← 12 13 14 →
Cardinalthirteen
Ordinal13th
(thirteenth)
Numeral systemtredecimal
Factorizationprime
Prime6th
Divisors1, 13
Greek numeralΙΓ´
Roman numeralXIII
Binary11012
Ternary1113
Senary216
Octal158
Duodecimal1112
HexadecimalD16

13 (thirteen) is the natural number following 12 and preceding 14.

Strikingly folkloric aspects of the number 13 have been noted in various cultures around the world: one theory is that this is due to the cultures employing lunar-solar calendars (there are approximately 12.41 lunations per solar year, and hence 12 "true months" plus a smaller, and often portentous, thirteenth month). This can be witnessed, for example, in the "Twelve Days of Christmas" of Western European tradition.[1]

In mathematics

The number 13 is the sixth prime number. It is a twin prime with 11, as well as a cousin prime with 17. It is the second Wilson prime, of three known (the others being 5 and 563),[2] and the smallest emirp in decimal.[3]

13 is:

*
****
***
****
*
*
***
****
***
*

Also,

H(1) + H(3) = (1!) + (1! * 2! * 3!) = 1 + (1 * 2 * 6) = 1 + 12 = 13

List of basic calculations

Multiplication 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 50 100 1000
(13)x 13 26 39 52 65 78 91 104 117 130 143 156 169 182 195 208 221 234 247 260 273 286 299 312 325 650 1300 13000
Division 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
13 ÷ x 13 6.5 4.3 3.25 2.6 2.16 1.857142 1.625 1.4 1.3 1.18 1.083 1 0.9285714 0.86 0.8125
x ÷ 13 0.076923 0.153846 0.230769 0.307692 0.384615 0.461538 0.538461 0.615384 0.692307 0.769230 0.846153 0.923076 1 1.076923 1.153846 1.230769
Exponentiation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13x 13 169 2197 28561 371293 4826809 62748517 815730721 10604499373 137858491849 1792160394037 23298085122481
x13 1 8192 1594323 67108864 1220703125 13060694016 96889010407 549755813888 2541865828329 10000000000000 34522712143931 106993205379072

In science

In languages

Grammar

Folklore

In Germany, according to an old tradition, 13 (dreizehn), as the first compound number, was the first number written in digits; the numbers 0 (null) through 12 (zwölf) were spelled out. The Duden (the German standard dictionary) now calls this tradition (which was actually never written down as an official rule) outdated and no longer valid, but many writers still follow it.[11]

In English

Thirteen is one of two numbers within the teen numerical range (13–19), along with fifteen, not derived by cardinal numeral (three) and the teen suffix; instead, it is derived from the ordinal numeral (third).

In religion

Islam

In Shia, 13 signifies the 13th day of the month of Rajab (the Lunar calendar), which is the birth of Imam Ali. 13 also is a total of 1 Prophet and 12 Shia Imams in the Islamic School of Thought.

Christianity

In all branches of Christianity it´s said that Christ had 12 disciples, thus forming a group of 13. It´s best known by the representations of the last supper.

Catholicism

The apparitions of the Virgin of Fátima in 1917 were claimed to occur on the 13th day of six consecutive months.[12]

In Catholic devotional practice, the number thirteen is also associated with Saint Anthony of Padua, since his feast day falls on June 13. A traditional devotion called the Thirteen Tuesdays of St. Anthony[13] involves praying to the saint every Tuesday over a period of thirteen weeks. Another devotion, St. Anthony's Chaplet, consists of thirteen decades of three beads each.[14]

Sikhism

According to famous Sakhi (evidence) or the story of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, when he was an accountant at a town of Sultanpur Lodhi, he was distributing groceries to people. When he gave groceries to the 13th person, he stopped because in Gurmukhi and Hindi the word 13 is called terah, which means yours. And Guru Nanak Dev Ji kept saying, "Yours, yours, yours..." remembering God. People reported to the emperor that Guru Nanak Dev Ji was giving out free food to the people. When treasures were checked, there was more money than before.

Judaism

Zoroastrianism

Since beginning of the Nowruz tradition, the 13th day of each new Iranian year is called Sizdah Be-dar, a festival dedicated to pranks and spending time outdoors.[15]

Confucianism

Aztec mythology

According to Aztec mythology, the Thirteen Heavens were formed by the gods from the head of Cipactli during creation.[16]

Wicca

A common tradition in the religion Wicca holds that the number of members for a coven is ideally thirteen, though this tradition is not universal.[17]

Luck

Bad

Further information: Triskaidekaphobia

This elevator skips the number 13 and jumps from floor 12 to 14. The thirteenth floor continues to physically exist, but is now represented by the numerical symbols for the number 14.

