Turin King List
Createdc. 1245 BCE
Luxor, Luxor Governorate, Egypt
Discovered byBernardino Drovetti
Present locationTurin, Piedmont, Italy

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum)[1] in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

1904 version of attempt to assemble parts of the Turin King list

Creation and use

The papyrus is believed to date from the reign of Ramesses II, during the middle of the New Kingdom, or the 19th Dynasty. The beginning and ending of the list are now lost; there is no introduction, and the list does not continue after the 19th Dynasty. The composition may thus have occurred at any subsequent time, from the reign of Ramesses II to as late as the 20th Dynasty.

The papyrus lists the names of rulers, the lengths of reigns in years, with months and days for some kings. In some cases they are grouped together by family, which corresponds approximately to the dynasties of Manetho's book. The list includes the names of ephemeral rulers or those ruling small territories that may be unmentioned in other sources.

The list also is believed to contain kings from the 15th Dynasty, the Hyksos who ruled Lower Egypt and the River Nile delta. The Hyksos rulers do not have cartouches (enclosing borders which indicate the name of a king), and a hieroglyphic sign is added to indicate that they were foreigners, although typically on King Lists foreign rulers are not listed.

The papyrus was originally a tax roll, but on its back is written a list of rulers of Egypt – including mythical kings such as gods, demi-gods, and spirits, as well as human kings. That the back of an older papyrus was used may indicate that the list was not of great formal importance to the writer, although the primary function of the list is thought to have been as an administrative aid. As such, the papyrus is less likely to be biased against certain rulers and is believed to include all the kings of Egypt known to its writers up to the 19th or 20th Dynasty.

Discovery and reconstruction

The papyrus was found by the Italian traveler Bernardino Drovetti in 1820 in Luxor (Thebes), Egypt and was acquired in 1824 by the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy and was designated Papyrus Number 1874. When the box in which it had been transported to Italy was unpacked, the list had disintegrated into small fragments. Jean-Francois Champollion, examining it, could recognize only some of the larger fragments containing royal names, and produced a drawing of what he could decipher. A reconstruction of the list was created to better understand it and to aid in research.

The Saxon researcher Gustav Seyffarth re-examined the fragments, some only one square centimeter in size, and made a more complete reconstruction of the papyrus based only on the papyrus fibers, as he could not yet determine the meaning of the hieratic characters. Subsequent work on the fragments was done by the Munich Egyptologist Jens Peter Lauth, which largely confirmed the Seyffarth reconstruction.

In 1997, prominent Egyptologist Kim Ryholt published a new and better interpretation of the list in his book, "The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1800–1550 B.C." After another study of the papyrus, an updated version from Ryholt is expected.[when?] Egyptologist Donald Redford has also studied the papyrus and has noted that although many of the list's names correspond to monuments and other documents, there are some discrepancies and not all of the names correspond, questioning the absolute reliability of the document for pre-Ramesses II chronology.

Despite attempts at reconstruction, approximately 50% of the papyrus remains missing. This papyrus as presently constituted is 1.7 m long and 0.41 m wide, broken into over 160 fragments. In 2009, previously unpublished fragments were discovered in the storage room of the Egyptian Museum of Turin, in good condition.[2] A new edition of the papyrus is expected.[when?]

The name Hudjefa, found twice in the papyrus, is now known to have been used by the royal scribes of the Ramesside era during the 19th Dynasty, when the scribes compiled king lists such as the Saqqara King List and the royal canon of Turin and the name of a deceased pharaoh was unreadable, damaged, or completely erased.

Contents of the papyrus

The papyrus is divided into eleven columns, distributed as follows. The names and positions of several kings are still being disputed, since the list is so badly damaged.

It's likely that a twelfth column once existed that contained Dynasties 18–19/20, but that section has since been lost.

