State University of New York at New Paltz
Former names
New Paltz Classical School (1828–1833)
New Paltz Academy (1833–1884)
New Paltz Normal School (1885–1942)
State Teachers College at New Paltz (1942–1959)
State University College of Education at New Paltz (1959–1961)[1]
State University of New York College of Arts and Science New Paltz (1961–1994)[2]
TypePublic university
Established1828; 196 years ago (1828)
Parent institution
State University of New York
Endowment$26.8 million (2019)[3]
PresidentDarrell P. Wheeler[4]
ProvostWilliam McClure [5]
Academic staff
372 (full-time)
302 (part-time)
Students7,489 (Fall 2020)[3]
Undergraduates6,597 (Fall 2020)[3]
Postgraduates892 (Fall 2020)[3]
Location, ,
United States

41°44′37″N 74°05′02″W / 41.74361°N 74.08389°W / 41.74361; -74.08389
CampusSmall town, 257 acres (104 ha)
ColorsBlue and orange
Sporting affiliations
NCAA Division III
MascotHugo the Hawk

The State University of New York at New Paltz (SUNY New Paltz or New Paltz) is a public university in New Paltz, New York. It traces its origins to the New Paltz Classical School, a secondary institution founded in 1828 and reorganized as an academy in 1833.[6]


Old Main, the oldest building on campus

The university's origins can be traced back to the New Paltz Classical School, which originally opened in 1828. After changing its name to the New Paltz Academy in 1833, the school was decimated by a fire in 1884, after which the school offered their land to the state government of New York contingent upon the establishment of a normal school.

In 1885, one year after the fire, the New Paltz Normal and Training School, or New Paltz Normal School, was established to prepare teachers to practice their professions in the public schools of New York. It was granted the ability to award baccalaureate degrees in 1938, after which it was renamed as the State Teachers College at New Paltz; the inaugural class of 112 students graduated in 1942. In 1947, a graduate program in education was established.

When the State University of New York was established by legislative act in 1948, the Teachers College at New Paltz was one of 30 colleges associated under SUNY's umbrella. An art education program was added in 1951. The school experienced another name change in 1959, becoming the State University College of Education at New Paltz. One year later, in 1960, the college was authorized to confer liberal arts degrees. Just one year after that, in 1961, the school updated its name yet again, to the State University of New York College of Arts and Science at New Paltz.

Van den Berg Hall is the second-oldest building on campus. Today[when?] it is the home to the business program.

Amid this tumult, the college's general education program (including then-vanguard introductory surveys of African and Asian cultures) was eliminated in 1971; a distribution requirement was re-instituted in 1993. A program in African American studies was established in 1968. Three years later, the experimental studies program (reorganized as the innovative studies program in 1975) began to enroll students, instructors, and local residents in credited and cocurricular courses that encompassed myriad disciplines, including video art (under Paul Ryan), dance therapy, clowning, camping, and ecodesign. Instructors in the program were hired by students and compensated through student activity fees. A 4-acre (1.6 ha) environmental studies site operated by students and community members under the aegis of the program at the southern periphery of the campus included geodesic domes, windmills, kilns, a solar-powered house funded by the Department of Energy, and more inchoate variants of sustainable architecture. Upon ascending to the college presidency in 1980, Alice Chandler characterized the edifices as "shacks and hovels" and abolished the program in the early 1980s, demolishing most of the site in the process.[7]

Under Chandler's leadership, the college began to offer professional degree programs in nursing, engineering, journalism, and accounting.[8] The Legislative Gazette, a journalism and political science internship in which students live and work in Albany and produce a weekly newspaper about state politics, was established in 1978.

