.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}@media all and (max-width:500px){.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{width:auto!important;clear:none!important;float:none!important))You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Japanese. (November 2022) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Japanese Wikipedia article at [[:ja:新幹線E956形電車]]; see its history for attribution. You may also add the template ((Translated|ja|新幹線E956形電車)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Class E956 "ALFA-X"
ALFA-X train at Omiya station
In service2019-present
ManufacturerHitachi, Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Entered service9 May 2019
Number built10 cars
Number in service10 cars (1 set)
Formation10 cars
Fleet numbersS13
OperatorsJR East
Lines servedTohoku Shinkansen
Car length24.5 m (80 ft 5 in)(intermediate cars)
26.25 m (86 ft 1 in) (end cars)
Width3.35 m (11 ft 0 in)
Height3.7 m (12 ft 2 in)
Maximum speed400 km/h (250 mph)
Traction system500 kW (671 hp) motors
(4 per car)
Power output12 MW (16,092 hp)
Electric system(s)25 kV AC 50 Hz Overhead catenary
Current collector(s)Pantograph
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge

The Class E956 (E956形), branded "ALFA-X", is a ten-car experimental Shinkansen train operated by East Japan Railway Company (JR East) in Japan to test technology to be incorporated into future trains operating at speeds of up to 360 km/h (225 mph). The name is an acronym for "Advanced Labs for Frontline Activity in rail eXperimentation".[1] The first train was unveiled on 9 May 2019.[2] Its test run is mainly performed in sections between Sendai and Shin-Aomori of the Tohoku Shinkansen line, and, in some cases, on the Hokkaido Shinkansen line.


The experimental trainset is being tested at speeds of up to around 400 km/h (250 mph) to evaluate new technologies to be incorporated into new trains to operate in revenue service at speeds of up to 360 km/h (225 mph).[3] These technologies include dampers to reduce vibration and the likelihood of derailment in major earthquakes.[3] It also tests body designs that reduce snow adherence.[3]

The E956 train evaluates two different end car nose profiles, just like the earlier Fastech 360.[4] The nose of car 1 is 16 metres (52 ft 6 in) long, and is a brand new design, while the nose of car 10 is similar to the E5 Series Shinkansen and H5 Series Shinkansen, but is 22 metres (72 ft 2 in) long, with only 4.5 metres (14 ft 9 in) remaining for passengers with three rows of seating.[5] The different nose profiles on Car 1 and Car 10 were designed to compare air resistance and impact noise caused by pressure waves when the train enters and exits tunnels. Car 10's nose was designed to minimize noise. Each passenger car prototype has different window shapes, to test wind resistance for each type of design. [6]

The E956 features eddy current brakes and an aerodynamic braking system attached to the car's roof, called air brakes or spoilers.[7] Two types of pantographs are also being evaluated on the train, to test for noise and wind resistance. [6]

Noise reduction has proven to be a major challenge in the design and operation of the trains; a test centre evaluates simulated train noises generated by speakers, used to design walls on the elevated track sections of the line for the purposes of noise reduction. A designer explains that this is a major hurdle that must be overcome before the higher speed train can be deployed. Newer sound dampening polyester panels held in place by steel casings are attached to walls along the track; they are also weatherproof (as older designed absorbed water when raining or snowing, limiting their effectiveness). As of April 2023, there are also several design features that they were not sharing with the public, to avoid releasing their technical research. [6]


JR East officially announced its plans to build a ten-car ALFA-X test train on 4 July 2017, to be delivered in spring 2019 for extensive testing and evaluation.[1] The finished train was unveiled on 9 May 2019.[2]

The train reached a speed of 320 km/h (200 mph) in May 2019, matching the top operating speed of the fastest services on the line.[8] By June that same year, the train was regularly measured to be running at 360 km/h (225 mph) by rail enthusiasts.[9]

The train was first observed running at the announced top planned test speed of 400 km/h (250 mph) on 14 December 2019.[10]

The Plarail (series of toy trains) "Ippai Tsunago" Shinkansen Test Train ALFA-X began to be sold on 26 December 2019.[citation needed]

The train was observed in Hokkaido for cold weather testing on 12 February 2020[11] and 3 February 2021.[12]

The train reached a speed of 382 km/h (237 mph) on 27 October 2020, setting the new speed record trains running commercially.[13]


  1. ^ a b "JR East to build ALFA-X 360 km/h Shinkansen testbed". Railway Gazette. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b Geuss, Megan (10 May 2019). "Japanese railway company starts testing 249mph bullet train speeds". Ars Technica. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Kusamachi, Yoshikazu (4 July 2017). JR東日本の新幹線試験車「ALFA-X」2019年春完成…「営業360km/h」を検証へ [New "ALFA-X" JR East experimental shinkansen train to be completed in spring 2019 - to test operations at 360 km/h]. Response (in Japanese). Japan: IID Inc. Archived from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  4. ^ Ueshin, Daisuke (4 July 2017). JR東日本E956形"ALFA-X"新幹線試験車両を新造、360km/h運転の可能性も検証 [JR East to build "ALFA-X" experimental shinkansen train to evaluate feasibility of operations at 360 km/h]. Mynavi News (in Japanese). Japan: Mynavi Corporation. Archived from the original on 19 July 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
  5. ^ "ALFA-X nose is 22 m long". Railway Gazette. DVV Media International Ltd. 14 February 2019. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  6. ^ a b c The Tohoku Shinkansen: Full Speed Ahead, Japan Railway Journal (television program). NHK World. 13 April 2023. Event occurs at 7:44. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  7. ^ ALFA-X: The Next Generation Shinkansen Experimental Train In: Railvolution. nr. 1, 2019, p. 28
  8. ^ "JR East shinkansen ALFA-X prototype hits 320 km/h in test run in northeastern Japan". The Japan Times Online. 16 May 2019. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  9. ^ ALFA-X(E956) 360km/h走行へ- 2019.6.8-9, retrieved 22 September 2019
  10. ^ ALFA-X(E956) 400km/h走行へ 2019.12.14-15, retrieved 16 December 2019
  11. ^ 次世代新幹線、試験車両が道内初走行 新函館北斗で報道陣に公開[permanent dead link] - Hokkaido Shinbun (02/15/2020)
  12. ^ "【4K】ALFA-X(E956) 北海道遠征まとめ 2021.2.3-11". YouTube.
  13. ^ "New bullet train Alpha-X hits top speed of 382 KPH in test run | the Asahi Shimbun: Breaking News, Japan News and Analysis".