Turin King List with 2013 corrections of positions for some fragments – table representation of rows from the original papyrus, translated into hieroglyphs

These are the actual names written on the papyrus, omitting the years, summations and headings:

First Column
Row Name Notes Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
12 Ra - - -
13 .. probably Shu[3] - - -
14 Geb gb
15 Osiris wsir
16 Set stH
17 Horus Hr
18 Thoth DHwti
19 Maat mAat
20 Hor.. possibly Haroeris Hr..
Second Column
Row Name Notes Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
1 Hab "Ibis" hAb
2 Aped "Bird" Apd
3 Hepu "Apis bull" Hpw
4 Shemsu "Follower" Smsw
5 Meni.. mni..
6 Werqa.. "Great of height" wr-qA..
8 Af.. i[f]..
9 Set.. cf. 1.16 stH..
10 Sunu.. "Doctor" swnw..
11 Horus.. cf. 1.17 Hrw..
14 Ni-ib.. "Does not thirst" n ib..
15 Nesensebk..sew.. very uncertain
16 Pensetensepet.. "Clods of the shore" pns.t n spt
17 Her-hemut-shepsesut.. "Possessor of noble women" Xr-Hm.wt-Sps.w[t]..
18 Khu-hemut-shepsesut.. "Protector of noble women" xw-Hm.wt[-Sps.wt?]..
22 Sokar.. cf. Seker skr..
23 Iaret.. cf. Uraeus ar[t]..
Second Column
Row Name Notes Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
2 Spirits group of kings Axw
3 Spirits group of kings Axw
6 Followers of Horus group of kings Smsw Hr
Second(?) Column
Row Name in list Common name Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
11 Meni Menes mni <-Y5:N35-M17-> 𓏠𓈖𓇋
12 Teti Hor-Aha ttij <-X1:X1-M17-Z4-> 𓏏𓏏𓇋𓏭
13 Iti, Ita Djer iti <-M17-X1-//-G7-> 𓇋𓏏…𓅆
15 Itui Djet itjwi <-//-G4#12-M17-> …𓅂𓇋
16 Qenti Den qntj <-Aa8:X1*Z4-> 𓐖𓏏𓏭
17 Merbiapen Anedjib mr-biA-pn <-U7:D21-U17-Q3:N35-//-> 𓌻𓂋𓍅𓊪𓈖…
18 Semsem Semerkhet smsm <-S29-G17-S29-G17-> 𓋴𓅓𓋴𓅓
19 (Qe)beh Qa'a qbH <-//-D58-V28-G7-> …𓃀𓎛𓅆
20 Baunetjer Hotepsekhemwy bAw-nTr <-//-G30-R4:Q3-G7-> …𓅢𓊵𓊪𓅆
21 Kakau Nebre kA-kAw <-//-E2-D52:Z1*Z1*Z1-G7-> …𓃓𓂸𓏤𓏤𓏤𓅆
22 Banetjer Nynetjer bA-nTr <-//-R8-D21:N35-G7-> …𓊹𓂋𓈖𓅆
23 ..s Wadjnes ..s <-//-//-S29-G7-> … …𓋴𓅆
24 Sened.. Senedj snDi <-G54-//-> 𓅾…
25 Neferka Neferkara I nfr-kA <-O29-D28-Z1-> 𓉼𓂓𓏤
Third(?) Column
Row Name in list Common name Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
2 Neferkasokar Neferkasokar nfr-kA-skr <-F35-D28-Z1-O34:V31:D21-Z5-G7-> 𓄤𓂓𓏤𓊃𓎡𓂋𓏯𓅆
