The Numismatics Portal

Electrum coin from Ephesus, 520-500 BCE. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch
Electrum coin from Ephesus, 520-500 BCE. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch

Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, medals and related objects.

Specialists, known as numismatists, are often characterized as students or collectors of coins, but the discipline also includes the broader study of money and other means of payment used to resolve debts and exchange goods.

The earliest forms of money used by peoples is referred to as "Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded, even where used as a circulating currency (e.g., cigarettes in prison). As an example, the Kyrgyz people used horses as the principal currency unit, and gave small change in lambskins; the lambskins may be suitable for numismatic study, but the horses are not. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as cowry shells, precious metals, cocoa beans, large stones, and gems. (Full article...)

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The Medal of the Royal Numismatic Society was first awarded in 1883. It is awarded by the Royal Numismatic Society and is one of the highest markers of recognition given to numismatists. The President and Council award the Medal annually to an "individual highly distinguished for services to Numismatic Science".

In recent years the Medallist has been invited to receive the medal in person and to give a lecture, usually at the Society's December Meeting. (Full article...)
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Credit: commons:User:Roger McLassus.
A 1 Hungarian pengő coin, made of aluminium, floating on water, demonstrating its surface tension.

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The Krugerrand (/ˈkrɡərænd/; Afrikaans: [ˈkry.ərˌrant]) is a South African coin, first minted on 3 July 1967 to help market South African gold and produced by Rand Refinery and the South African Mint. The name is a compound of Paul Kruger, the former President of the South African Republic (depicted on the obverse), and rand, the South African unit of currency. On the reverse side of the Krugerrand is a pronking springbok, South Africa's national animal.

By 1980 the Krugerrand accounted for more than 90% of the global gold coin market and was the number one choice for investors buying gold. However, during the 1980s and 1990s, Krugerrands fell out of favor as some western countries forbade import of the Krugerrand because of its association with the apartheid government of South Africa. (Full article...)

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Credit: Ronald Wise, banknoteworld
Back of 100 Kyrgyz som, printed and issued in 2002.

