Djedneferre Dedumose II was a native ancient Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker, he was a ruler of the Theban 16th Dynasty.[2][3] Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath, Thomas Schneider and Detlef Franke see him as a king of the 13th Dynasty.[4][5][6][7]

Dating issues

Williams and others place Dedumose as the last king of Egypt's 13th Dynasty. Precise dates for Dedumose are unknown, but according to the commonly accepted Egyptian chronology his reign probably ended around 1690 BC.[8]


A scarab bearing the name "Djedneferre", considered by Flinders Petrie as a reference to Dedumose II[9]

Djedneferre Dedumose II is known from a stela originally from Gebelein which is now in the Cairo Museum (CG 20533).[10] On the stela Dedumose claims to have been raised for kingship, which may indicate he is a son of Dedumose I, although the statement may also merely be a form of propaganda. The martial tone of the stela probably reflects the constant state of war of the final years of the 16th Dynasty, when the Hyksos invaded its territory:[11]

The good god, beloved of Thebes; The one chosen by Horus, who increases his [army], who has appeared like the lightning of the sun, who is acclaimed to the kingship of both lands; The one who belongs to shouting.

Ludwig Morenz believes that the above excerpt of the stele, in particular "who is acclaimed to the kingship", may confirm the controversial idea of Eduard Meyer that certain pharaohs were elected to office.[11]

As Josephus' Timaios

Dedumose is usually linked to Timaios[12][13] mentioned by the historian Josephus – who was quoting Manetho – as a king during whose reign an army of Asiatic foreigners subdued the country without a fight.[14]
The introductory phrase in Josephus' quotation of Manetho του Τιμαιος ονομα appears somewhat ungrammatical and following A. von Gutschmid, the Greek words του Τιμαιος ([genitive definite article] Timaios [nominative]) is often combined into the proposed name Τουτιμαιος (Tutimaios) based on the tenuous argument of von Gutschmid that this sounded like Tutmes i.e. Thutmose. This has influenced the transliteration of the name Dedumose as Dudimose in order to reinforce the resemblance but this transliteration is not justified by the hieroglyphic spelling of the name. Nevertheless Dedumose did rule either as a Pharaoh of the 13th dynasty which preceded the Hyksos or as part of the 16th dynasty contemporaneous with the early Hyksos and the actual form Timaios in the manuscript of Josephus still plausibly represents his name. Whiston's translation of Josephus understands the phrase to mean “[There was a king] of ours (του), whose name was Timaios (Τιμαιος ονομα)." A. Bülow-Jacobsen has suggested however that the phrase in Josephus may have been derived via a series of (unattested) scribal errors from του πραγματος ("of the matter") and that ονομα ("this is a name", typically left out of translations) is a later gloss whence the original text of Josephus did not contain the name of a Pharaoh at all.[2][15][16]

Fringe theories

There have been revisionistic attempts by the historian Immanuel Velikovsky and Egyptologist David Rohl to identify Dedumose II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus, much earlier than the mainstream candidates.[17] Rohl, in particular, attempted to change views on Egyptian history by shortening the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt by almost 300 years. As a by-result the synchronisms with the biblical narrative have changed, making Dedumose the pharaoh of the Exodus.[18] Rohl's theory, however, has failed to find support among most scholars in his field.[19]

Between the 18th and 19th century, Francis Wilford claimed that Josephus' account is reportedly mentioned on an Indian text concerning an Egyptian tale, in which the Pharaoh's name appears as Tamovatsa.[20]


  1. ^ Hans Ostenfeldt Lange (1863-1943); Maslahat al-Athar; Heinrich Schäfer, (1868-1957) : Catalogue General des Antiquites du Caire: Grab- und Denksteine des Mittleren Reichs im Museum von Kairo, Tafel XXXVIII, (1902), see CG 20533 p. 97 of the online reader
  2. ^ a b Ryholt, K. S. B. (1997). The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800 - 1550 BC. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 87-7289-421-0.
  3. ^ Darrell D. Baker (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, 2008
  4. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  5. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46, Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  6. ^ Thomas Schneider (2006). "Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate Period." In Ancient Egyptian Chronology, edited by Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss, And David a. Warburton, see p. 187
  7. ^ Detlef Franke (1994). Das Heiligtum des Heqaib auf Elephantine. Geschichte eines Provinzheiligtums im Mittleren Reich, Studien zur Archäologie und Geschichte Altägyptens. vol. 9. Heidelberger Orientverlag, Heidelberg, ISBN 3-927552-17-8 (Heidelberg, Universität, Habilitationsschrift, 1991), see p. 77-78
  8. ^ Chris Bennett (2002) "A Genealogical Chronology of the Seventeenth Dynasty", Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, Vol. 39 pp. 123-155
  9. ^ Flinders Petrie: A History of Egypt - vol 1 - From the Earliest Times to the XVIth Dynasty (1897), p. 245, f. 148
  10. ^ W. V. Davies (1982). "The Origin of the Blue Crown", The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 68, pp. 69-76
  11. ^ a b Ludwig Morenz and Lutz Popko: A companion to Ancient Egypt, vol 1, Alan B. Lloyd editor, Wiley-Blackwell, p. 106
  12. ^ Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell Books. ISBN 9780631174721., p. 185
  13. ^ Hayes, William C. (1973). "Egypt: from the death of Ammenemes III to Seqenenre II". In Edwards, I.E.S. (ed.). The Cambridge Ancient History (3rd ed.), vol. II, part 1. Cambridge University Press. pp. 42–76. ISBN 0-521-082307., p. 52
  14. ^ Josephus, Flavius (2007). Against Apion – Translation and commentary by John M.G. Barclay. Leiden-Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-11791-4., I:75-77
  15. ^ Wolfgang Helck, Eberhard Otto, Wolfhart Westendorf (1986), "Stele - Zypresse": Volume 6 of Lexikon der Ägyptologie, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.
  16. ^ Erik Hornung, Rolf Krauss & David Warburton (editors) (2006), Handbook of Ancient Egyptian Chronology (Handbook of Oriental Studies), Brill: p. 196, n.134
  17. ^ Pharaohs and Kings by David M. Rohl (New York, 1995). ISBN 0-609-80130-9
  18. ^ Rohl, David (1995). "Chapter 13". A Test of Time. Arrow. pp. 341–8. ISBN 0-09-941656-5.
  19. ^ Chris Bennett (1996). "Temporal Fugues Archived 2018-07-16 at the Wayback Machine", Journal of Ancient and Medieval Studies XIII.
  20. ^ Francis Wilford, On Egypt and the Nile from the ancient books of the Hindus, Asiatic Researches vol. III p. 437