3 Bebti Khasekhemwy bbtj <-D58-D58-N21-G7-> 𓃀𓃀𓈅𓅆
4 Nebka Nebka nbkA <-V30-D28-Z1-> 𓎟𓂓𓏤
5 Djoser..it Djoser Dsr..it <-D45:D21-M17-.:X1#12-G7-> 𓂦𓂋𓇋𓏏𓅆
6 Djoser..ti Sekhemkhet Dsrti <-D45:D21-X1:Z4-G7-> 𓂦𓂋𓏏𓏭𓅆
7 Hudjefa "missing" HwDfA <-O34-I10-S29-> 𓊃𓆓𓋴
8 Huni Huni Hwni <-V28-Z5-A25-//-G7-> 𓎛𓏯𓀝…𓅆
9 Senefer Sneferu snfr <-S29-F35-I9:D21-G7-> 𓋴𓄤𓆑𓂋𓅆
12 ..kha.. Khafre ..xa.. <-//-N28-D36-//-G7-> …𓈍𓂝…𓅆
17 ..kaf Userkaf ..kAf <-//-//-D28:I9-G7-> … …𓂓𓆑𓅆
23 Menkahor Menkauhor mn-kA-Hr G5-<-G7-Y5:N35-D28-Z1-G7-> 𓅃𓅆𓏠𓈖𓂓𓏤𓅆
24 Djed Djedkare Dd <-R11-R11-> 𓊽𓊽
25 Unis Unas wnis <-E34:N35-M17-S29-> 𓃹𓈖𓇋𓋴
Fourth(?) Column
Row Name in list Common name Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
7 Neitiqerty Neitiqerty Siptah ntiqrti <-N35:X1*Z5-M17-N29-D21:X1*Z4-G7-> 𓈖𓏏𓏯𓇋𓈎𓂋𓏏𓏭𓅆
9 Neferka Menkare nfr-kA <-F35-D28-Z1-G7-> 𓄤𓂓𓏤𓅆
10 Nefer Neferkare II nfr <-F35-I9:D21-G7-> 𓄤𓆑𓂋𓅆
11 Ibi Qakare Ibi ibi <-M17-D58-E8-> 𓇋𓃀𓃙
20 Neferkare Neferkare VII nfr-kA-ra <-N5-F35-D28-Z1-G7#12-> 𓇳𓄤𓂓𓏤𓅆
21 Khety Nebkaure Khety Xti <-F32:X1-A50-M17-M17-G7-> 𓄡𓏏𓀻𓇌𓅆
22 Senenh.. Senenh.. snnh.. <-S29-M22-M22-N35:N35-A53-.:O4-//> 𓋴𓇒𓈖𓈖𓀾𓉔 …
24 Mer.. Mer.. mrr.. <-U7:D21-//-> 𓌻𓂋 …
25 Shed.. Shed.. Sd.. <-F30:D46#24-//-> 𓄞𓂧 …
26 H.. H.. H.. <-V28-//-> 𓎛 …
Fifth(?) Column
Row Name in list Common name Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
12 [lost] Mentuhotep I[4] - -
14 ..n.. Intef II ..n.. <-//-N35-//-> …𓈖…
16 Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II nb-hpt-ra <-N5:V30-P8-> 𓇳𓎟𓊤
17 Seankhkare Mentuhotep III s-anx-kA-ra <-S29#34-S34#34-N35:Aa1-D28#34-> 𓋴𓋹𓈖𓐍𓂓
20 ..pib.. Amenemhat I ..p-ib.. <-//-.:Q3-.:F34-.:Z1-G7-> …𓊪𓄣𓏤𓅆
21 ..ka.. Senusret I ..kA.. <-//-D28-Z1-> …𓂓𓏤
Sixth(?) Column
Row Name in list Common name Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
1 Maakherure Amenemhat IV mAa-xrw-ra <-N5-U5:D36-P8-V1-A2-> 𓇳𓌷𓂝𓊤𓍢𓀁
2 Sobeknefrure Sobekneferu ..nfrw-ra 𓇳𓄤𓄤𓄤𓆊𓅆
5 Khutawire Wegaf or Sobekhotep I xwt-Awi-ra <-N5-D43:N17:N17#1234-> 𓇳𓂤𓇿𓇿
6 Sekhemkare Sekhemkare Sonbef sxm-kA-ra <-N5#123-Y8#1234-D28#1234-Z1-> 𓇳𓏣𓂓𓏤
7 Amenemhat..re Sekhemkare Amenemhat V imn-m-HAt N5-Y5:.#34-G17-F4:X1*Z1-G7 𓇳𓏠𓅓𓄂𓏏𓏤𓅆
8 Sehetepibre Hotepibre sHtp-ib-ra N5-S29-R4:X1*Q3-F34 𓇳𓋴𓊵𓏏𓊪𓄣𓏤
9 Iufeni Iufni iwfni i-Z7-f-n:A1 𓇋𓏲𓆑𓈖𓀀
