Menkhaure Snaaib was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period between the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom at the end of the Middle Bronze Age.


Stela CG 20517

In Abydos (Kom es-Sultan) a stela dedicated to the worship of the god Min-Horus-nakht dating to the reign of Snaaib was found.[3][4] It is a painted limestone stele "of exceptionally crude quality".[5] The stele gives the nomen, prenomen, and Horus names of the king. It also shows him wearing the Khepresh crown and adoring the god Min. The stele is the earliest known depection of the Khepresh being worn.[6][5]

Another ruler wearing the Khepresh Crown during this period was Neferhotep III.


According to Egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darrell Baker he was a king of the Abydos Dynasty, although they leave his position within the dynasty undetermined.[6][5] Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees Snaaib as a king reigning near the end of the 13th Dynasty.[7][8][9]

In his study of the Second Intermediate Period, Ryholt elaborates on the idea originally proposed by Detlef Franke that following the collapse of the 13th Dynasty with the conquest of Memphis by the Hyksos, an independent kingdom centered on Abydos arose in Middle Egypt.[10] The Abydos Dynasty thus designates a group of local kinglets reigning for a short time in central Egypt. Ryholt notes that Snaaib is only attested by his stele from Abydos and may thus belong to this dynasty.[5] This conclusion is shared by Darrell Baker but not by von Beckerath, who places Snaaib near the end of the 13th Dynasty.[9]


  1. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, kings of the second intermediate period, available online
  2. ^ Daphna Ben Tor, James and Susan Allen: Seals and Kings, BASOR 315, (1999)
  3. ^ Cairo, Egyptian Museum CG 20517
  4. ^ Salem, Leila (30 October 2020). "La estela CG 20517 del rey Senaaib: un estudio de los problemas para su interpretación" [King Senaaib's CG 20517 stela: A study of the problems for its interpretation] (PDF). Arqueología (in Mexican Spanish). 26 (3): 43–62. doi:10.34096/arqueologia.t26.n3.8451. ISSN 1853-8126.
  5. ^ a b c d K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800 – 1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  6. ^ a b Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 379
  7. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  8. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  9. ^ a b Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien 49, Mainz 1999.
  10. ^ Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches. Teil II: Die sogenannte Zweite Zwischenzeit Altägyptens, in Orientalia 57 (1988), p. 259