiveDavid Coulter (D)
Area
 • Total907 sq mi (2,350 km2)
 • Land868 sq mi (2,250 km2)
 • Water40 sq mi (100 km2)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total1,274,395
 • Density1,486/sq mi (574/km2)
GDP
 • Total$124.285 billion (2022)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern Daylight Time)
Area codes248 and 947
Websitewww.oakgov.com

Oakland County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is a principal county of the Detroit metropolitan area, containing the bulk of Detroit's northern suburbs. Due to the county's government complex spanning 2 municipalities, it's county seat is shared between Pontiac, and Waterford. and its largest city is Troy.[4] As of the 2020 Census, its population was 1,274,395,[5] making it the second-most populous county in Michigan (behind neighboring Wayne County), and the largest county in the United States without a city of 100,000 residents.

Founded in 1819 and organized in 1820,[1][6] Oakland County is composed of 62 cities, villages, and townships. In 2010, Oakland County was among the ten wealthiest counties in the United States to have over one million residents.[7] It is also home to Oakland University, a large public institution that straddles the border between the cities of Auburn Hills and Rochester Hills.

History

See also: List of National Historic Landmarks in Michigan and National Register of Historic Places listings in Oakland County, Michigan

Founded by Territorial Governor Lewis Cass in 1819, sparsely settled Oakland was originally twice its current size. As was customary at the time, as populations increased, other counties were organized from its land area. Woodward Avenue and the Detroit and Pontiac Railroad helped draw settlers in the 1840s. By 1840, Oakland had more than fifty lumber mills, processing wood harvested from the region and the Upper Peninsula. Pontiac, located on the Clinton River, was Oakland's first town and became the county seat. After the Civil War, Oakland was still primarily a rural, agricultural county with numerous isolated villages. By the end of the 19th century, three rail lines served Pontiac, and the city attracted carriage and wagon factories. In the late 1890s streetcars were constructed here and to Detroit.[citation needed]

At that time, developers made southern Oakland County a suburb of Detroit; a Cincinnati firm platted a section of Royal Oak called "Urbanrest." Migration worked both ways. Several thousand people moved from Oakland County farms to Detroit as the city attracted factories. By 1910, a number of rich Detroiters had summer homes and some year-round residences in what became Bloomfield Hills. The auto age enveloped Pontiac in the early 1900s. The Oakland Motor Car Company was founded in 1907 and became a part of General Motors Corp., which was soon Pontiac's dominant firm.[8]

In the 1950s, Oakland County's population boomed as the Detroiters began migrating to the suburbs. While the neighboring Macomb County was more inhabited by auto workers and other blue-collar workers, Oakland County's residents tended to be more affluent and generally white-collar (e.g. doctors, lawyers).[9] Oakland County was for a time the fourth-wealthiest county in the United States, though its position has declined somewhat since the Great Recession.[10] The median price of a home in Oakland County increased to $164,697, more than $30,000 above the national median. Oakland County is home to several super-regional shopping malls such as Oakland Mall, Somerset Collection, Twelve Oaks Mall, and Great Lakes Crossing Outlets.

Geography

Grand Trunk Western Railroad Depot, Birmingham
Downtown Holly

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 907 square miles (2,350 km2), of which 868 square miles (2,250 km2) is land and 40 square miles (100 km2) (4.4%) is water.[11]

Oakland County was originally divided into 25 separate townships, which are listed below. Each township is roughly equal in size at six miles (9.7 km) by six miles, for a total township area of 36 square miles (93 km2). The roots of this design were born out of the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the subsequent Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Oakland County itself is a prime example of the land policy that was established, as all townships are equal in size (save for slight variations due to waterways). Section 16 in each township was reserved for financing and maintaining public education, and even today many schools in Oakland County townships are located within that section.

Wayne County, where the city of Detroit is located, borders Oakland County to the south. 8 Mile Road, also known as "Baseline Road" in some areas, is the boundary between these counties. The baseline was used during the original surveying for Michigan, and it serves as the northern/southern boundaries for counties from Lake St. Clair to Lake Michigan. As more working and middle-class populations moved to the suburbs from the 1950s on, this divide (8 Mile Road) became historically known as an unofficial racial dividing line between what became the predominantly black city and almost exclusively white suburbs.