10 Seankhibre Amenemhet VI s-anx-ib-ra ra-s-anx-ib 𓇳𓋴𓋹𓈖𓐍𓄣𓏤
11 Semenkare Semenkare Nebnuni smn-kA-ra ra-s-mn:n-kA 𓇳𓋴𓏠𓈖𓂓
12 Sehetepibre Sehetepibre sHtp-ib-ra N5-s-R4:t*p-ib-Z1 𓇳𓋴𓊵𓏏𓊪𓄣𓏤
13 Sewadjkare Sewadjkare swAD-kA-ra ra-s-wAD-kA 𓇳𓋴𓇅𓂓
14 Nedjemibre Nedjemibre nDm-ib-ra ra-nDm-m-mDAt-ib 𓇳𓇛𓅓𓏛𓄣
15 Sebek..p..re Khaankhre Sobekhotep sbk-(Htp)-ra //-N5-I4-// …𓇳𓆋…
16 Renseneb Renseneb rn..nbw r:n-A2-//-n:b-Y1 𓂋𓈖𓀁…𓈖𓃀𓏛
17 Autibre Awybre Hor I Awt-ib-ra ra-Aw-Z7:t-Y1:Z2-ib-Z1 𓇳𓄫𓏲𓏏𓏛𓏥𓄣𓏤
18 Sedjefakare Amenemhat VII sDfa-kA-ra ra-s-D:f-A-//-kA 𓇳𓋴𓆓𓆑…𓂓𓏤
19 Amenemhatsebekhotep Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep imn-m-hAt-sbk-Htp M17-Y5:N35-G17-F4:X1-I4-R4:X1-Q3 𓇋𓏠𓈖𓅓𓄂𓏏𓆋𓊵𓏏𓊪
20 User..re ..djer Khendjer wsr..ra..nDr N5-F12-//-Z1-N5:N35-M36:D21 𓇳𓄊…𓏤𓇳𓈖𓇥𓂋
21 ..kare Imyremeshaw ..kA-ra <-N5-//-D28-G7-> 𓇳…𓂓𓅆
22 ..re Intef IV ..ra //-D28-Z1-G7-W25:N35-X1:I9-G7 …𓂓𓏤𓅆𓏎𓈖𓏏𓆑𓅆
23 ..ibre..seth Seth Meribre ..ib-ra..stX N5-Y8-//-I5-Htp:t-p 𓇳𓏣…𓆌𓊵𓏏𓊪
25 Khamaatreneferhotep Neferhotep I xa..ra..nfr-Htp N5-N28:D36:Y1-//-F35-R4:X1-Q3 𓇳𓈍𓂝𓏛…𓄤𓊵𓏏𓊪
26 (Re)Sahathor Sihathor sA-Hwt-Hr <-N5-O6-X1:O1-G5-G7-G38-Z1-G7-> 𓇳𓉗𓏏𓉐𓅃𓅆𓅬𓏤𓅆
27 Khaneferre-Sobekhotep Sobekhotep IV xa-nfr-ra-sbk-Htp <-N5-N28:D36-Y1-F35-I3-R4:X1-Q3-> 𓇳𓈍𓂝𓏛𓄤𓆊𓊵𓏏𓊪
Seventh(?) Column
Row Name in list Common name Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
1 Khaheteprehotep Sobekhotep VI xa-Htp-ra-Htp N5-N28:D36*Y1-R4:X1-Q3-G7
2 Wahibreibiau Wahibre Ibiau wAH-ib-ra-ibiaw ra-wAH-H-Y1-ib-Z1-i-a:mw-A24-ib-Z1
3 Merneferre Merneferre Ay mr-nfr-ra N5-U7:D21-F35
4 Merhetepre Merhotepre Ini mr-Htp-ra N5-U6-R4:X1*Q3
5 Seankhenresewadjtu Sankhenre Sewadjtu s-anx-n-ra-swDtwi ra-s-anx-n:x-n-s-wAD-t-Z7
6 Mersekhemre Ined Mersekhemre Ined mr-sxm-ra-ind ra-U7:r-sxm-Z1-i-in:n-d:wr
7 Sewadjkare Hori Hori swAD-kA-ra-Hri N5-S29-M13-S28-Z1-G7-G5-M17
8 Merkawre Sobek.. Merkawre Sobekhotep mr-kAw-ra-sbk.. N5-U7:D21-Z1-D28-Z1-//-I3-//
13 ..mose Djedneferre Dedumose i-m-s-s //-F31-S29-Z5
14 ..maat..re Ibi Ibi ..mAat-ra-ibi <-N5-//-X1-H6->-G7-M17-E8-M17-A1
15 Webenre Hor Webenre Hor ..wbn-Hr <-N5-//-G43-D58-N35:N5->-G7-G5
16 Se..kare Se..kare s..kA-ra N5-S29-//-D28-Z1-G7
17 ..enre Seheqenre Sankhptahi ..enra N5-//-Y1:N35
22 Merkheperre Merkheperre mr-xpr-ra N5-U7:D21-L1
