Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt
664 BC–525 BC
Portrait of a Pharaoh of the Saite Dynasty
Portrait of a Pharaoh of the Saite Dynasty
CapitalSais
Common languagesEgyptian language
Religion
Ancient Egyptian religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Pharaoh 
• 664–610 BC
Psamtik I (first)
• 526–525 BC
Psamtik III (last)
History 
• Established
664 BC
• Disestablished
525 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Assyrian conquest of Egypt
Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXVI, alternatively 26th Dynasty or Dynasty 26) was the last native dynasty of ancient Egypt before the Persian conquest in 525 BC (although other brief periods of rule by Egyptians followed). The dynasty's reign (664–525 BC) is also called the Saite Period after the city of Sais, where its pharaohs had their capital, and marks the beginning of the Late Period of ancient Egypt.[1]

History

This dynasty traced its origins to the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. Psamtik I was probably a descendant of Bakenranef. However, other sources describe him as of Libyan descent.[2][3]

Following the Neo-Assyrian conquest of Egypt during the reigns of Taharqa and Tantamani, and the subsequent collapse of the Napata-based Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, Psamtik I was recognized as sole king over all of Egypt. Psamtik formed alliances with King Gyges of Lydia, who sent him mercenaries from Caria and ancient Greece that Psamtik used to unify all of Egypt under his rule.

In 605 BCE, an Egyptian force under Necho II of Dynasty XXVI fought the Neo-Babylonian Empire at the Battle of Carchemish, helped by the remnants of the military of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, but this was met with defeat.

With the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC and the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, both Psamtik and his successors attempted to reassert Egyptian power in the Near East but were driven back by the Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nebuchadnezzar II. With the help of Greek mercenaries, Pharaoh Apries was able to hold back Babylonian attempts to conquer Egypt.

The Persians would eventually invade Egypt in 525 BCE when Emperor Cambyses II captured and later executed Psamtik III in the First Achaemenid conquest of Egypt. He founded the First Egyptian Satrapy, a territory of the Achaemenid Empire, was crowned the first pharaoh of the Dynasty XXVII.

Archaeology

In May 2020, an Egyptian-Spanish archaeological mission headed by Esther Ponce revealed a unique cemetery, which consists of one room built with glazed limestone dating back to the 26th Dynasty (also known as the El-Sawi era) at the site of ancient Oxyrhynchus. Archaeologists also uncovered bronze coins, clay seals, Roman tombstones and small crosses.[4][5][6] On October 3, 2020, Egypt unveiled 59 coffins of priests and clerks from the 26th dynasty, dating to nearly 2,500 years ago.[7]

Art

Pharaohs of the 26th Dynasty

For a more comprehensive list, see List of pharaohs.

Psamtik I enters Ashdod, in the Fall of Ashdod in 635 BCE.

The 26th Dynasty may be related to the 24th Dynasty. Manetho begins the dynasty with:

When the Nubian King Shabaka defeated Bakenranef, son of Tefnakht, he likely installed a Nubian commander as governor at Sais. This may be the man named Ammeris. Stephinates may be a descendant of Bakenrenef. He is sometimes referred to as Tefnakht II in the literature. Nechepsos has been identified with a local king named Nekauba (678–672 BC). Manetho's Necho is King Necho I (672–664 BC); Manetho gives his reign as 8 years.[9] Necho was killed during a conflict with the Nubian king Tantamani. Psamtik I fled to Nineveh – capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire – and returned to Egypt when Ashurbanipal defeated Tantamani and drove him back south.[1] Scholars now start the 26th Dynasty with the reign of Psamtik I.[1][9]

Sextus Julius Africanus states in his often accurate version of Manetho's Epitome that the dynasty numbered 9 pharaohs, beginning with a "Stephinates" (Tefnakht II) and ending with Psamtik III. Africanus also notes that Psamtik I and Necho I ruled for 54 and 8 years respectively.

Name of Pharaoh Image Reign Throne name Burial Consort(s) Comments
Psamtik I
Psammetichus I
664–610 BC Wahibre Sais Mehytenweskhet Reunified Egypt and ended the Nubian control of Upper Egypt. Manetho gives his reign as 54 years.
Necho II
610–595 BC Wehemibre Khedebneithirbinet I Necho II is the Pharaoh most likely mentioned in several books of the Bible.
Psamtik II
Psammetichus II
Statue of Psamtitk II. Louvre Museum
Statue of Psamtitk II. Louvre Museum
595–589 BC Neferibre Takhuit
Wahibre Haaibre
(Apries)
589–570 BC Haaibre Overthrown and forced into exile by Amasis II. Returned to Egypt at the head of a Babylonian army, but was defeated and likely killed. Manetho gives his reign as 19 years.
Amasis II
Ahmose II
570–526 BC Khnem-ib-re Sais Tentkheta
Nakhtubasterau
Herodotus claims that when Cambyses II invaded Egypt, realizing he was not able to exact revenge for Amasis's previous misdeeds and trickery, he exhumed his body, desecrated it and burned what remained of the mummy.
Psamtik III
Psammetichus III
526–525 BC Ankhkaenre Ruled for only 6 months according to Herodotus before a Persian invasion led by Cambyses II.

Timeline of the 26th Dynasty

Psamtik IIIAmasis IIWahibre HaaibrePsamtik IINecho IIPsamtik I

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, London 2004
  2. ^ Henry Bernard. Ancient Greece. p. 143.
  3. ^ Robert G. Morkot. The A to Z of Ancient Egyptian Warfare. p. 126.
  4. ^ Mahmoud, Rasha (2020-05-26). "Egypt makes major archaeological discovery amid coronavirus crisis". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 2020-09-09.
  5. ^ "Unique cemetery dating back to el-Sawi era discovered in Egypt amid coronavirus crisis". Zee News. 2020-05-28. Retrieved 2020-09-09.
  6. ^ "StackPath". dailynewsegypt.com. 18 May 2020. Retrieved 2020-09-09.
  7. ^ "Egypt unveils 59 ancient coffins in major archaeological discovery". Reuters. October 3, 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  8. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art". www.metmuseum.org.
  9. ^ a b Kitchen, Kenneth A. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 1100-650 B.C. (Book & Supplement) Aris & Phillips. 1986 ISBN 978-0-85668-298-8

Bibliography