The pond, with Esopus Hall in the background

On December 29, 1991, the campus was the scene of a widely reported PCB incident that contaminated four dormitories (Bliss, Gage, Capen and Scudder halls), as well as the Coykendall Science Building and Parker Theatre. Under the direction of the county and state health departments, the university began a massive, thorough cleanup effort. As an additional precaution, 29 other buildings were thoroughly tested and, if necessary, cleaned. The clean-up process lasted until May 1995. Since 1994, PCBs have not been used on the SUNY New Paltz campus.[9]

The college was rebranded as the State University of New York at New Paltz in 1994.[10]

In November 1997, two events on campus attracted nationwide media attention. The first, a feminist conference on sex and sexuality sponsored by the women's studies department entitled "Revolting Behavior: The Challenges of Women's Sexual Freedom", featured an instructional workshop on sex toys offered by a Manhattan sex shop proprietor and a lecture panel on sadomasochism ("Safe, Sane and Consensual S/M: An Alternate Way of Loving").[11] The second, a seminar entitled "Subject to Desire: Refiguring the Body", was sponsored by the School of Fine and Performing Arts. One presenter, Fluxus performance artist and longtime New Paltz resident Carolee Schneemann, was best known for Interior Scroll (1975), a piece that culminated in her unrolling a scroll from her vagina and reading it to the audience; at the seminar, Schneemann exhibited[12] abstract photographs of her vagina as part of Vulva's Morphia (1995), "a visceral sequence of photographs and text in which a Vulvic personification presents an ironic analysis juxtaposing slides and text to undermine Lacanian semiotics, gender issues, Marxism, the male art establishment, religious and cultural taboos."[13]

The Excelsior Concourse, one of the busiest parts of campus

Political conservatives were outraged that a public university had hosted such events, and Governor George Pataki and SUNY chancellor Robert King expressed their displeasure. The controversy escalated when the theatre arts department staged The Vagina Monologues shortly afterwards. The college's then-president, Roger Bowen, defended freedom of expression on campus and refused to apologize, doing little to allay conservative ire. "The real issue," he said, "is whether some ideologues, however well-intentioned, have the right to dictate what we say and what we do on this campus." SUNY trustee Candace de Russy called for him to be dismissed.[14] Bowen later resigned.[15]

In 2023, the institution was officially reclassified as a university by the State University of New York. The change took effect January 1, 2023, exactly seventy-five years after the SUNY system was founded; New Paltz was a founding member.[16][17]


Atrium of the Student Union Building, opened in 2010
Inside the Atrium

The SUNY New Paltz campus consists of about 216 acres (87 ha) in the small town of New Paltz, New York. There are 14 residence halls, centered mostly in two quads. The main campus has two dozen academic buildings, including the Haggerty Administration Building, a lecture hall, Old Main, Sojourner Truth Library, one main dining hall, the Student Union Building, Science Hall and extensive gymnasium and sports areas.

The college also operated the Ashokan campus in Olivebridge, New York, consisting of another 400 acres (160 ha). In 2008 it was sold by Campus Auxiliary Services to the Open Space Conservancy;[18] it is now operated as the Ashokan Center.

SUNY New Paltz has undergone extensive construction projects since 2008, totaling nearly $300 million,[19] including:

Campus theaters

SUNY at New Paltz contains three on-campus theaters.

McKenna Theater

McKenna Theatre is a fully equipped proscenium theatre, with seating for 366. The theater is named in honor of Dr. Rebecca McKenna, professor of English and drama and the founder of the theatre arts program at New Paltz. At the rear of the theater is a sound booth for digital audio equipment which has the capabilities to play back, mix, and amplify audio. There is also a lighting booth with a computerized light board (controlling over 200 dimmers) and LCD video projection equipment behind the audience (and upstairs). There are 32 line sets in the fly space above the stage. There is also a scene shop behind the stage, storage area for scenery, a paint shop, and other technical facilities.[21]

Parker Theater

College Hall, home to the Max and Nadia Shepard Recital Hall, and the oldest residence hall on campus

The building was originally built as a dining hall. Parker was then converted to a theatre venue and teaching space. In 1972 it was made into a theatre production facility. The building was renovated in 1994, featuring a modified thrust stage surrounded by a three-quarter audience configuration seating up to 200 people. In the rear are lighting and sound booths with computerized light board (controlling over 90 dimmers) and digital audio equipment. To both sides of the stage are performance studio spaces. Classes are offered in acting, voice, movement, and musical theatre. On the same floor of the theater are a costume studio, dressing rooms, costume maintenance, storage facilities, and faculty offices.[21]

Parker Theatre was built in 1962. It houses the Raymond T. Kurdt Theatrical Design Collection, one of the most significant collections of original costume and set designs in the nation.