23 Merka.. Merkare mr..kA.. //-U7:.#234-D28-Z1
Eighth(?) Column
Row Name in list Common name Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
1 Nehesy Nehesy nḥsi G21-V28-S29-Z4-T14
2 Khatyre Khatyre xa.ti-ra N5-N28:D36*Y1-U33-Z4
3 Nebfaure Nebfautre nb-fAw-t-ra N5-V30:I9-F40-Z7:X1-Y1:Z2
4 Sehabre Sehebre sHb-ra N5-S29-V28-b-W3:N5
5 Merdjefare Merdjefare mr-DfA-ra N5-U7:D21-G42-G41:G37
6 Sewadjkare Sewadjkare III swAD-kA-ra N5-S29-M13-D28-Z1
7 Neb("erased")re Nebdjefare nb-DfA-ra N5-N5:V30-I10:I9-G42-Z7-G41:G37
8 Webenre Webenre wbn-ra N5-Z7-D58-N35:N5-G7
10 ("erased")re ..re ..ra..dfA N5-//-G41:G37
11 ("erased")webenre ..webenre ..wbn..ra //-D58#3-N35:N5-G7
12 Autibre Autibre Aw-t-ib-ra N5-F40-Z7:X1-Y1:Z2-F34-Z1
13 Heribre Heribre hr-ib-ra N5-O4-D21:Y1-F34-Z1
14 Nebsenra Nebsenre nb-sn-ra N5-V30-S29-N35:Z2
16 Sekheperenre Sekheperenre s-xpr-n-ra N5-S29-L1-D21:N35
17 Djedkherure Djedkherure Dd-xrw-ra N5-R11-G7-P8-Z7
18 Seankhibre Seankhibre s-anx-ib-ra N5-S29-S34-N35:Aa1-F34-Z1
19 (Ka)nefertemre Kanefertemre kA-nfr-tm-ra N5-F35-X1:U15-//-G7
20 Sekhem..re Sekhem..re sxm..ra N5-S42-G17-//
21 Ka..kemure Kakemure kA..kmw-ra N5-D28-D52:E1-//-I6-Z7:X1-E1
22 Neferib..re Neferibre nfr-ib-ra N5-F35-F34-//
23 Dj..re Sewadjare Mentuhotep i..ra N5-M17-A2-//
24 Kha..re Kha..re xa..ra N5-N28:D36*Y1-//
25 Aakare Aakare aA-kA-ra N5-O29v-D28-//
26 Semen..re Semen..re smn..ra N5-S29-Y5:N35-//
27 Djed..re Djed..re Dd..ra <-N5-R11-R11-//
Ninth(?) Column
Row Name in list Common name Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
7 Senefer..re Senefer..re s-nfr..ra N5-S29-F35-//
8 Men(ib)..re Men..re mn-ib..ra N5-Y5:N35-ib*Z1#1234
9 Djed.. Djed.. Dd.. R11*R11#34-//
14 Inenek Inenek in-n-k M17-K1:N35:V31A-//
15 Ineb Ineb inbi M17-A1-V30-//
16 Ip.. 'Apepi ip.. M17-A1-Q3-//
17 Hab Hab hbi M17-O4-G1-D58
18 Sa Sa sA G39-Z1
19 Hepu Hepu Hpw Aa5:Q3-Z7-E1
20 Shemsu Shemsu Smsw T18-S29-Z7-D54
21 Meni Meni mni Y5:N35-M17-//
22 werqa.. Werqa.. wr-qAi G36:D21-N29-A28
25 ..ka ..ka ..kA.. <-//-A2-D28-Z1->
26 ..ka ..ka ..kA.. <-//-D28-Z1->
28 ..ren..hepu.. ..ren..hepu ..rn-Hpw.. <-//-D21:N35->-G7-Aa5:Q3-Z7-Y1
29 Anati Anati in-nti <-//-D28-Z1-G7->-G7-V30:N35-N35:G1-U33-M17-D54
30 ..ka.. Bebnem Bebnum ..kA..bbnm <-//-D28-Z1-G7->-G7-D58-D58-N35:Z2-G17-D54
