E4 series
Series-E4-P20.jpg
An E4 series train on a Joetsu Shinkansen Max Tanigawa service in February 2021
In service20 December 1997; 24 years ago (1997-12-20) – 17 October 2021; 9 months ago (2021-10-17)
ManufacturerHitachi, Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Family nameMax
Constructed1997–2003
Entered serviceDecember 1997
Scrapped2013–
Number built208 vehicles (26 sets)
Number in serviceNone
Number preserved1 vehicle
Number scrapped119 vehicles (15 sets)
Formation8 cars per trainset
Fleet numbersP1–P22, P51–P52, P81–P82
Capacity817 (54 Green + 763 Standard)
Operator(s)JR East
Depot(s)Niigata
Line(s) servedJoetsu Shinkansen
Specifications
Car body constructionAluminium
Car lengthEnd cars: 25,700 mm (84 ft 4 in),
Intermediate cars: 25,000 mm (82 ft 0 in)
Width3,380 mm (11 ft 1 in)
Doors2 per side
Maximum speed240 km/h (150 mph)
Weight428 t
Traction systemIGBT-VVVF (Mitsubishi Co.)
Traction motors16 x 420 kW (560 hp) AC traction motors
Power output6.72 MW (9,010 hp)
Acceleration1.65 km/h/s
Deceleration2.69 km/h/s (service),
4.04 km/h/s (emergency)
Electric system(s)25 kV AC, 50 Hz overhead catenary
Current collector(s)Pantograph
UIC classification2'2'+Bo'Bo'+Bo'Bo'+2'2'+2'2'+Bo'Bo'+Bo'Bo'+2'2'
Braking system(s)Pneumatic and Regenerative
Safety system(s)ATC-2, DS-ATC
Multiple working400/E3-1000/E3-2000 series
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge

The E4 series (E4系) was a high-speed shinkansen train type operated by East Japan Railway Company (JR East) in Japan. They were the second series of completely bi-level Shinkansen trainsets to be built in Japan (the other being the E1 series). They previously operated on the Tōhoku and Jōetsu Shinkansen, and occasionally on the Nagano Shinkansen. E4 series trains feature double-decker cars to accommodate additional commuter traffic around Tokyo and other urban areas.[1] They were often coupled to 400 series trains on the Tōhoku Shinkansen between Tokyo and Fukushima before the latter retired in April 2010. The last trains of the E4 series were withdrawn from regular service on 1 October 2021.

Two eight-car sets can be coupled together for extra capacity: a sixteen-car E4 series formation trainset carries a total of 1,634 seated passengers, the highest-capacity high-speed rail trainset in the world.[2]

26 units were built between 1997 and 2003. As with the earlier E1 series trains, maximum speed is 240 km/h (150 mph).

Formation

Car No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Designation T1c M1 M2 T Tk Mp Ms Tpsc
Numbering E453-100 E455-100 E456-100 E458 E459-200 E455 E446 E444
Seating capacity 75 133 119 124 110 122 91 43

Cars 4 and 6 are each equipped with a PS201 pantograph.[3]

Variants

Sets P51 and P52, delivered in January and February 2001 were designed to cope with the steep gradients of the Nagano Shinkansen for use on services to Karuizawa.[3]

Sets P81 and P82, delivered in July and November 2003 were designed to cope with the steep gradients of the Nagano Shinkansen, and are also capable of operating under 50 Hz and 60 Hz overhead power supplies for use on services to Nagano.[3]

Interior

As with the earlier E1 series, the upper deck saloons of non-reserved cars 1 to 3 are arranged 3+3 with no individual armrests, and do not recline. The lower decks of these cars, and the reserved-seating saloons in cars 4 to 8 have regular 2+3 seating. The green car saloons on the upper decks of cars 7 to 8 have 2+2 seating. The trains have a total seating capacity of 817 passengers.[4]

History

Set P5 in original yellow-stripe livery in March 2011
Set P5 in original yellow-stripe livery in March 2011

The first E4 series set, P1, was delivered to Sendai Depot on 8 October 1997, with the first sets entering revenue-earning service on the Tohoku Shinkansen from 20 December 1997.[3]

All cars were made no-smoking from the start of the revised timetable on 18 March 2007.[3]

In March 2011, it was announced that the entire E4 series fleet would be withdrawn by around 2016.[5]

In September 2012, E4 series were entirely withdrawn from Tohoku Shinkansen services, and all allocated for use on Joetsu Shinkansen services only.[6] The trains were withdrawn from regular service on 1 October 2021,[7] and were completely retired on 17 October of the same year.

Livery change

The first set to be reliveried, P5, in April 2014
The first set to be reliveried, P5, in April 2014

From 2014, the fleet of 24 sets still in service began to be repainted, receiving a new livery identical to that previously carried by the E1 series trains, with a toki (crested ibis) pink stripe separating the white on the upper body and blue on the lower body. The first reliveried set, P5, was returned to service in early April 2014,[8] with the entire fleet be treated by the end of fiscal 2015.[9]

Withdrawals

Withdrawals started in July 2013, with sets P2 and P3.[10]

Preserved examples

Preserved car E444-1 in July 2017
Preserved car E444-1 in July 2017

End car E444-1 from set P1 was displayed at the Niigata City Niitsu Railway Museum in Niitsu, Niigata between July and September 2017.[11] It was moved by road from Niigata Depot to the museum in the early hours of 20 June 2017.[12]

Fleet list

The build details are as shown below.[3] All units retired from regular service as of 1 October 2021.