Max and Nadia Shepard Recital Hall

Max and Nadia Shepard Recital Hall is located in College Hall, the oldest residence hall on campus. Built in 1951, it is a landmark, and is the closest hall to the village of New Paltz.[22] Its basement, now used primarily for storage, was built as a fallout shelter, and was stocked as such until the 1980s. The only remaining remnant are the "fallout toilets".[23]

The facility contains 125 seats and is named in honor of patrons of the performing arts programs at SUNY New Paltz. The hall offers a delicate setting for student recitals and chamber music performances. The rear of the hall contains a small studio equipped with Pro-tools HD and a Control 24 sound board used for recording professional performances.[21]

Max and Nadia Shepard Recital Hall is an important facility for the community. It hosts many recitals and is an integral part of the Piano Summer program.[24]

Samuel Dorsky Museum of Art

At the center of campus is the Samuel Dorsky Museum of Art, which opened in 2001. With more than 9,000 square feet of exhibition space in six galleries, the Dorsky is one of the largest art museums in the SUNY system.[25] The East Wing includes the Morgan Anderson Gallery, Howard Greenberg Family Gallery, Sara Bedrick Gallery, and the Corridor Gallery, and the West Wing includes the Alice and Horace Chandler Gallery and the North Gallery. The Dorsky's permanent collection comprises more than 7,000 works of American Art (with emphasis on the Hudson Valley and Catskill Regions), 19th, 20th and 21st century photography, metals, and a "world collection" of art and artifacts dating back to ancient times and representing diverse cultures. Through its collections, exhibitions, and public programs, the Dorsky supports and enriches the academic programs at the college, presents a broad range of world art for study and enjoyment, and serves as a center for Hudson Valley arts and culture.[26] The Dorsky's facilities include research and seminar rooms for visitors, students and professors at SUNY New Paltz.

Student life


SUNY New Paltz teams participate as a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division III. The Hawks are a member of the State University of New York Athletic Conference (SUNYAC). Men's sports include baseball, basketball, cross country, soccer, swimming & diving, volleyball and lacrosse; women's sports include basketball, cross country, field hockey, lacrosse, soccer, softball, swimming & diving, tennis and volleyball.

For the first time in program history, New Paltz men’s volleyball team captured the NCAA Division III Tournament title in 2016. The win also marked the first NCAA title for any New Paltz team.[27] Three years later, they defeated UC Santa Cruz to win their second championship in the sport and second for the school overall.[28]

Clubs and traditions

The quad at SUNY New Paltz

The student governance is operated by the Student Association, which funds most student activities through a mandatory fee. There are many clubs, fraternities, and sororities. Clubs that are recognized by the Student Association are organized into one of six boards: academic, advocacy, athletic, fine and performing arts, media, and social and cultural.[29] There is also an on-campus government, the Residence Hall Student Association (RHSA).[30][31]

The college has an auxiliary services corporation common to many state campuses in New York, called Campus Auxiliary Services, Inc. This on-campus company operates the dining halls and bookstore, as well as being the source of discretionary funds for spending by the college president and the RHSA.[32]

The college has a foundation and an active alumni association.[33]

The college's official student newspaper is The Oracle. In 2010, it was honored by the Society of Professional Journalists for having the Best Affiliated Website for four-year college or university (Region 1 competition). It was named as a runner-up for the National Title.