Since the late 20th century, however, the patterns of de facto segregation have faded as the suburbs have become more diverse. Middle-class African Americans have left Detroit, settling in inner-ring suburbs, notably Southfield (where the population is 75% Black), west of Woodward Avenue. Based on the 2010 Census, the following cities also have significant non-white populations: Farmington (25.3%), Farmington Hills (31.7%), Novi (30.12%), Oak Park (62.61%), Lathrup Village (72.97%), Orchard Lake Village (16.08%), Rochester Hills (20.94%), Troy (29.4%), Wixom (26.28%), West Bloomfield (24.0%), Bloomfield (18.28%), Bloomfield Hills (14.2%), Ferndale (17.2%), and Madison Heights (17.7%). Ferndale has a concentration of Arab Americans, who also live in nearby areas, and numerous Asian Americans, particularly Indians, have also settled in these areas.

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1820330
18304,9111,388.2%
184023,646381.5%
185031,27032.2%
186038,26122.4%
187040,8676.8%
188041,5371.6%
189041,245−0.7%
190044,7928.6%
191049,57610.7%
192090,05081.6%
1930211,251134.6%
1940254,06820.3%
1950396,00155.9%
1960690,25974.3%
1970907,87131.5%
19801,011,79311.4%
19901,083,5927.1%
20001,194,15610.2%
20101,202,3620.7%
20201,274,3956.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790–1960[13] 1900–1990[14]
1990–2000[15] 2010–2019[5]

As of the 2010 Census, there were 1,202,362 people and 315,175 families residing in the county. 77.3% were White, 13.6% Black or African American, 5.6% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 1.0% of some other race and 2.2% of two or more races. 3.5% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race). There were 527,255 housing units at an average density of 564 units per square mile (218 units/km2).[16]

Regarding ancestry, in 2000 14.4% of the population were ethnically German, 9.0% Irish, 8.5% English, 8.5% Polish, 5.7% Italian and 5.5% American, 87.4% spoke only English at home; 2.0% spoke Spanish, 1.3% Syriac (Neo Aramaic) and 1.0% Arabic. The population density as of the 2000 census was 1,369 people per square mile (529 people/km2). There were 492,006 housing units at an average density of 564 units per square mile (218 units/km2).

The 2000 census showed two Native American tribes with more than 1,000 members in Oakland County. There were 2,095 Cherokee and 1,458 Chippewa.

The Jewish community of metropolitan Detroit, with a population of 72,000, is the 21st largest Jewish community in the nation. This community is concentrated in Oakland County, especially in Southfield, Oak Park, West Bloomfield, Bloomfield Hills, Farmington Hills, Troy and Huntington Woods.[17]

There were 471,115 households, of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 54.20% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.10% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.09.

Among Asian Americans, eight ethnic groups had more than 1,000 members in the county in 2000. The most numerous were those of Asian Indian descent, with 20,705. Next were those of Chinese heritage, numbering 10,018. Next were those of Japanese (5,589), Filipino (5,450) Korean (5,351), Vietnamese (1,687), Pakistani (1,458) and Hmong (1,210) ancestry.[18]

In 2001, Oakland County had the 36th largest Asian population of any county in the country.[19] In 2002, of the Oakland-Wayne-Macomb tricounty area, Oakland County had 49% of the tri-county area's Asian population.[20]

In terms of age, 25.20% of the county's population was under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 32.40% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, and 11.30% was 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $86,567, making Oakland County the 71st wealthiest county in the United States.[21] Males had a median income of $55,833 versus $35,890 for females. The per capita income for the county was $65,759. About 3.80% of families and 5.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.50% of those under age 18 and 6.50% of those age 65 or over.

Ethnic origins in Oakland County

Government

The county government operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, and participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget but has limited authority to make laws or ordinances.[22] In Michigan, most local government functions—police and fire, building and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc.—are the responsibility of individual cities and townships.

Service Center

Most county operations are based at the Oakland County Service Center, which straddles Telegraph Road, split between Pontiac and neighboring Waterford Township.[23] The east campus (in Pontiac) consists mostly of the courthouse, jail, and Sheriff's Office, while the west campus (in Waterford) contains the county executive's office, Children's Village (the county's juvenile detention center), and the headquarters of Oakland Schools, the Road Commission, and a number of other departments.[24][25]

In May 2023, the county government announced a plan to relocate select offices from the Service Center back to downtown Pontiac.[26][27]

Elected officials

Law enforcement

The Oakland County Sheriff's Office is the largest sheriff's department in the state of Michigan. In 2017 it had 859 uniformed officers,[29] although in 2022 it had nearly 100 unfilled vacancies.[30] Republican Michael Bouchard has served as the Oakland County Sheriff since 1999.