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The following are images from various numismatics-related articles on Wikipedia.
  • Image 1Bielefeld Germany 25 Mark 1921. Silk Banknote. (from Banknote)
    Bielefeld Germany 25 Mark 1921. Silk Banknote. (from Banknote)
  • Image 2Song Dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money. (from Banknote)
    Song Dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money. (from Banknote)
  • Image 3Bimetallic Egyptian one pound coin featuring King Tutankhamen (from Coin)
    Bimetallic Egyptian one pound coin featuring King Tutankhamen (from Coin)
  • Image 4The world's oldest coin, created in the ancient Kingdom of Lydia. (from Currency)
    The world's oldest coin, created in the ancient Kingdom of Lydia. (from Currency)
  • Image 5Five million mark coin (Weimar Republic, 1923). Despite its high denomination, this coin's monetary value dropped to a tiny fraction of a US cent by the end of 1923, substantially less than the value of its metallic content. (from Coin)
    Five million mark coin (Weimar Republic, 1923). Despite its high denomination, this coin's monetary value dropped to a tiny fraction of a US cent by the end of 1923, substantially less than the value of its metallic content. (from Coin)
  • Image 6Spade money from the Zhou Dynasty, c. 650–400 BC (from History of money)
    Spade money from the Zhou Dynasty, c. 650–400 BC (from History of money)
  • Image 7The Colombian 50,000 peso note, presented in a vertical format. (from Banknote)
    The Colombian 50,000 peso note, presented in a vertical format. (from Banknote)
  • Image 83 Rubles proof coin of Russia, minted in 2008 (from Coin)
    3 Rubles proof coin of Russia, minted in 2008 (from Coin)
  • Image 9Punch-marked coin minted in the Kabul Valley under Achaemenid administration. Circa 500–380 BCE, or c.350 BCE. (from Coin)
    Punch-marked coin minted in the Kabul Valley under Achaemenid administration. Circa 500–380 BCE, or c.350 BCE. (from Coin)
  • Image 10Greek drachm of Aegina. Obverse: Land turtle. Reverse: ΑΙΓ(INA) and dolphin (from History of money)
    Greek drachm of Aegina. Obverse: Land turtle. Reverse: ΑΙΓ(INA) and dolphin (from History of money)
  • Image 11Shredded and briquetted US dollar notes from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (approx. 1000 pieces, 1 kg) (from Banknote)
    Shredded and briquetted US dollar notes from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (approx. 1000 pieces, 1 kg) (from Banknote)
  • Image 12Song dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money (from Currency)
    Song dynasty Jiaozi, the world's earliest paper money (from Currency)
  • Image 13A siglos found in the Kabul valley, 5th century BCE. Coins of this type were also found in the Bhir Mound hoard. (from Coin)
    A siglos found in the Kabul valley, 5th century BCE. Coins of this type were also found in the Bhir Mound hoard. (from Coin)
  • Image 14Obverse and reverse of an old American $100 note (1928) (from Banknote)
    Obverse and reverse of an old American $100 note (1928) (from Banknote)
  • Image 15Silver stater of Aegina, 550–530 BCE. Obv. Sea turtle with large pellets down centre. Rev. incuse square punch with eight sections. (from Coin)
    Silver stater of Aegina, 550–530 BCE. Obv. Sea turtle with large pellets down centre. Rev. incuse square punch with eight sections. (from Coin)
  • Image 16Cowry shells being used as money by an Arab trader. (from Currency)
    Cowry shells being used as money by an Arab trader. (from Currency)
  • Image 17A silver coin made during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II (from Coin)
    A silver coin made during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Alamgir II (from Coin)
  • Image 18The taka was widely used across South Asia during the sultanate period (from History of money)
    The taka was widely used across South Asia during the sultanate period (from History of money)
  • Image 19Collage for banknote design with annotations and additions to show proposed changes (figure rather higher so as to allow room for the No.), Bank of Manchester, UK, 1833. On display at the British Museum in London (from Banknote)
    Collage for banknote design with annotations and additions to show proposed changes (figure rather higher so as to allow room for the No.), Bank of Manchester, UK, 1833. On display at the British Museum in London (from Banknote)
  • Image 20The Piloncitos are tiny engraved gold coins found in the Philippines, along with the barter rings, which are gold ring-like ingots. These barter rings are bigger than doughnuts in size and are made of pure gold from the Archaic period (c. 10th to 16th century). (from Coin)
    The Piloncitos are tiny engraved gold coins found in the Philippines, along with the barter rings, which are gold ring-like ingots. These barter rings are bigger than doughnuts in size and are made of pure gold from the Archaic period (c. 10th to 16th century). (from Coin)
  • Image 21Gandharan "bent-bar" punch-marked coin minted under Achaemenid administration, of the type found in large quantities in the Chaman Hazouri and the Bhir Mound hoards. (from Coin)