Tenth(?) Column
Row Name in list Common name Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
1 I.. I.. iwf.. M17-//
2 Seth Seth II stH.. <-C7-G7-//->
3 Sunu.. Sunu.. swnw <-T11-W24-Z7-//->
4 Hor.. Hor.. ḥr.. <-G5-G7://-//->
7 Nib.. Nib.. nib.. <-D35-M17-D58-E8-N35A#24-/->
8 Mer..en.. Mer..en.. mr..n.. <-U6://-N35://-G7->
9 Penensetensepet Penensetensepet pnnstt-n-spt Q3:N35:N35-S29-K3:X1*X1-N35-S29-Q3:X1
10 Kherethebshepesu Kherethebshepesu xrt-Hb-Spsw <-T28:D21-W3:X1*B1-Z3A-A50-Z3A-//->
11 Khut..hemet Khut..hemet xw..Hmt.. <-Aa1:D43-Z7-//-N42:X1-B1-//->
19 [lost] Apepi[5] - -
20 Khamudi Khamudi xA-mdw-i xA-A-m-Z7-d:y-T14
25 Zeket.. Zeket.. skt.. <-O34:V31:X1*Z5-//-Z1-G7-//->
26 Ar.. Ar.. Ar.. <-D36:D21-//->
29 ..nia.. ..nia.. ..niA.. //-G7-N35-M17-G1-//
Eleventh(?) Column
Row Name in list Common name Transliteration Manuel de Codage Unicode Representation
1 Sekhem..re Sekhemre Sementawy Djehuti sxm..ra <-N5-S42-Z1-//->
2 Sekhem..re Sekhemre Susertawi Sobekhotep VIII sxm..ra <-N5-S42-Z1-G7-//->
3 Sekhemre S.. Sekhemre Sankhtawy Neferhotep III sxm-ra-s.. <-N5-S42-Z1-G7-S29-//->
4 Sewadjenre.. Sewadjenre Nebiryraw I swAD-n-ra.. <-N5-S29-M13-N35:.#234-//->
5 Nebiriaure Nebiriaure nb-iri-Aw-ra #b-<-N5-V30-M17-D21:Z4-F40-Z7-Y1:Z2->#e
6 Nebiretaure Nebiretaure nb-iri-Awt-ra #b-<-N5-V30-M17-D21:Z4-X1:.-F40-Z7-Y1:Z2->#e
7 Semenre Semenre smn-ra #b-<-N5-S29-Y5:N35-U32-Y1:.*Z1->#e
8 Seuserre.. Seuserenre Bebiankh s-wsr-ra.. #b-<-N5-S29-F12-S29-D21:D36->#e
9 Sekhemre Shedwaset Sekhemre Shedwaset sxm-ra-Sd-wAst <-N5-S42-F30:D46-A24-R19-X1:O49-G7->
16 Woser..re Woseribre Senebkay wsr..ra <-N5-F12-D21:.#1234-//->
17 Woser.. Woser.. wsr.. <-F12#3-//->
26 [...]hebre [...]hebre ...-hb-ra
29 [...]hebre [...]hebre ...-hb-ra
30 [...]webenre [...]webenre ...-wbn-ra

See also


  1. ^ "Museo Egizio homepage" (in Italian). Retrieved 20 December 2010. (in English)
  2. ^ Vittorio Sabadin (19 Feb 2009). "I faraoni scomparsi nel buco" [The Pharaohs disappeared into the hole] (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2012-02-23.
  3. ^ Eduard Meyer (1904). "Egyptian chronology". Retrieved 16 December 2020.
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