Aramaki rose park, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan
Aramaki rose park, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan

A rose garden or rosarium is a garden or park, often open to the public, used to present and grow various types of garden roses, and sometimes rose species. Most often it is a section of a larger garden. Designs vary tremendously and roses may be displayed alongside other plants or grouped by individual variety, colour or class in rose beds. Technically it is a specialized type of shrub garden, but normally treated as a type of flower garden, if only because its origins in Europe go back to at least the Middle Ages in Europe, when roses were effectively the largest and most popular flowers, already existing in numerous garden cultivars.

Emilia in the rosegarden, Anjou, ~1460
Emilia in the rosegarden, Anjou, ~1460

Origins of the rose garden

Jules Gravereaux in Roseraie du Val-de-Marne, 1900

Of the over 150 species of rose, the Chinese rosa chinensis has contributed most to today's garden roses; it has been bred into garden varieties for about 1,000 years in China, and over 200 in Europe.[1] It is believed that roses were grown in many of the early civilisations in temperate latitudes from at least 5000 years ago. They are known to have been grown in ancient Babylon.[2] Paintings of roses have been discovered in Egyptian pyramid tombs from the 14th century BC.[3] Records exist of them being grown in Chinese gardens and Greek gardens from at least 500 BC.[4][5] Many of the original plant breeders used roses as a starting material as it is a quick way to obtain results.

Most of the plants grown in these early gardens are likely to have been species collected from the wild. However, there were large numbers of selected varieties being grown from early times; for instance numerous selections or cultivars of the China rose were in cultivation in China in the first millennium AD.[6]

The significant breeding of modern times started slowly in Europe from about the 17th century. This was encouraged by the introduction of new species, and especially by the introduction of the China rose into Europe in the 19th century.[5] An enormous range of roses has been bred since then. A major contributor in the early 19th century was Empress Josephine of France who patronized the development of rose breeding at her gardens at Malmaison.[7] As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England.[8]

British designers of rose gardens include Thomas Mawson who created examples at Graythwaite Hall (his first major garden project in 1886) and other sites including Bushey (1913). Another surviving old public rose gardens is Jules Gravereaux's Roseraie du Val-de-Marne south of Paris in L'Haÿ-les-Roses, which was laid out in 1899 and remains the biggest rose garden in France.

List of public rose gardens

Ruston's Roses in South Australia
Ruston's Roses in South Australia
Blooming roses of the rose garden in Chandigarh during spring season
Blooming roses of the rose garden in Chandigarh during spring season

Public rose gardens are a feature of many towns and cities. Since 1995, the World Federation of Rose Societies (WFRS) grants the Award of Garden Excellence. So far, 42 gardens have been selected.[9] Notable gardens around the world include:

Argentina

Austria

Roses with protection against freezing – Volksgarten, Vienna
Roses with protection against freezing – Volksgarten, Vienna

Australia

1905 Dickie bandstand in Nieuwesteeg Heritage Rose Garden, Bacchus Marsch, Victoria
1905 Dickie bandstand in Nieuwesteeg Heritage Rose Garden, Bacchus Marsch, Victoria
International rose garden of Kortrijk, Belgium
International rose garden of Kortrijk, Belgium

Belgium

Canada

University of British Columbia Rose Garden

China

Denmark

France

Parc de Bagatelle in Paris

Germany

Rosengarten Rose Garden in Bad Kissingen
Rosengarten Rose Garden in Bad Kissingen

India

Zakir Hussain Rose Garden in Chandigarh, India

There are various rose gardens in India. These gardens have thousands of varieties & sub-varieties of roses and are open to the public.

Israel

Italy

Rose garden at Vytautas Magnus University Botanical Garden in Kaunas, Lithuania

Lithuania

Netherlands

Wedding in Różanka Rose Garden in Szczecin, Poland
Wedding in Różanka Rose Garden in Szczecin, Poland

Poland

South Africa

Spain

Switzerland

Queen Mary Gardens in Regent's Park, London
Queen Mary Gardens in Regent's Park, London

United Kingdom

United States

Tyler is called the "Rose Capital of America" for its rose-growing industry, large municipal rose garden and annual Texas Rose Festival
Tyler is called the "Rose Capital of America" for its rose-growing industry, large municipal rose garden and annual Texas Rose Festival

Uruguay

Further reading

The World Federation of Rose Societies[46] produces an annual directory drawn up by national rose societies in each of its 39 member countries. This includes a catalogue of rose gardens considered nationally significant.[47]

