Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt
c. 1580 BC–c. 1550 BC
Sarcophagus of Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef, Louvre Museum
Sarcophagus of Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef, Louvre Museum
CapitalThebes
Common languagesEgyptian language
Religion
ancient Egyptian religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Historical eraBronze Age
• Established
c. 1580 BC
• Disestablished
c. 1550 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt
Abydos Dynasty
Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVII, alternatively 17th Dynasty or Dynasty 17) was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled in Upper Egypt during the late Second Intermediate Period, approximately from 1580 to 1550 BC.[1] Its mainly Theban rulers are contemporary with the Hyksos of the Fifteenth Dynasty and succeed the Sixteenth Dynasty, which was also based in Thebes.

In March 2012, French archeologists examining a limestone door in the Precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak discovered hieroglyphs with the name Senakhtenre, the first evidence of this king dating to his lifetime.[2]

The last two kings of the dynasty opposed the Hyksos rule over Egypt and initiated a war that would rid Egypt of the Hyksos kings and began a period of unified rule, the New Kingdom of Egypt.

Kamose, the second son of Seqenenre Tao and last king of the Seventeenth Dynasty, was the brother of Ahmose I, the first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty.

Some mainstream scholars have suggested that the Seventeenth dynasty of Egypt had Nubian ancestry due to the expanded presence of Nubians in Egypt during that time period and the craniofacial evidence from X-ray examinations of some members of this dynasty such as Seqenenre Tao and Tetisheri who displayed strong affinities with contemporary Nubians. Donald Redford explicitly argues that Egyptians "entered into the service of the king of Kush" between seventeenth and sixteenth centuries BC, citing historical texts along with archaeological evidence that showed an increased Nubian presence from the third Cataract on the Nile as far north as Deir Rifeh. Redford summarises that a shared "community of interest" existed which coincided with the influx of Nubian pottery and weapons in Upper Egypt.[3][4][5] There is no conclusive evidence that the founder of the dynasty, Rahotep, was of Nubian origin however and the dynasty is recognized as a native Egyptian dynasty by many scholars.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty

The Pharaohs of the 17th Dynasty ruled for approximately 30 years. Known rulers of the 17th Dynasty are as follows:[1]

Dynasty XVII Kings of Egypt
Nomen (personal name) Prenomen (throne name) Horus-name Image Reign Burial Consort(s) Comments
Rahotep Sekhemre-wahkhaw Wahankh c. 1585 BC
Sobekemsaf I Sekhemre-wadjkhaw Hetepnetjeru 7 years Nubemhat
Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-shedtawy (unknown) Statuette Sobekemsaf Petrie b Robbed during the reign of Ramesses IX Nubkhaes
Intef V Sekhemre-wepmaat Wepmaat Louvre 122006 050 Dra' Abu el-Naga'?
Intef VI Nubkheperre Neferkheperu Dra' Abu el-Naga' Sobekemsaf
Intef VII Sekhemre-heruhermaat (unknown) Dra' Abu el-Naga'? Haankhes
Ahmose Senakhtenre Merymaat Relief Senakhtenre by Khruner 1 year Tetisheri
Tao Seqenenre Khaemwaset c. 1560 (4 years) Dra' Abu el-Naga'? Ahmose Inhapy
Sitdjehuti
Ahhotep I
Died in battle against the Hyksos
Kamose Wadjkheperre Khahernesetef Sarcophage-Kamose 1555 to 1550 BC (5 years) Dra' Abu el-Naga' Ahhotep II?

Finally, king Nebmaatre may have been a ruler of the early 17th Dynasty.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 481. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
  2. ^ "A Pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty identified at Karnak". CFEETK – Centre Franco-Égyptien d'Étude des Temples de Karnak. Archived from the original on 2012-03-11.
  3. ^ F. J. Yurco. "'Were the ancient Egyptians black or white?'". Biblical Archaeology Review. (Vol 15, no. 5, 1989): 35–37.
  4. ^ Bruce., Redford, Donald (2006). From slave to pharaoh : the black experience of ancient Egypt. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 35–37. ISBN 978-0-8018-8544-0. OCLC 843428071.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ An X-ray atlas of the royal mummies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1980. pp. 207–208. ISBN 0226317455.
  6. ^ "A new dynasty emerged in Thebes out of a local branch of the Thirteenth Dynasty. It was founded by Rahotep, who took Wahankh as his Horus name."Grimal, Nicolas (1994). A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Blackwell (July 19, 1994). p. 187.
  7. ^ "In between the Hyksos kingdom, in the Delta and Middle Egypt, and the Kingdom of Kush, south of the 1st cataract, was squeezed the only “true” Egyptian dynasty, the 17th in Thebes."Van de Mieroop, Marc (2021). A History of Ancient Egypt. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 136.
  8. ^ "The conflict came to a head in a confrontation between the Hyksos and the native Theban rulers (Dynasty 17)"David, Rosalie (2007). Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt Revised. Oxford University Press. p. 33.
  9. ^ "In the south, Nubians entered Egypt to serve under the Theban rulers of the Seventeenth Dynasty (1640–1550 B.C.E.), who would rise up to restore a united land."Bunson, Margaret (2002). Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt (Facts on File Library of World History). Facts on File. p. 383.
  10. ^ "SEVENTEENTH DYNASTY. An upper Egyptian Succession (c.1665-1509) of local rulers in the Theban area."Redford, Donald (200). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt: 003. Oxford Univ Pr. p. 273.
  11. ^ "(Fifteenth Dynasty) in the eastern Delta was perceived to be a foreign occupation by the Egyptian Seventeenth Dynasty that ruled in Thebes"Noll, K.L. (2002). Canaan and Israel in Antiquity: An Introduction. Sheffield Academic Press. p. 123.
  12. ^ "The revolution by the Egyptian native Seven- teenth Dynasty against the Hyksos resulted in a subsequent campaign"Dumper, Michael (2006). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO (2006). p. 105.
  13. ^ "until they were eventually dispelled by a rival , native dynasty from Thebes Tubb, Jonathan N. (1999). Canaanites (Volume 2) (Peoples of the Past). University of Oklahoma Press. p. 62.
  14. ^ "and the Second lntermediate Period saw an Egyptian dynasty ruling from Thebes, while the Palestinian Hyksos ruled the north"Tyldesley, Joyce (2007). Egypt: How a Lost Civilisation Was Rediscovered. BBC Books. p. 14.
  15. ^ "while an indigenous Seventeenth Dynasty ( ca. 1650–1552 BCE ) ruled over Thebes ."Modrzejewski, Joseph Meleze (1995). Jews of Egypt from Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian. T&T Clark. p. 7.
  16. ^ "but there was also a native 17th dynasty ( ca 1640 - ca1540 ) in Thebes"Castleden, Rodney (1995). The Concise Encyclopedia of World History. Parragon Book Service. p. 191.
  17. ^ K. S. B. Ryholt, Adam Bülow-Jacobse, The political situation in Egypt during the second intermediate period, c. 1800-1550 B.C., pp 168, 170, 171, 179, 204, 400
Preceded by16th Dynasty Dynasty of Egypt 1585−1550 BC Succeeded by18th Dynasty