Ten townships, 3 cities, and 2 villages in the county do not have municipal police forces,[31] but rather contract with the sheriff for police services specific to the municipalities. Those municipalities are Addison Township (including the village of Leonard), Brandon Township (including the village of Ortonville), Clarkston, Commerce Township, Highland Township, Independence Township, Lyon Township, Oakland Township, Orion Township, Oxford Township, Springfield Township, Pontiac, and Rochester Hills.[32] The Oakland County Sheriff's Office also operates the county jail, a civil division, marine division, alcohol and traffic enforcement units, and an aviation division. The marine patrol and rescue unit patrols 450 lakes across the county.[33]

Road Commission

Roads that are not maintained by a local community (city/village) are maintained by the independent Road Commission for Oakland County, which is governed by three board members appointed by the Oakland County Board of Commissioners.[34]

Politics

United States presidential election results for Oakland County, Michigan[35]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 325,971 42.22% 434,148 56.24% 11,872 1.54%
2016 289,203 43.23% 343,070 51.29% 36,652 5.48%
2012 296,514 45.37% 349,002 53.40% 8,055 1.23%
2008 276,956 41.94% 372,566 56.42% 10,873 1.65%
2004 316,633 49.32% 319,387 49.75% 5,957 0.93%
2000 274,319 48.10% 281,201 49.31% 14,745 2.59%
1996 219,855 43.48% 241,884 47.84% 43,903 8.68%
1992 242,160 43.57% 214,733 38.64% 98,867 17.79%
1988 283,359 61.27% 174,745 37.78% 4,384 0.95%
1984 306,050 66.71% 150,286 32.76% 2,464 0.54%
1980 253,211 54.65% 164,869 35.58% 45,248 9.77%
1976 244,271 58.69% 164,266 39.47% 7,668 1.84%
1972 241,613 63.78% 129,400 34.16% 7,838 2.07%
1968 156,538 45.31% 154,630 44.76% 34,290 9.93%
1964 114,025 38.33% 182,797 61.44% 686 0.23%
1960 162,026 54.27% 135,531 45.39% 1,005 0.34%
1956 152,990 60.37% 99,901 39.42% 527 0.21%
1952 115,503 60.73% 73,871 38.84% 805 0.42%
1948 62,516 53.49% 51,491 44.06% 2,859 2.45%
1944 59,627 51.49% 55,272 47.73% 914 0.79%
1940 49,002 50.71% 47,022 48.67% 599 0.62%
1936 30,071 40.64% 40,329 54.50% 3,597 4.86%
1932 32,462 47.79% 33,135 48.78% 2,331 3.43%
1928 45,343 81.53% 10,011 18.00% 264 0.47%
1924 28,603 81.27% 4,105 11.66% 2,488 7.07%
1920 19,321 70.98% 6,421 23.59% 1,478 5.43%
1916 7,730 51.86% 6,659 44.67% 517 3.47%
1912 4,083 35.46% 3,668 31.86% 3,762 32.68%
1908 6,267 58.18% 3,950 36.67% 554 5.14%
1904 6,986 61.88% 3,956 35.04% 347 3.07%
1900 6,173 53.04% 4,966 42.67% 499 4.29%
1896 5,846 46.01% 5,271 41.49% 1,588 12.50%
1892 4,763 44.98% 4,925 46.51% 902 8.52%
1888 5,389 47.31% 5,410 47.50% 591 5.19%
1884 4,842 45.03% 5,386 50.09% 525 4.88%

Oakland County was historically a bastion of suburban conservatism, and was hence a longstanding stronghold of the Republican Party. However, in the 1990s it became highly competitive, and since 2008 it has increasingly shifted Democratic, giving over 50% of its votes to the Democratic candidate for president in each election. Republican strength is concentrated in the many exurban townships of the county, while Democratic strength is concentrated in suburbs such as Royal Oak, Farmington Hills, West Bloomfield, and Southfield. Some suburbs, such as Novi, Troy, Birmingham, and Rochester, were historically strongly Republican but are now relatively split between the two parties, with younger adults tending to support Democrats and older residents tending to support Republicans.