    Gandharan "bent-bar" punch-marked coin minted under Achaemenid administration, of the type found in large quantities in the Chaman Hazouri and the Bhir Mound hoards. (from Coin)
  • Image 22The Achaemenid Empire Satraps and Dynasts in Asia Minor developed the usage of portraiture from circa 420 BCE. Portrait of the Satrap of Lydia, Tissaphernes (c.445–395 BCE). (from Coin)
    The Achaemenid Empire Satraps and Dynasts in Asia Minor developed the usage of portraiture from circa 420 BCE. Portrait of the Satrap of Lydia, Tissaphernes (c.445–395 BCE). (from Coin)
  • Image 23A selection of metal coins. (from Coin)
    A selection of metal coins. (from Coin)
  • Image 24The earliest inscribed coinage: electrum coin of Phanes from Ephesus, 625–600 BCE. Obverse: Stag grazing right, ΦΑΝΕΩΣ (retrograde). Reverse: Two incuse punches, each with raised intersecting lines. (from Coin)
    The earliest inscribed coinage: electrum coin of Phanes from Ephesus, 625–600 BCE. Obverse: Stag grazing right, ΦΑΝΕΩΣ (retrograde). Reverse: Two incuse punches, each with raised intersecting lines. (from Coin)
  • Image 25Holographic coin from Liberia features the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World) (from Coin)
    Holographic coin from Liberia features the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World) (from Coin)
  • Image 26French 1992 twenty Franc Tri-Metallic coin (from Coin)
    French 1992 twenty Franc Tri-Metallic coin (from Coin)
  • Image 28A Yuan dynasty printing plate and banknote with Chinese words. (from Banknote)
    A Yuan dynasty printing plate and banknote with Chinese words. (from Banknote)
  • Image 29Name of currency units by country (from Currency)
    Name of currency units by country (from Currency)
  • Image 30Shredded and briquetted euro banknotes from the Deutsche Bundesbank, Germany (approx. 1 kg) (from Banknote)
    Shredded and briquetted euro banknotes from the Deutsche Bundesbank, Germany (approx. 1 kg) (from Banknote)
  • Image 31Fifty-five-dollar bill in Continental currency; leaf design by Benjamin Franklin, 1779 (from Banknote)
    Fifty-five-dollar bill in Continental currency; leaf design by Benjamin Franklin, 1779 (from Banknote)
  • Image 32A 5 euro note so badly damaged it has been torn in half. The note has later been repaired with tape. (from Banknote)
    A 5 euro note so badly damaged it has been torn in half. The note has later been repaired with tape. (from Banknote)
  • Image 33A$5 note issued by Citizens Bank of Louisiana in the 1850s. (from Banknote)
    A$5 note issued by Citizens Bank of Louisiana in the 1850s. (from Banknote)
  • Image 34Chinese round coins, Eastern Zhou dynasty – Warring States Period. Circa 300–220 BCE. Four Hua (四化, 30mm, 6.94 g). Legend Yi Si Hua ([City of] Yi Four Hua). (from Coin)
    Chinese round coins, Eastern Zhou dynastyWarring States Period. Circa 300–220 BCE. Four Hua (四化, 30mm, 6.94 g). Legend Yi Si Hua ([City of] Yi Four Hua). (from Coin)
  • Image 35Coin of Alyattes of Lydia. Circa 620/10-564/53 BCE. (from Coin)
    Coin of Alyattes of Lydia. Circa 620/10-564/53 BCE. (from Coin)
  • Image 36Marco Polo described the use of early banknotes in China to Medieval Europe in his book, The Travels of Marco Polo. (from Banknote)
    Marco Polo described the use of early banknotes in China to Medieval Europe in his book, The Travels of Marco Polo. (from Banknote)
  • Image 37A 7th century one-third stater coin from Lydia, shown larger (from History of money)
    A 7th century one-third stater coin from Lydia, shown larger (from History of money)
  • Image 38Early punch-marked coins of Gandhara,  Taxila-Gandhara region. (from Coin)
    Early punch-marked coins of Gandhara, Taxila-Gandhara region. (from Coin)
  • Image 39100 USD banknote (from History of money)
    100 USD banknote (from History of money)
  • Image 40An American Silver Eagle minted in 2019 (left), an example of a Bullion coin. Its obverse design is based on the older, formerly circulating silver Walking Liberty half dollar (right). (from Coin)
    An American Silver Eagle minted in 2019 (left), an example of a Bullion coin. Its obverse design is based on the older, formerly circulating silver Walking Liberty half dollar (right). (from Coin)
  • Image 41Currencies exchange logo (from Currency)
    Currencies exchange logo (from Currency)
  • Image 42Silver coin of the Maurya Empire, known as rūpyarūpa, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BC. (from History of money)
    Silver coin of the Maurya Empire, known as rūpyarūpa, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BC. (from History of money)
  • Image 43Coins can be stacked. (from Coin)
    Coins can be stacked. (from Coin)
  • Image 44Posthumous Alexander the Great tetradrachm from Temnos, Aeolis. Dated 188–170 BCE. Obverse: Alexander the Great as Herakles facing right wearing the nemean lionskin. Reverse: Zeus seated on throne to the left holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left; in left field PA monogram and angular sigma above grape vine arching over oinochoe; ALEXANDROU vertical in right field. Reference: Price 1678. (from Coin)