The number 13 is considered an unlucky number in some countries.[18] The end of the Mayan calendar's 13th Baktun was superstitiously feared as a harbinger of the apocalyptic 2012 phenomenon.[19] Fear of the number 13 has a specifically recognized phobia, triskaidekaphobia, a word first recorded in 1911.[20] The superstitious sufferers of triskaidekaphobia try to avoid bad luck by keeping away from anything numbered or labelled thirteen. As a result, companies and manufacturers use another way of numbering or labelling to avoid the number, with hotels and tall buildings being conspicuous examples (thirteenth floor).[21] It is also considered unlucky to have thirteen guests at a table. Friday the 13th has been considered an unlucky day.[18]

There are a number of theories as to why the number thirteen became associated with bad luck, but none of them have been accepted as likely.[18]

The Last Supper
At Jesus Christ's Last Supper, there were thirteen people around the table, counting Christ and the twelve apostles. Some believe this is unlucky because one of those thirteen, Judas Iscariot, was the betrayer of Jesus Christ. From the 1890s, a number of English language sources relate the "unlucky" thirteen to an idea that at the Last Supper, Judas, the disciple who betrayed Jesus, was the 13th to sit at the table.[22]
Knights Templar
On Friday, 13 October 1307, King Philip IV of France ordered the arrest of the Knights Templar,[18] and most of the knights were tortured and killed.
Full moons
A year with 13 full moons instead of 12 posed problems for the monks in charge of the calendars. "This was considered a very unfortunate circumstance, especially by the monks who had charge of the calendar of thirteen months for that year, and it upset the regular arrangement of church festivals. For this reason, thirteen came to be considered an unlucky number."[23] However, a typical century has about 37 years that have 13 full moons, compared to 63 years with 12 full moons, and typically every third or fourth year has 13 full moons.[24]
A suppressed lunar cult
In ancient cultures, the number 13 represented femininity, because it corresponded to the number of lunar (menstrual) cycles in a year (13 × 28 = 364 days). The theory is that, as the solar calendar triumphed over the lunar, the number thirteen became anathema.[18][25]
Hammurabi's code
There is a myth that the earliest reference to thirteen being unlucky or evil is in the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi (circa 1780 BC), where the thirteenth law is said to be omitted. In fact, the original Code of Hammurabi has no numeration. The translation by L.W. King (1910), edited by Richard Hooker, omitted one article: If the seller have gone to (his) fate (i. e., have died), the purchaser shall recover damages in said case fivefold from the estate of the seller. Other translations of the Code of Hammurabi, for example the translation by Robert Francis Harper, include the 13th article.[26]

Good

See also: Lucky Thirteen (disambiguation)

Singer Taylor Swift considers the number 13 to be lucky & references throughout her work[27]

Other

In the Mayan Tzolk'in calendar, trecenas mark cycles of 13-day periods. The pyramids are also set up in 9 steps divided into 7 days and 6 nights, 13 days total.

In the standard 52-card deck of playing cards there are four suits, each of 13 ranks.

A baker's dozen, devil's dozen,[31] long dozen, or long measure is 13, one more than a standard dozen. The thirteenth loaf is called the vantage loaf because it is considered advantageous overall to get 13 loaves for the price of 12.[32]

In Arthurian legend, which was recorded in Medieval texts, King Arthur is resting in Avalon with the twelve greatest knights of the Round Table, totalling 13, and will return when his country is in peril.[33]

The Thirteen Treasures of Britain are a series of magical items listed in late Medieval texts.

The Thirteen Postures of Tai Chi are thirteen postures (consisting of Eight Gates and Five Steps) which are considered to be of fundamental importance in the practice of tai chi.[34]

In astronomy there are 13 star constellations in the zodiac (including Ophiuchus); this can be compared with astrology where there are 12 signs of the zodiac.

In Judaism, 13 signifies the age at which a boy matures and becomes a Bar Mitzvah, i.e., a full member of the Jewish faith (counts as a member of Minyan). The number of principles of Jewish faith according to Maimonides. According to Rabbinic commentary on the Torah, God has 13 Attributes of Mercy.

In a tarot card deck, XIII is the card of Death, usually picturing the Pale Horse with its rider.

Age 13

History

The Great Seal of the United States features several groupings which consist of 13 things of the same type e.g. 13 olive leaves, 13 stars, 13 arrows.