The campus TV station is WNPC TV. It broadcasts on channels 3, 6 and 8 in the New Paltz area.[citation needed]

The college's radio station, WFNP, is known as "The Edge". It broadcasts part-time at FM 88.7, and also streams online.[34]

Greek life

Recognized fraternities and sororities at the university include:[35]

Sororities Fraternities
Alpha Epsilon Phi Alpha Epsilon Pi
Alpha Kappa Alpha Alpha Phi Alpha
Alpha Kappa Phi Agonian sorority Alpha Phi Delta
Chi Upsilon Sigma Kappa Alpha Psi
Delta Sigma Theta Kappa Delta Phi
Hermandad Sigma Iota Alpha Lambda Alpha Upsilon
Kappa Delta Phi Lambda Sigma Upsilon
Lambda Pi Upsilon Lambda Upsilon Lambda
Mu Sigma Upsilon MALIK
Omega Phi Beta Phi Iota Alpha
Sigma Delta Tau Pi Alpha Nu
Sigma Lambda Upsilon Tau Kappa Epsilon
Zeta Phi Beta

Student activism

Vietnam War

There were several student-led demonstrations in the late 1960s and early 1970s, primarily against the Vietnam War. In the spring of 1967, a sit-in protesting military recruitment on campus blocked the entrance to the Student Union for two days. While there were scores of demonstrators the first day, all but 13 dispersed before New York State Troopers arrived and bodily carried the demonstrators to a waiting school bus for a trip to court. In the fall of 1968, students rallied in support of Craig Pastor (now Craig DeYong) who had been arrested by New Paltz Village Police for desecration of the American flag which he was wearing as a superhero cape in a student film directed by Edward Falco. College President John J. Neumaier posted bail. Pastor was released and charges were dropped.[citation needed]

The Cambodian Campaign and concomitant Kent State shootings in May 1970 led to a protest that culminated in a five-day student occupation of the Administration Building, subsequently renamed Old Main after the opening of the Haggerty Administration Building two years later. A March 1974 sit-in at the Haggerty Building reacted against perceived discriminatory hiring practices, the state-mandated reintegration of Shango Hall (which then housed underrepresented students), and the threatened cessation of the experimental studies program in the wake of a budget shortfall.[36]

Israel-Hamas War

Protests at the university over the Israel-Hamas War began in early 2024. On February 28, 2024, members of the Israeli Defense Forces were invited to campus by the Jewish Student Union with the assistance of the New Paltz chapter of Students Supporting Israel, to discuss their experiences serving, as well as their opinions of the war. In response a protest rally was organized by New Paltz Students for Palestine, in which over 150 students, alumni, and activists protested during and after the event.[37] Following the event and the protest, President Wheeler released a statement, saying, "I write today to share a brief note of gratitude to those within our community who helped ensure that all participants’ safety and rights were protected during the event organized yesterday by our Jewish Student Union and the corresponding counter demonstration."[38]

On May 1 2024, over 100 students, faculty and others pitched in to establish an encampment on Parker Quad, spurred on by the Gaza Solidarity encampments established at other colleges across the country. President Wheeler visited the encampment and asked them to dismantle the tents, but students refused. He then wrote down notes regarding the demands of the organizers, which included divestment from companies doing business with Israel, amnesty for people disciplined by the school, and disclosure of the investments the school makes.[39]

The following day, on May 2, two members of Student Affairs visited the encampment in an effort to get students to dismantle it by 7:00 PM. The protesters refused, and were later told to leave by 9:00 PM. When the time came, they refused to leave, and administration called the police.[40] Officers including New York State troopers, the NYSUP, Ulster County Sheriff’s Office, and the New Paltz Police Department all participated. Police brought K-9s, batons, and nonlethal firearms.[41] Over 100 people were arrested, with at least three people injured. One student being kicked in the face and an elderly woman was allegedly knocked unconscious.[42][43][44]

Notable alumni

This article's list of alumni may not follow Wikipedia's verifiability policy. Please improve this article by removing names that do not have independent reliable sources showing they merit inclusion in this article AND are alumni, or by incorporating the relevant publications into the body of the article through appropriate citations. (August 2023)
Principal's residence, about 1909

SUNY New Paltz alumni include:

Notable faculty

See also


  1. ^ "About New Paltz". SUNY New Paltz. Retrieved October 20, 2023.
  2. ^ "College History Timeline". SUNY New Paltz. Retrieved October 20, 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d SUNY at New Paltz Archived March 7, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "SUNY New Paltz | Office of the President". Archived from the original on August 3, 2022. Retrieved July 22, 2022.
  5. ^ Clayton, Emily. "The Provost Search Is Over: Welcome Dr. William McClure". The Oracle. Retrieved July 9, 2023.
  6. ^ "SUNY New Paltz Facts at a Glance". Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2007.
  7. ^ Jeremiah Horrigan (September 12, 2005). "Home of the future's time is past". Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  8. ^ "STL:CHC - SUNY New Paltz Timeline". Archived from the original on June 16, 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  9. ^ "Scientists Say SUNY Dorms Pose No Health Dangers, Date: August 2010". SUNY New Paltz. December 29, 1991. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  10. ^ "About New Paltz". Archived from the original on October 26, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2007.
  11. ^ "Daily News America NY Daily News". Retrieved August 9, 2013. [permanent dead link]
  12. ^ "Daily News America - Breaking national news, video, and photos - Homepage - NY Daily News". Retrieved August 9, 2013. [permanent dead link]
  13. ^ "Vulva's Morphia, 1995". Carolee Schneemann. Archived from the original on January 30, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  14. ^ Tychostup, Lorna, Chill Factor at SUNY New Paltz, Chronogram [permanent dead link]
  15. ^ Arenson, Karen W. (August 29, 2001). "Embattled College President Is Leaving SUNY New Paltz". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 23, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  16. ^ "SUNY New Paltz attains University status - Hudson Valley One". January 1, 2023. Archived from the original on January 3, 2023. Retrieved January 1, 2023.
  17. ^ "SUNY New Paltz officially earns university status - Daily Freeman". January 3, 2023. Archived from the original on January 3, 2023. Retrieved January 3, 2023.
  18. ^ OSI, SUNY and NYCDEP Sign an Agreement Ensuring the Future of Ashokan Field Campus, Open Space Institute, May 13, 2008, archived from the original on December 29, 2010, retrieved March 12, 2010
  19. ^ Poskanzer, Steven (September 25, 2009), State of the College 2009, SUNY New Paltz, archived from the original on October 7, 2009, retrieved September 26, 2009
  20. ^ Liu, Pauline. "SUNY New Paltz marks opening of science building". Archived from the original on March 10, 2017. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  21. ^ a b c "Suny New Paltz Facilities". Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved May 18, 2010.
  22. ^ "Residence Life: Shango/College Hall". Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
  23. ^ "SUNY New Paltz Fallout Shelter, Revisited". The Little Rebellion. April 5, 2012. Archived from the original on October 30, 2022. Retrieved October 30, 2022.
  24. ^ "Arts Listings:Music and Dance". Times Herald Record. November 26, 2010. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved May 19, 2010.
  25. ^ "Samuel Dorsky Museum of Art". State University of New York at New Paltz. Archived from the original on March 28, 2014. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
  26. ^ Official mission statement from Archived March 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ Kramer, Melissa (April 28, 2016). "Men's Volleyball Takes Home New Paltz's First-Ever National Title". SUNY New Paltz Oracle. Archived from the original on November 18, 2017. Retrieved November 17, 2017.
  28. ^ Northam, Mitchell. "SUNY New Paltz wins 2019 DIII men's volleyball national championship". NCAA. Archived from the original on May 7, 2019. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  29. ^ "SUNY New Paltz - Office of Student Activities and Union Services". Archived from the original on March 6, 2018. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  30. ^ "RHSA official web site About webpage". Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
  31. ^ "RHSA official web site Officers list webpage". Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