    Posthumous Alexander the Great tetradrachm from Temnos, Aeolis. Dated 188–170 BCE. Obverse: Alexander the Great as Herakles facing right wearing the nemean lionskin. Reverse: Zeus seated on throne to the left holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left; in left field PA monogram and angular sigma above grape vine arching over oinochoe; ALEXANDROU vertical in right field. Reference: Price 1678. (from Coin)
  • Image 45Hoard of mostly Mauryan Empire coins, 3rd century BCE. (from Coin)
    Hoard of mostly Mauryan Empire coins, 3rd century BCE. (from Coin)
  • Image 46Shredded and briquetted US dollar notes from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (approx. 1000 pieces, 1 kg) (from Banknote)
    Shredded and briquetted US dollar notes from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (approx. 1000 pieces, 1 kg) (from Banknote)
  • Image 47Strength of currencies relative to USD as of April 2016 (from Currency)
    Strength of currencies relative to USD as of April 2016 (from Currency)
  • Image 48Athens coin (circa 500/490–485 BCE) discovered in the Shaikhan Dehri hoard in Pushkalavati, Ancient India. This coin is the earliest known example of its type to be found so far east. (from Coin)
    Athens coin (circa 500/490–485 BCE) discovered in the Shaikhan Dehri hoard in Pushkalavati, Ancient India. This coin is the earliest known example of its type to be found so far east. (from Coin)
  • Image 491884 United States trade dollar (from Coin)
    1884 United States trade dollar (from Coin)
  • Image 50A 2000 Romanian lei polymer banknote (from Banknote)
    A 2000 Romanian lei polymer banknote (from Banknote)
  • Image 51A former Finnish 10 mark banknote from 1980, depicting President J. K. Paasikivi. (from Banknote)
    A former Finnish 10 mark banknote from 1980, depicting President J. K. Paasikivi. (from Banknote)
  • Image 52Banknotes with a face value of 5000 in different currencies. (United States dollar, CFA franc, Japanese yen, Italian lira, and French franc) (from Banknote)
    Banknotes with a face value of 5000 in different currencies. (United States dollar, CFA franc, Japanese yen, Italian lira, and French franc) (from Banknote)
  • Image 53When Brazil changed currencies in 1989, the 1000, 5000, and 10,000 cruzados banknotes were overstamped and issued as 1, 5, and 10 cruzados novos banknotes for several months before cruzado novo banknotes were printed and issued. Banknotes can be overstamped with new denominations, typically when a country converts to a new currency at an even, fixed exchange rate (in this case, 1000:1). (from Banknote)
    When Brazil changed currencies in 1989, the 1000, 5000, and 10,000 cruzados banknotes were overstamped and issued as 1, 5, and 10 cruzados novos banknotes for several months before cruzado novo banknotes were printed and issued. Banknotes can be overstamped with new denominations, typically when a country converts to a new currency at an even, fixed exchange rate (in this case, 1000:1). (from Banknote)
  • Image 54Earliest banknote from China during the Song Dynasty which is known as "Jiaozi" (from History of money)
    Earliest banknote from China during the Song Dynasty which is known as "Jiaozi" (from History of money)
  • Image 55The first paper money in Europe, issued by the Stockholms Banco in 1666. (from Banknote)
    The first paper money in Europe, issued by the Stockholms Banco in 1666. (from Banknote)
  • Image 56Fed Shreds as souvenir from the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (from Banknote)
    Fed Shreds as souvenir from the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (from Banknote)
  • Image 57The sealing of the Bank of England Charter (1694). The Bank began the first permanent issue of banknotes a year later. (from Banknote)
    The sealing of the Bank of England Charter (1694). The Bank began the first permanent issue of banknotes a year later. (from Banknote)
  • Image 58Shreds of unfit US dollar notes with a typical size of less than 1.5 mm x 16 mm (from Banknote)
    Shreds of unfit US dollar notes with a typical size of less than 1.5 mm x 16 mm (from Banknote)
  • Image 59The French East India Company issued rupees in the name of Muhammad Shah (1719–1748) for Northern India trade. This was cast in Pondicherry. (from History of money)
    The French East India Company issued rupees in the name of Muhammad Shah (1719–1748) for Northern India trade. This was cast in Pondicherry. (from History of money)
  • Image 60Alexander the Great Tetradrachm from the Temnos Mint, dated circa 188–170 BCE (from Coin)
    Alexander the Great Tetradrachm from the Temnos Mint, dated circa 188–170 BCE (from Coin)
  • Image 61A Swiss ten-cent coin from 1879, similar to the oldest coins still in official use today (from Coin)
    A Swiss ten-cent coin from 1879, similar to the oldest coins still in official use today (from Coin)
  • Image 62An oxhide ingot from Crete. Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an "ox-hide", suggesting that they represented standardized values. (from Coin)
    An oxhide ingot from Crete. Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an "ox-hide", suggesting that they represented standardized values. (from Coin)