In 1996, Bill Clinton became the first Democrat to carry Oakland County since Lyndon Johnson in 1964, and only the fourth to do so since 1892. Al Gore and John Kerry also carried the county, by narrow margins of less than 7,000 and 3,000 votes respectively, against George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004, respectively. In 2008, the county swung significantly to Barack Obama, who became the first Democrat to win a majority in the county since LBJ, and only the third to do so since 1884. (See table at right.) He again carried the county in 2012, though by a smaller margin. Hillary Clinton won a narrow majority in 2016. In 2020, Joe Biden won 56 percent of the vote. He received over 400,000 votes, and became the first Democrat to carry the county by a margin of over 100,000 votes.

While the Democratic Party has found increasing success in presidential elections in Oakland County, the state Republican Party has remained strong in some recent gubernatorial and state elections. The county favored Republican Rick Snyder by a 22-point margin in the 2010 Michigan gubernatorial election and again by a 12-point margin in the 2014 election; conversely, the county favored Democratic candidate Gretchen Whitmer by a 17-point margin in the 2018 election and again by a 23-point margin in the 2022 election. Republicans held a majority on the County Commission for most of its history, but following the 2018 elections, Democrats won a narrow 11-10 majority on the commission.[36]

In the 118th Congress, Oakland County is represented by four Democrats: Debbie Dingell (6th), Elissa Slotkin (7th), Haley Stevens (11th), and Rashida Tlaib (12th) and two Republicans: John James (10th) and Lisa McClain (9th).

Transportation

Air

The following airports are located in neighboring counties:

Major highways

Intercity rail

Amtrak's thrice-daily Wolverine serves Oakland County, with stations in Pontiac, Troy, and Royal Oak, before continuing on to Detroit and west to Chicago.

Mile roads

Main article: Mile Road System (Detroit)

Surface-street navigation in metro Detroit is commonly anchored by "mile roads," major east–west surface streets that are spaced at one-mile (1.6 km) intervals and increment as one travels north and away from the city center. Mile roads sometimes have two names, the numeric name (e.g., 15 Mile Road), used in Macomb County, and a local name (e.g., Maple Road), used in Oakland County (for the most part).

Bicycling

The conditions on most non-residential roads in Oakland County are not favorable to bicycling. Exceptions to this are primarily in the inner-ring suburbs within the southeast corner of the county. This is due to their street grid.

A primary reason for these unfavorable cycling conditions is the Road Commission for Oakland County has a policy of not accommodating bicycles on the road. As a result, some communities have designated sidepaths (locally called "safety paths") as bike routes which do not meet the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) guidelines for bicycling facilities and have been found to be less safe than on-road bike facilities.[37]

As a result, there are no designated Bicycle Friendly Communities within Oakland County.

Only the city of Ferndale has a built comprehensive bicycle network of bike lanes and signed shared roadways.

Education

The County of Oakland counterpart in public education (K–12) is the Oakland Schools, an Intermediate school district. The county is also home to multiple renowned private elementary and high schools, including The Roeper School and Cranbrook.

Higher education

K-12 education

School districts:[38]

Sports

Club League Venue Established Championships
Oakland County FC Premier League of America, Soccer Clawson Park Stadium 2015

The NFL's Detroit Lions played their home games at the Pontiac Silverdome in Pontiac from 1975 through 2001, when they moved to Ford Field in Downtown Detroit. The Detroit Pistons played at the Silverdome from 1978 to 1988. The Silverdome was also the site of Super Bowl XVI, where the San Francisco 49ers defeated the Cincinnati Bengals, the first of 5 Super Bowl titles for the 49ers. The Pontiac Silverdome also hosted various other sporting events, prior to being demolished in 2017.