Set No. Manufacturer Delivered Reliveried Withdrawn
P1 Kawasaki HI 8 October 1997 12 May 2015 2 April 2016[13]
P2 Hitachi 20 October 1997 - 3 July 2013[10]
P3 Kawasaki HI 27 October 1997 - 26 July 2013[10]
P4 Hitachi 10 February 1999 10 February 2016 15 September 2017
P5 Kawasaki HI 22 February 1999 3 April 2014 5 December 2017[14]
P6 Hitachi 15 March 1999 11 June 2014 13 January 2018[14]
P7 14 April 1999 25 March 2015 29 May 2019
P8 Kawasaki HI 31 May 1999 3 July 2015 20 June 2019
P9 Hitachi 21 June 1999 20 August 2015 12 July 2019
P10 Kawasaki HI 12 July 1999 4 February 2015 7 May 2019
P11 Hitachi 26 July 2000 3 March 2016 28 October 2021
P12 28 August 2000 13 April 2016 24 November 2021
P13 Kawasaki HI 11 September 2000 10 May 2016 20 December 2021
P14 Hitachi 13 October 2000 1 June 2016 18 January 2022
P15 Kawasaki HI 16 October 2000 17 October 2016 17 December 2019
P16 Hitachi 27 November 2000 1 May 2014 24 August 2020
P17 21 March 2001 30 September 2014 14 February 2022
P18 Kawasaki HI 4 June 2001 30 April 2015 22 February 2021
P19 25 June 2001 20 August 2015 18 March 2021
P20 Hitachi 16 July 2001 9 October 2015 26 April 2021
P21 Kawasaki HI 9 October 2001 4 November 2015 27 May 2021
P22 20 November 2001 18 December 2015 21 June 2021
P51 31 January 2001 7 July 2014 25 November 2020
P52 20 February 2001 27 August 2014 5 October 2021
P81 Hitachi 30 July 2003 22 July 2015 7 May 2021
P82 Kawasaki HI 20 November 2003 19 January 2016 30 March 2022

See also

References

  1. ^ JR全車輌ハンドブック2006 [JR Rolling Stock Handbook 2006]. Japan: Neko Publishing. 2006. ISBN 4-7770-0453-8.
  2. ^ 鉄道のテクノロジーVol1:新幹線 [Railway Technology Vol.1: Shinkansen]. Japan: Sanei Mook. April 2009. ISBN 978-4-7796-0534-5.
  3. ^ a b c d e f JR電車編成表 2010夏 [JR EMU Formations - Summer 2010]. Japan: Kotsu Shimbunsha. May 2010. p. 9. ISBN 978-4-330-14310-1.
  4. ^ 新幹線NAVI [Shinkansen Navi]. Japan: Ikaros Publishing. July 2004. ISBN 4-87149-562-0.
  5. ^ Saito, Masatoshi (9 March 2011). JR東:2階建て新幹線「Max」5年後全廃 老朽化進み [JR East to withdraw all "Max" double-decker trains within 5 years]. Mainichi jp (in Japanese). Japan: The Mainichi Newspapers. Archived from the original on 10 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
  6. ^ JR電車編成表 2018冬 [JR EMU Formations - Winter 2018] (in Japanese). Japan: Kotsu Shimbunsha. 15 November 2017. p. 13. ISBN 978-4-330-84117-5.
  7. ^ "JR East to Retire the Last Double-Decker Shinkansen Train – Japan Station". www.japanstation.com. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  8. ^ E4系P編成が塗装変更を実施 [E4 series P sets repainted]. RM News (in Japanese). Japan: Neko Publishing Co., Ltd. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  9. ^ "上越新幹線(E4系)のエクステリアデザインが生まれ変わります!" [Exterior design of Joetsu Shinkansen E4 series to be updated] (PDF). News release (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company - Niigata Division. 26 March 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  10. ^ a b c JR電車編成表 2014冬 [JR EMU Formations - Winter 2014]. Japan: Kotsu Shimbunsha. 1 December 2013. p. 356. ISBN 978-4-330-42413-2.
  11. ^ 新津鉄道資料館 新規実物車輌展示 [New rolling stock exhibits at Niigata City Niitsu Railway Museum]. Tetsudo Hobidas (in Japanese). Japan: Neko Publishing Co., Ltd. 7 June 2017. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
  12. ^ 深夜の住宅街、新幹線ゆっくり陸送 新潟 [Shinkansen transported slowly by road late at night through residential area in Niigata]. Asahi Shimbun Digital (in Japanese). Japan: The Asahi Shimbun Company. 21 June 2017. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  13. ^ JR車両のうごき [JR rolling stock changes]. Tetsudō Daiya Jōhō Magazine (in Japanese). Vol. 45, no. 389. Japan: Kōtsū Shimbun. September 2016. p. 81, 357.
  14. ^ a b JR車両のうごき [JR rolling stock changes]. Tetsudo Daiya Joho Magazine (in Japanese). Vol. 47, no. 407. Japan: Kotsu Shimbun. March 2018. p. 103.