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Polkadot Network
Polkadot Logo.png
 100 PlanckPlanck
 104 PlanckMicrodot (uDOT)
 107 PlanckMillidot (mDOT)
 1010 PlanckDot (DOT)
 1016 PlanckMillion (MDOT)[1]
Original author(s)Gavin Wood
White paper
Implementation(s)polkadot, gossamer
Initial releaseMay 26th, 2020
Development statusActive
Timestamping schemeProof of stake

Polkadot is a blockchain platform and cryptocurrency. The native cryptocurrency for the Polkadot blockchain is the DOT.[2] It is designed to allow blockchains to exchange messages and perform transactions with each other without a trusted third-party. This allows for cross-chain transfers of data or assets, between different blockchains, and for decentralized applications (DApps) to be built using the Polkadot Network.[3]

Polkadot relays.
Polkadot relays.
Gavin Wood, founder of Polkadot.
Gavin Wood, founder of Polkadot.


The protocol was created by the Ethereum co-founder Gavin Wood,[4] Robert Habermeier and Peter Czaban,[5] raising over $144.3 million in its Initial coin offering in October 2017.[6] Another private sale in 2019 raised an additional $43 million.[5] Gavin Wood is attributed in coining the term "Web3" in 2014.[5] The white paper for Polkadot was published by Wood in 2016. The Web3 foundation was subsequently launched in 2017.[5]

Polkadot's initial block (the "genesis block") was released in May 2020.[7] The DOT is its native token, and DOTs were released with the launch of the genesis block.[5]

Technical details

The Polkadot network has a primary blockchain named "relay chain" and many user-created parallel chains called "parachains".[8] The relay chain acts as the governance layer of the network, while parachains are auctioned, enabling independent projects to create and operate their own blockchains that live within the Polkadot infrastructure.[9] A relay chain is responsible for validating data, achieving consensus and ensuring transactions are executed.[5] It is estimated that 1,000 transactions per second can be processed by the network.[5]

Proof of stake

The network uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm.[10] The protocol used, Blind Assignment for Blockchain Extension (BABE), is derived from Ouroboros, a protocol created by Aggelos Kiayias.[11] [12]

Bridges and Parathreads

The Polkadot network contains bridges, which connect blockchains and allow data transfer. Bridges provider interoperability with other networks such as Bitcoin or Cardano. Parathreads operate in a similar manner to parachains but follow a "pay as you go" model, not requiring continuous connectivity to the Polkadot network.[5]

Consensus and the DOT token

There are three forms of stakeholders within the Polkadot proof-of-stake consensus model namely:

DOT token is used for both staking and governance:

See also


  1. ^ Ferran, Taylor. "Pokadot(DOT)". polkadot. Retrieved 28 Jan 2023.
  2. ^ "Ethereum Blockchain Killer Goes By Unassuming Name of Polkadot". Bloomberg. October 17, 2020. Retrieved July 14, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ "True interoperability". Polkadot. Retrieved 13 Feb 2022.
  4. ^ Vigna, Paul (March 3, 2022). "How Bitcoin and a Crypto Exchange Became Part of Ukraine's War Effort". Wall Street Journal.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "About Polkadot, a platform for Web3". PolkadotAbout. October 17, 2017.
  6. ^ Butcher, Mike (October 17, 2017). "Polkadot passes the $140M mark for its fund-raise to link private and public blockchains". Techcrunch.
  7. ^ "Polkadot Network". Polkadot Network. Retrieved 2022-08-08.
  8. ^ Adams, Michael. "What is Polkadot?". Forbes. Retrieved 28 Jan 2023.
  9. ^ Waters, Richard (31 December 2020). "What did Silicon Valley's crypto bubble create?". Financial Times.
  10. ^ Piven, Ben (13 May 2021). "After Musk Bitcoin U-turn, which coins are more climate friendly?". Retrieved 5 July 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ Alper, Handan net. "BABE". W3F. Retrieved 2021-12-06.
  12. ^ [1] Kiayias home page at University of Edinburgh