  32. ^ "CAS official web site". Archived from the original on April 18, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  33. ^ "Official web pages for Alumni, friends, visitors, and SUNY New Paltz Foundation". Archived from the original on February 4, 2005. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  34. ^ WFNP 88.7 FM the EDGE, SUNY New Paltz, archived from the original on December 9, 2009, retrieved November 5, 2009
  35. ^ "Recognized Fraternities and Sororities | SUNY New Paltz". Retrieved April 1, 2024.
  36. ^ "New Palz Building Occupied". The Evening News. March 27, 1974. Archived from the original on July 9, 2023. Retrieved October 17, 2020 – via Google News Archive Search.
  37. ^ Silva, Maria (February 29, 2024). "Student event with Israel Defense Force soldiers at SUNY New Paltz draws backlash". Times Union. Retrieved March 7, 2024.
  38. ^ Wheeler, Darrell (February 29, 2024). "A thank you to the campus community". New Paltz University. Retrieved March 7, 2024.
  39. ^ Eames, Sarah (May 1, 2024). "SUNY New Paltz students join other Israel-Hamas war protests around the state". Record Online. Retrieved May 2, 2024.
  40. ^ "Updated Live: Police storm SUNY New Paltz campus to disperse protest encampment". Hudson Valley One. May 2, 2024. Retrieved May 3, 2024.
  41. ^ Pantuso, Philip (May 3, 2024). "Police arrest dozens at SUNY New Paltz pro-Palestine encampment". Times Union. Retrieved May 3, 2024.
  42. ^ Ali, Saba (May 3, 2024). "Over 100 people arrested at SUNY New Paltz encampment". Record Online. Retrieved May 4, 2024.
  43. ^ WRGB Staff (May 3, 2024). "CBS 6 speaks with New Paltz student hurt in college protests". Record Online. Retrieved May 3, 2024.
  44. ^ Spectrum News Staff (May 3, 2024). "Arrests made at SUNY New Paltz pro-Palestinian protest, including working Spectrum News reporter, after deadline passes to leave". Spectrum News. Retrieved May 6, 2024.
  45. ^ Moritz, Owen (September 5, 2009). "Salvador Agron 'Cape Man'". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  46. ^ Jason Buchanan (2015). "Michael Badalucco - Biography". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  47. ^ McCormick, John; Zeleny, Jeff; Reid, Andy. "Rob Borsellino, 56, Former Sun-sentinel Columnist". Sun Sentinel. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  48. ^ Snel, Alan. "SUNY New Paltz gains field house loan". Times Herald Record. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  49. ^ "Author Regina Calcaterra will speak at SUNY". Daily Freeman. February 5, 2015. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  50. ^ Biography, New York State Assembly, archived from the original on February 13, 2023, retrieved January 28, 2023
  51. ^ Graduate Faculty, Virginia Tech, archived from the original on September 6, 2007
  52. ^ Debra Cassens Weiss (January 27, 2010). "Careers: Vinny of 'Jersey Shore' Says Law School Is Fallback Plan". American Bar Association's ABA Journal. Archived from the original on February 14, 2010. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
  53. ^ Sokol, Rachel (October 31, 2013). "District Home Editions Queenswide Netflix star: There's no place like Queens". Queens Chronicle. Archived from the original on January 21, 2017. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  54. ^ "Two scholars honored with university professorships". Harvard Magazine. September 2009. Archived from the original on August 12, 2020. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  55. ^ a b Barnes, Mike (December 3, 2012). "Top Visual Effects Producer Eileen Moran Dies in New Zealand; Worked on 'Avatar,' 'The Hobbit'". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on October 29, 2020. Retrieved December 28, 2012.
  56. ^ "Kingston's Ann Nocenti takes old superhero to new places". Kingston Times. Ulster Publishing. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  57. ^ "View artist and art". Archived from the original on February 3, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  58. ^ Robinson, Ruth (August 22, 1977). "The Jewelry Is Disparate, But the Artists Share a Bond". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  59. ^ "Deaths: Matzdorf, Kurt". The New York Times. January 6, 2009. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 9, 2023. Retrieved June 29, 2021.
  60. ^ "Kurt J. Matzdorf Obituary (2008)". Times Herald-Record. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021. Retrieved June 29, 2021.

Further reading