Ptolemy XIV Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ,[1] Ptolemaios; c. 59 – 44 BC) was a Pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, who reigned from 47 until his death in 44 BC.


Following the death of his older brother Ptolemy XIII of Egypt on January 13, 47 BC, and according to his will, he was proclaimed Pharaoh and co-ruler by their older sister and remaining Pharaoh, Cleopatra VII of Egypt.[2][3] He was about 12 years old when he acceded to the throne.[4] He and his older sister, Cleopatra, were married, but Cleopatra continued to act as lover of Roman dictator Julius Caesar. Ptolemy is considered to have reigned in name only, as a concession to Egyptian tradition, with Cleopatra keeping actual authority.[5]

On 15 March 44 BC Caesar was murdered in Rome by a group of conspirators whose most notable members were Brutus and Cassius. Ptolemy soon followed him in death.[citation needed] An inscription mentioning him as alive was dated at 26 July 44 BC.[6] It has been assumed but remains uncertain that Cleopatra poisoned her co-ruler, with aconite, to replace him with his nephew Ptolemy XV Caesar, her son by Caesar who was proclaimed co-ruler on 2 September 44 BC and whom his mother intended to support as successor of his father.[7][8]



  1. ^ Volkmann, Hans (1959), "Ptolemaios 36", Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE, PW), volume 23, part 2, column 1759–1760.
  2. ^ Mahaffy, John Pentland (2014) [1895]. The Empire of the Ptolemies. Cambridge Library Collection. Cambridge, England and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. xxiv. ISBN 9781108078658.
  3. ^ Southern, Patricia (2012) [2010]. Antony & Cleopatra: The Doomed Love Affair That United Ancient Rome & Egypt. Stroud, England: Amberley Publishing Limited. ISBN 9781445608877.
  4. ^ Blackaby, Susan (2009). Cleopatra: Egypt's Last and Greatest Queen. Sterling Biographies. New York and London: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 27. ISBN 9781402765407.
  5. ^ Holbl, Gunther; Hölbl, Günther (2003) [2001]. A History of the Ptolemaic Empire. Translated by Saavedra, Tina. London and New York: Routledge. p. 237. ISBN 9780415201452.
  6. ^ Burstein, Stanley Mayer (2007). The Reign of Cleopatra. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. xiii. ISBN 9780806138718.
  7. ^ Bevan, Edwyn (2014) [1927]. A History of Egypt under the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Routledge Revivals. New York and London: Routledge. p. 369. ISBN 9781317682257.
  8. ^ Rice, E. E. (2006). Wilson, Nigel Guy (ed.). Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. New York and London: Routledge. p. 172. ISBN 9780415973342.
Ptolemy XIV Philopator Ptolemaic dynastyBorn: c. 59 BC Died: 44 BC Preceded byPtolemy XIIIArsinoe IV Pharaoh of Egypt 47–44 BCwith Cleopatra VII Succeeded byCleopatra VIIPtolemy XV Caesar