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Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt
943 BC–716 BC
Pendant bearing the cartouche of Osorkon II seated Osiris flanked by Horus and Isis
Pendant bearing the cartouche of Osorkon II
seated Osiris flanked by Horus and Isis
CapitalBubastis, Tanis
Common languagesEgyptian language
Religion
Ancient Egyptian Religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Historical eraClassical antiquity
• Established
943 BC
• Disestablished
716 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt is also known as the Bubastite Dynasty, since the pharaohs originally ruled from the city of Bubastis.[1] It was founded by Shoshenq I.

The Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-fifth dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group designation of the Third Intermediate Period.

Rulers

The pharaohs of the Twenty-second Dynasty were a series of Meshwesh (ancient Libyan[a] tribe) chieftains, who ruled from c. 943 BC until 716 BC. They had settled in Egypt since the Twentieth Dynasty and were known in Egypt as the 'Great Chiefs of the Ma' (Ma being a synonym of Meshwesh). Manetho states that this Egyptianized ancient Libyan dynasty first ruled over Bubastis, but its rulers almost certainly governed from Tanis, which was their capital and the city where their tombs have been excavated.

Another pharaoh who belongs to this group is Tutkheperre Shoshenq. His period of rule within this dynasty is currently uncertain, although he is now thought to have governed Egypt early in the 9th century BC for a short time between Osorkon I and Takelot I. The next ruler at Tanis after Shoshenq V was Osorkon IV. This pharaoh is sometimes not believed to be a member of the 22nd Dynasty since he only controlled a small portion of Lower Egypt together with Tefnakhte of Sais, whose authority was recognised at Memphis—and Iuput II of Leontopolis.

Pharaohs

The known rulers during the Twenty-second Dynasty include:

Twenty-Second Dynasty pharaohs
Pharaoh Throne name Image Reign (BC) Consort(s) Comments
Shoshenq I Hedjkheperre-Setepenre
943–922 BC Patareshnes
Karomama A
Possibly to be identified with the biblical Shishak
Osorkon I Sekhemkheperre-Setepenre
922–887 BC Maatkare B
Tashedkhonsu
Shepensopdet A
Shoshenq II Heqakheperre-Setepenre
887–885 BC Nesitanebetashru
Nesitaudjatakhet
Enjoyed an independent reign of two years at Tanis according to Von Beckerath
Takelot I Hedjkheperre-Setepenre
885–872 BC Kapes
Osorkon II Usermaatre-Setepenamun
872–837 BC Isetemkheb G
Karomama B
Djedmutesankh
Possibly one of the twelve kings who formed an alliance to fight Shalmaneser III of Assyria at the battle of Qarqar in 853 BC.[4]
Shoshenq III Usermaatre-Setepenre
837–798 BC Tadibast II
Tentamenopet
Djedbastiusankh
Shoshenq IV Hedjkheperre-Setepenre
798–785 BC Not to be confused with Shoshenq VI; the original Shoshenq IV in publications before 1993
Pami Usermaatre-Setepenamun
785–778 BC Buried two Apis bulls in his reign
Shoshenq V Akheperre
767–730 BC Tadibast III? Successor of Shoshenq V was often stated as Osorkon IV;some say it is Pedubast II
Pedubast II Sehetepibenre
743–733 BC Tadibast III? Not mentioned in all Pharaoh lists, placement disputed
Osorkon IV Usermaatre
730–716 BC Not always listed as a true member of the XXII Dynasty, but succeeded Shoshenq V at Tanis. Perhaps the biblical Pharaoh So (2 Kings 17:4).

Twenty-Third Dynasty

The so-called Twenty-Third Dynasty was an offshoot of this dynasty perhaps based in Upper Egypt, though there is much debate concerning this issue. All of its kings reigned in Middle and Upper Egypt including the Western Desert Oases.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The term "Libya" in Egyptology refers to the areas west of the Nile valley.[2][3]

References

  1. ^ "The geographic origins of the Bubastite Dynasty and possible locations for the royal residence and burial place of Shoshenq I"
  2. ^ "Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt Vol. 46(2010)". American Research Center in Egypt. 2010: 170. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ "Journal of Egyptian History 11 (2018)". Brill. 2018: 147. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Grayson, A. Kirk (1996). Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium BC II (858-745 BC) (RIMA 3). p. Shalmaneser III 2: ii92.