Gallery

See also

Bibliography

References

  1. ^ "The History of Roses - Our Rose Garden - University of Illinois Extension". web.extension.illinois.edu.
  2. ^ "In pictures: Kew's Rose Garden in bloom | Kew". Kew Gardens.
  3. ^ "History Of The Rose". elmaskincare.com.
  4. ^ Goody, Jack (1993). The Culture of Flowers. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521424844.
  5. ^ a b Thomas, Graham Stuart (2004). The Graham Stuart Thomas Rose Book. London, England: Frances Lincoln Limited. ISBN 0-7112-2397-1.
  6. ^ Higson, Howard. "The History and Legacy of the China Rose". Quarryhill Botanical Garden.
  7. ^ Scaniello, Stephen (31 March 1996). "Cuttings;When Malmaison Celebrated the Rose's Beauty". New York Times. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  8. ^ "Abney Park Cemetery". London Gardens Online.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Award of Garden Excellence". World Federation of Rose Societies. November 2012. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  10. ^ "Rosedal de Palermo". World Federation of Rose Societies. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  11. ^ "ruston's roses". Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  12. ^ Stirling Macaboy (editor, Tommy Cairns), "The Ultimate Rose Book", Abrams New York, 2007 p. 467
  13. ^ "Morwell Centenary Rose Garden". World Federation of Rose Societies. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  14. ^ "Victoria State Rose Garden". World Federation of Rose Societies. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  15. ^ "VICTORIA STATE ROSE GARDEN TIME LINE". Victoria State Rose Garden.
  16. ^ Charles & Brigid Quest-Ritson, "The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Roses", Dorling Kindersley 2003, p. 100
  17. ^ "The Garden of Roses at Hex Castle". World Federation of Rose Societies. 1 November 2012. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  18. ^ "International Rose Garden Kortrijk". World Federation of Rose Societies. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  19. ^ "The Rose Garden at Vrijbroek Park". World Federation of Rose Societies. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  20. ^ "The Rose Garden at the Montreal Botanical Garden". World Federation of Rose Societies. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Dr. D. G. Hessayon, The Rose Expert, Expert Books 2004, p. 126
  22. ^ "Shenzhen Renmin Park". World Federation of Rose Societies. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  23. ^ "Zijing Park". World Federation of Rose Societies. 1 December 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  24. ^ Charles & Brigid Quest-Ritson, "The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Roses", Dorling Kindersley 2003, p. 166
  25. ^ Charles & Brigid Quest-Ritson, "The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Roses", Dorling Kindersley 2003, p. 8
  26. ^ "La Roseraie de Bagatelle". World Federation of Rose Societies. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  27. ^ Charles & Brigid Quest-Ritson, "The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Roses", Dorling Kindersley 2003, p. 354
  28. ^ "Rosenneuheitengarten Beutig". World Federation of Rose Societies. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  29. ^ Charles & Brigid Quest-Ritson, "The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Roses", Dorling Kindersley 2003, p. 419
  30. ^ "Il Roseto Botanico 'Carla Fineschi'". Worldrose.org. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  31. ^ Charles & Brigid Quest-Ritson, "The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Roses", Dorling Kindersley 2003, p. 149
  32. ^ nl:Westbroekpark
  33. ^ "Grange Park (Parc de la Grange)". switzerland-geneva.com.
  34. ^ "Roseraie du parc La Grange". Ville de Geneve. Municipal Government of Geneva. Retrieved 18 February 2021.
  35. ^ "National Trust | Mottisfont | History". Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  36. ^ "Welcome : The Royal National Rose Society (RNRS)". Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  37. ^ "The Regent's Park Flora and Fauna". Archived from the original on 1 October 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  38. ^ "American Rose Society". rose.org.
  39. ^ Stirling Macaboy (editor, Tommy Cairns), "The Ultimate Rose Book", Abrams New York, 2007 p. 466
  40. ^ "Rose Gardens". Rosegardenstore.org. Archived from the original on 28 December 2005.
  41. ^ "Peggy Rockefeller Rose Garden". nybg.org.
  42. ^ "Tyler Texas Rose Garden". tylertexasonline.com. Tyler Texas online. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  43. ^ "Rose Garden". Elizabeth Park Conservancy.
  44. ^ "The Emerald Necklace Conservancy – Boston, MA" (PDF). The Emerald Necklace Conservancy. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  45. ^ "ROGER WILLIAMS PARK – VICTORIAN ROSE GARDEN". Rhode Island Rose Society.
  46. ^ "World Federation of Rose Societies". Worldrose.org. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  47. ^ "Directory of Rose Gardens 2014" (PDF). WFRS. Retrieved 22 October 2014.