Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt
1077 BC–943 BC
Gold funerary mask of pharaoh Psusennes I
Gold funerary mask of pharaoh Psusennes I
Common languagesEgyptian language
Ancient Egyptian Religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Historical eraIron Age
• Established
1077 BC
• Disestablished
943 BC
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt
Twenty-second Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXI, alternatively 21st Dynasty or Dynasty 21) is usually classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period, lasting from 1077 BC to 943 BC.


After the reign of Ramesses III, a long, slow decline of royal power in Egypt followed. The pharaohs of the Twenty-first Dynasty ruled from Tanis, but were mostly active only in Lower Egypt, which they controlled. This dynasty is described as 'Tanite' because its political capital was based at Tanis. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all but name. The later Egyptian Priest Manetho of Sebennytos states in his Epitome on Egyptian royal history that "the 21st Dynasty of Egypt lasted for 130 years".[1]

Pharaohs of the 21st Dynasty

Main article: List of pharaohs

Dynasty XXI Kings of Egypt
Pharaoh Image Prenomen (Throne name) Horus-name Reign Burial Consort(s) Comments
Smendes / Nesbanebdjed I Hedjkheperre Setepenre Kanakhtmeryreseuser Amunkhepesheferseqamaat 1077 - 1051 BC unknown Tentamun Only controlled Lower Egypt during his reign. Founder of the 21st Dynasty.
Amenemnisu Neferkare Heqawaset (unknown) 1051 - 1047 BC unknown
Psusennes I / Hor-Pasebakhaenniut I Akheperre Setepenamun Kanakhtemdedamun Userfausekhaemwaset 1047 - 1001 BC NRT III, Tanis Mutnedjemet
Precise length of reign unknown. Either 41 or 46 years.
Amenemope Usermaatre Setepenamun (unknown) 1001 - 992 BC Tanis Manetho writes in his Epitome that Amenemope ruled Egypt for 9 years.
Osorkon the Elder Akheperre Setepenre (unknown) 992 - 986 BC unknown Osorkon the elder ruled Egypt for 6 years.
Siamun Netjerkheperre Setepenamun Kanakhtmerymat Sameryenamunperemhauef 986 - 967 BC unknown Siamun is believed to have ruled Egypt for 19 years. Egyptologists have amended Manetho's figure of 9 years for this king to [1]9 years based on a Year 17 known for him in the Karnak Priestly Annals
Psusennes II / Hor-Pasebakhaenniut II Titkheperure Setepenre (unknown) 967 - 943 BC unknown

Timeline of the 21st Dynasty

Psusennes IISiamunOsorkon the ElderAmenemopePsusennes IAmenemnisuSmendes


  1. ^ Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC), 3rd edition, 1986, Warminster: Aris & Phillips Ltd, p.531

Further reading

See also