Sobekhotep III (throne name: Sekhemre-sewadjtawy) was an Egyptian king of the mid Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt who reigned three to four years.


Parents and siblings

Scarab of Sobekhotep III giving the name of his father, god's father Mentuhotep.[1]

The family of the king is known from several sources. A monument from Sehel Island shows Sobekhotep with his father Mentuhotep, his mother was king's mother Iuhetibu (Yauheyebu), his brothers Seneb and Khakau, and a half-sister called Reniseneb. Reniseneb was a daughter of Iuhetibu and her second husband Dedusobek.[2]

Wife and children

Sobekhotep III had two wives, Senebhenas and Neni. A stela from Koptos (Qift),[3] now in the Louvre (C 8), mentions the daughters of Neni: Iuhetibu Fendy and Dedetanqet. Iuhetibu Fendy wrote her name in a cartouche.[2] This is the second time in Egyptian history that a king's daughter received this honor.

Senebhenas is shown with Sobekhotep on an altar in Sehel Island and a stela in Wadi el-Hol.[3] The stela depicts Sobekhotep III before the god Monthu. He receives an ankh and a was-scepter from the god. Sobekhotep is followed by his father Montuhotep, his mother Iuhetibu, and his wife Senebhenas.[2]


Sobekhotep III is known from many objects[4][5] despite the fact that the Turin King List gives him a reign of only four years[6] and two to four months in length. He added inscriptions to the temple of Menthu at Madamud[7] and built a chapel at El Kab.[8] On Sehel[9] an altar with his name was found.

A number of scarab seals have been found that were from an officier of the ruler's table Sobekhotep begotten of the officier of the ruler's table Mentuhotep.[10] It is possible that these seals belonged to Sobekhotep III before he became king.

Sobekhotep III was the first of a group of Thirteenth Dynasty kings about whom there exists historical records. This group of Thirteenth Dynasty kings are all known from many objects. These kings produced many seals and there are many private monuments that can be dated to these reigns. This would seem to indicate that Egypt was relatively stable during this period.


The main attestations of Sobekhotep III are found in Upper Egypt. Only small finds (tradables) are attested in Lower Egypt and Nubia. For a full list, see Ryholt 1997:343-44 File 13/26

Lower Egypt

Upper Egypt


At the fortress of Mirgissa (Nubia), a scarab-impression with the royal name of Sobekhotep III and the King's Mother Iuhetibu .[13] Also a seal-impression with the name Sekhemre Sewadjtawy, a seal with two impressions.[14]

Non-contemporary attestation

The Turin King List 7:24 contains the entry: "The Dual King Sekhem[ka]re Wadjtawy Sobekhotep, 4 years, 2 months x days" {nsw-bit sḫm-kꜢ-rꜤ wꜢḏ-tꜢ.wy sbk-ḥtp rnpt 4 Ꜣbd 2 hrw x}.[15]

See also


  1. ^ Flinders Petrie: A history of Egypt from the earliest times to the 16th dynasty (1897), available copyright free here
  2. ^ a b c M. F. Laming Macadam, A Royal Family of the Thirteenth Dynasty, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 37 (Dec., 1951), pp. 20-28
  3. ^ a b Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  4. ^ A scarab of Sobekhotep III, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  5. ^ Another scarab of Sobekhotep III, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  6. ^ Following Ryholt: ''The Political Situation, p. 71. However, the four is partly destroyed; year 3 is also possible
  7. ^ F. Bisson de la Roque, J. J. Clère, Fouilles de Médamoud (1927), Cairo 1928, p. 44; Porter & Moss V (1937), p. 146-49
  8. ^ Ryholt, The Political Situation, p. 344
  9. ^ M.F.L. Macadams: Gleanings from the Bankes MSSIn: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 32 (1946), 60, pl. VIII; H.A. Wild: A Bas-Relief of SekhemRe-Sewadjtowe Sebkhotpe In: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 37 (1951), p. 12-16
  10. ^ G.T. Martin, Egyptian Administrative and Private Name Seals Oxford 1971, n. 575-588
  11. ^ BM EA 30506
  12. ^ Louvre Museum C8
  13. ^ Mirgissa 32-1-120, [1]
  14. ^ BMFA, Ryholt 1997:344; unclear if this is the same impression as Mirgissa 32-1-120
  15. ^