From 1988 to 2017, prior to the move to Little Caesars Arena in Detroit, the Detroit Pistons played their home games at The Palace of Auburn Hills in Auburn Hills. The Palace of Auburn Hills was demolished in 2020.[39]

Communities

Map of political boundaries

Cities

Villages

Charter townships

Civil townships

Unincorporated communities

Rivers and lakes

Further information: List of lakes in Oakland County, Michigan

Oakland County contains 387 lakes, and four major rivers run through the county:[40]

The headwaters of each of these rivers lie in Oakland County.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Bibliography on Oakland County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
  2. ^ "History of Oakland County," OaklandWeb.com. Archived July 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved February 7, 2007.
  3. ^ "Gross Domestic Product: All Industries in Oakland County, MI". fred.stlouisfed.org.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  5. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  6. ^ History of Oakland County, Michigan. Philadelphia: L. H. Everts and Co. 1877. p. 23. Archived from the original on November 20, 2015. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
  7. ^ "Detroit Regional Chamber of Commerce - quick facts". detroitchamber.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
  8. ^ Razmerita, Adriana (September 26, 2022). "The True Meaning Behind The Pontiac Logo". HotCars. Retrieved October 10, 2022.
  9. ^ "Macomb County politics in a class by itself — for weirdness". The Blade. Retrieved July 13, 2023.
  10. ^ WOLFFE, JERRY. "Oakland plummets on list of wealthy counties". The Oakland Press. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  11. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on November 13, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
  14. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
  16. ^ "Oakland County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2012.
  17. ^ "Community Relations - Detroit?s Jewish Community | Jewish Community Council of Metropolitan Detroit". Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
  18. ^ See search results from United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 2, 2007.
  19. ^ Metzger, Kurt and Jason Booza. "Asians in the United States, Michigan and Metropolitan Detroit Archived November 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine." Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies-January 2001 Working Paper Series, No. 7, p. 5. Retrieved on September 8, 2013.
  20. ^ Metzger, Kurt and Jason Booza. "Asians in the United States, Michigan and Metropolitan Detroit Archived November 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine." Center for Urban Studies, Wayne State University. January 2002 Working Paper Series, No. 7. p. 7. Retrieved on November 6, 2013.
  21. ^ "Richest Counties In The United States". WorldAtlas. April 25, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  22. ^ "About Us | About Us". www.oakgov.com. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  23. ^ "Complex Map" (Archived July 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine). Oakland County Government. Retrieved on July 9, 2015.
  24. ^ "Oakland County Children's Village" (Archived July 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine). The Government of Oakland County. Retrieved on July 9, 2015. "Oakland County Children's Village 1200 North Telegraph Road Pontiac, MI 48341"
  25. ^ "Oakland County Executive Office Building Conference Center Locator Map & Directions" (Archived July 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine). Oakland County Government. Retrieved on July 10, 2015.
  26. ^ "Pontiac mayor discusses Oakland County's plan to buy Ottawa Towers, demolish Phoenix Center". CBS News Detroit. May 25, 2023. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  27. ^ Proxmire, Crystal (May 26, 2023). "Oakland County Proposes Purchasing Ottawa Towers and Leasing Phoenix Center in Pontiac". Oakland County Times. Retrieved June 12, 2023.
  28. ^ a b c d e "Elected Officials | Oakland County, Michigan". www.oakgov.com. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  29. ^ Mack, Julie (October 31, 2017). "Michigan's 60 largest police departments, ranked by staff size". mlive. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
  30. ^ Kinchen, Dave (October 10, 2022). "Oakland County Sheriff's Office struggles to fill nearly 100 vacancies, as office turns to support program". FOX 2 Detroit. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
  31. ^ "Law Enforcement Services Division | Law Enforcement". www.oakgov.com. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  32. ^ "Law Enforcement Services Division | Law Enforcement". www.oakgov.com. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
  33. ^ "Marine Patrol | Patrol Units & Teams". www.oakgov.com. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
  34. ^ "RCOC Officials | Road Commission for Oakland County". www.rcocweb.org. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  35. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
  36. ^ Cavitt, Mark (November 7, 2018). "Oakland County Board of Commissioners majority Democratic for third time in history". The Oakland Press. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
  37. ^ "Risk of Sidewalk and Wrong-way Riding". Bicyclist Injuries: Learning from the Statistics. Archived from the original on May 20, 2007. Retrieved March 17, 2007.
  38. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Oakland County, MI" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 4, 2021. Retrieved July 20, 2022. - Text list
  39. ^ Johncox, Cassidy (July 10, 2020). "WATCH: Remainder of Palace of Auburn Hills demolished". WDIV. Retrieved December 7, 2020.
  40. ^ "Oakland County, Michigan". oakgov.com. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved June 28, 2016.

Further reading

42°40′N 83°23′W / 42.66°N 83.38°W / 42.66; -83.38