Numismatic terminology

  • Bullion – Precious metals (platinum, gold and silver) in the form of bars, ingots or plate.
  • Error – Usually a mis-made coin not intended for circulation, but can also refer to an engraving or die-cutting error not discovered until the coins are released to circulation. This may result is two or more varieties of the coin in the same year.
  • Exonumia – The study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, and other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration.
  • Fineness – Purity of precious metal content expressed in terms of one thousand parts. 90% is expressed as .900 fine.
  • Notaphily – The study of paper money or banknotes.
  • Scripophily – The study and collection of stocks and Bonds.

WikiProjects

Numismatic topics

Money - Coins - Banknotes - Electronic money - Exchange rate - Legal tender - Clubs - Terminology

Ancient currency: Asia - Byzantium - Greece - Primitive Money - Roman - Indian coinage

Modern currency: Africa - The Americas - Asia and the Pacific - Europe - Bullion coins - Challenge coin - Commemorative coins - Token coins

Economics: Banking - Bonds - Cheques - Credit Cards - Fiat currency - Gold standard - Mints - Monetary union - Reserve currency - Stocks

Production: Coining (machining) - Designers - Die making - Mint (coin) • Coinage Metals: Aluminum - Bronze - Copper - Gold - Platinum - Silver - Tin

Exonumia - Notaphily - Scripophily


List articles

Central banks • Currencies • Circulating currencies • Historical currencies • US community currencies • Canadian community currencies • Mints • Motifs on banknotes • Most expensive coins

Subcategories

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Most traded currencies

Most traded currencies by value
Currency distribution of global foreign exchange market turnover[1]
Rank Currency ISO 4217 code
(symbol)
% of daily trades
(bought or sold)
(April 2019)
1
United States dollar
USD (US$)
88.3%
2
Euro
EUR (€)
32.3%
3
Japanese yen
JPY (¥)
16.8%
4
Pound sterling
GBP (£)
12.8%
5
Australian dollar
AUD (A$)
6.8%
6
Canadian dollar
CAD (C$)
5.0%
7
Swiss franc
CHF (CHF)
5.0%
8
Renminbi
CNY (元 / ¥)
4.3%
9
Hong Kong dollar
HKD (HK$)
3.5%
10
New Zealand dollar
NZD (NZ$)
2.1%
11
Swedish krona
SEK (kr)
2.0%
12
South Korean won
KRW (₩)
2.0%
13
Singapore dollar
SGD (S$)
1.8%
14
Norwegian krone
NOK (kr)
1.8%
15
Mexican peso
MXN ($)
1.7%
16
Indian rupee
INR (₹)
1.7%
17
Russian ruble
RUB (₽)
1.1%
18
South African rand
ZAR (R)
1.1%
19
Turkish lira
TRY (₺)
1.1%
20
Brazilian real
BRL (R$)
1.1%
21
New Taiwan dollar
TWD (NT$)
0.9%
22
Danish krone
DKK (kr)
0.6%
23
Polish złoty
PLN (zł)
0.6%
24
Thai baht
THB (฿)
0.5%
25
Indonesian rupiah
IDR (Rp)
0.4%
26
Hungarian forint
HUF (Ft)
0.4%
27
Czech koruna
CZK (Kč)
0.4%
28
Israeli new shekel
ILS (₪)
0.3%
29
Chilean peso
CLP (CLP$)
0.3%
30
Philippine peso
PHP (₱)
0.3%
31
UAE dirham
AED (د.إ)
0.2%
32
Colombian peso
COP (COL$)
0.2%
33
Saudi riyal
SAR (﷼)
0.2%
34
Malaysian ringgit
MYR (RM)
0.1%
35
Romanian leu
RON (L)
0.1%
Other 2.2%
Total[note 1] 200.0%

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  1. ^ The total sum is 200% because each currency trade always involves a currency pair; one currency is sold (e.g. US$) and another bought (€). Therefore each trade is counted twice, once under the sold currency ($) and once under the bought currency (€). The percentages above are the percent of trades involving that currency regardless of whether it is bought or sold, e.g. the U.S. Dollar is bought or sold in 88% of all trades, whereas the Euro is bought or sold 32% of the time.
  1. ^ "Triennial Central Bank Survey Foreign exchange turnover in April 2019" (PDF). Bank for International Settlements. 16 September 2019. p. 10. Retrieved 2019-09-16.

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