In mathematics, a Ramanujan prime is a prime number that satisfies a result proven by Srinivasa Ramanujan relating to the prime-counting function.

## Origins and definition

In 1919, Ramanujan published a new proof of Bertrand's postulate which, as he notes, was first proved by Chebyshev. At the end of the two-page published paper, Ramanujan derived a generalized result, and that is:

$\pi (x)-\pi \left({\frac {x}{2))\right)\geq 1,2,3,4,5,\ldots {\text{ for all ))x\geq 2,11,17,29,41,\ldots {\text{ respectively))$ where $\pi (x)$ is the prime-counting function, equal to the number of primes less than or equal to x.

The converse of this result is the definition of Ramanujan primes:

The nth Ramanujan prime is the least integer Rn for which $\pi (x)-\pi (x/2)\geq n,$ for all xRn. In other words: Ramanujan primes are the least integers Rn for which there are at least n primes between x and x/2 for all xRn.

The first five Ramanujan primes are thus 2, 11, 17, 29, and 41.

Note that the integer Rn is necessarily a prime number: $\pi (x)-\pi (x/2)$ and, hence, $\pi (x)$ must increase by obtaining another prime at x = Rn. Since $\pi (x)-\pi (x/2)$ can increase by at most 1,

$\pi (R_{n})-\pi \left({\frac {R_{n)){2))\right)=n.$ ## Bounds and an asymptotic formula

For all $n\geq 1$ , the bounds

$2n\ln 2n hold. If $n>1$ , then also

$p_{2n} where pn is the nth prime number.

As n tends to infinity, Rn is asymptotic to the 2nth prime, i.e.,

Rn ~ p2n (n → ∞).

All these results were proved by Sondow (2009), except for the upper bound Rn < p3n which was conjectured by him and proved by Laishram (2010). The bound was improved by Sondow, Nicholson, and Noe (2011) to

$R_{n}\leq {\frac {41}{47))\ p_{3n)$ which is the optimal form of Rnc·p3n since it is an equality for n = 5.

1. ^ Ramanujan, S. (1919), "A proof of Bertrand's postulate", Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society, 11: 181–182
2. ^ Jonathan Sondow. "Ramanujan Prime". MathWorld.
3. ^ Sondow, J. (2009), "Ramanujan primes and Bertrand's postulate", Amer. Math. Monthly, 116 (7): 630–635, arXiv:0907.5232, doi:10.4169/193009709x458609
4. ^ Laishram, S. (2010), "On a conjecture on Ramanujan primes" (PDF), International Journal of Number Theory, 6 (8): 1869–1873, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.639.4934, doi:10.1142/s1793042110003848.
5. ^ Sondow, J.; Nicholson, J.; Noe, T.D. (2011), "Ramanujan primes: bounds, runs, twins, and gaps" (PDF), Journal of Integer Sequences, 14: 11.6.2, arXiv:1105.2249, Bibcode:2011arXiv1105.2249S