In sports

In TV, films and literature

See also

References

  1. ^ Frazier, King of the Bean, and the Festival of Fools. Cited in Thompson, Tok. 2002. The thirteenth number: Then, there/ here and now. Studia Mythological Slavica 5, 145–159.
  2. ^ "Sloane's A001844 : Centered square numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
  3. ^ a b Wells, D. The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers, London: Penguin Group. (1987): 67–71.
  4. ^ "Star Number".
  5. ^ "Sloane's A007770 : Happy numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
  6. ^ "A000959 Lucky numbers. (Formerly M2616 N1035)". OEIS: The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  7. ^ de Koninck, J. M. (2009), Those Fascinating Numbers, American Mathematical Society, p. 4, ISBN 9780821886311
  8. ^ Viana, Vena (2018). "From Solid to Plane Tessellations, and Back". Nexus Network. 20 (3): 745–754. doi:10.1007/s00004-018-0389-5. S2CID 253587812.
  9. ^ Regular and Semiregular polytopes, II, pp.298-302 Four-dimensional honeycombs
  10. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A306445 (Number of collections of subsets of {1, 2, ..., n} that are closed under union and intersection)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  11. ^ "Duden | Schreibung von Zahlen bis 12". www.duden.de (in German). Retrieved March 23, 2020.
  12. ^ Rosemary Guiley, The Guinness Encyclopedia of Ghosts and Spirits, 1994, p. 215, ISBN 0-85112-748-7.
  13. ^ "The Shrine of St. Anthony". shrineofstanthony.org.
  14. ^ "Liturgical Year: Prayers: Chaplet of St. Anthony". catholicculture.org.
  15. ^ Allen, Emily; Eysenck, Juliet (April 1, 2016). "April Fool's Day: What are the best spoofs and how did it originate?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2019.
  16. ^ Adela Fernández (January 1, 1992). Dioses prehispánicos de México: mitos y deidades del panteón náhuatl (in Spanish). Panorama Editorial. pp. 30, 33, 34. ISBN 9789683803061. Retrieved February 13, 2022.
  17. ^ Raymond Buckland (1986). Buckland's Complete Book of Witchcraft. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn. pp. 17–18–53. ISBN 9780875420509. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
  18. ^ a b c d e Emery, David. "Why Is Friday the 13th Unlucky? - History and Folklore". About.com Entertainment. Archived from the original on January 16, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  19. ^ "Most Popular E-mail Newsletter". USA Today. November 24, 2011.
  20. ^ "triskaidekaphobia". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  21. ^ Fleischman, Sid (August 19, 2007). "The 13th Floor: A Ghost Story". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 26, 2008.
  22. ^ Cecil Adams (1992-11-06). "Why is the number 13 considered unlucky?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 2011-05-13.
  23. ^ "The Really Strange Story Behind Sunday's Blue Moon". Space.com. November 19, 2010.
  24. ^ Cooley, Keith (2008). "Full Moons 1900-2100". Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Archived from the original on June 24, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  25. ^ Stan Gooch, Guardians of the Ancient Wisdom (1980)
  26. ^ The Code of Hammurabi (Harper translation)
  27. ^ What Makes Taylor Swift's Lucky Number 13 So Special? See Here;Outlook India; Dec 14, 2023
  28. ^ Owen, Davies (2018). A Supernatural War: Magic, Divination, and Faith During the First World War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 136. ISBN 9780198794554.
  29. ^ "Tredici: Definizione e significato di tredici". dizionari.corriere.it. Dizionario di Italiano il Sabatini Coletti (in Italian). Archived from the original on June 22, 2019.
  30. ^ "Colgate: History & Traditions". Colgate University. Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2007.
  31. ^ "Definition of DEVIL'S DOZEN". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  32. ^ "Vantage loaf". Green's Dictionary of Slang. Oxford University Press. 2011. ISBN 978-0-19-982994-1. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  33. ^ Matthews, John (1991). A Glastonbury Reader. London: The Aquarian Press. p. 15. ISBN 1-85538-276-8.
  34. ^ "The 13 Postures and 13 Principles in Tai Chi Chuan". Tai Chi and Qigong. Retrieved May 8, 2020.
  35. ^ 13th (2016) - Ava DuVernay | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020
  36. ^ Thirteen (2003) - Catherine Hardwicke | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020
  37. ^ 13 Tzameti (2005) - Géla Babluani | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020
  38. ^ 13 Ghosts (1960) - William Castle | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020
  39. ^ Thirteen Ghosts (2001) - Steve Beck | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020
  40. ^ 13 Assassins (2010) - Takashi Miike | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020
  41. ^ Trinadtsat (1936) - Mikhail Romm | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020
  42. ^ The 13th Warrior (1999) - John McTiernan | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020
  43. ^ Apollo 13 (1995) - Ron Howard | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020
  44. ^ Friday the 13th (2009) - Marcus Nispel | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020
  45. ^ "The Official Website for Golgo 13". Viz Media. Retrieved October 28, 2017.
  46. ^ 13B (2009) - Vikram Kumar, Vikram Chatwal | Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related | AllMovie, retrieved August 10, 2020