African and Caribbean War Memorial
United Kingdom
For servicemen from Africa and the Caribbean who served alongside British and Commonwealth Forces in First World War and Second World War
Unveiled22 June 2017
Designed byJak Beula, Nubian Jak Community Trust

The African and Caribbean War Memorial in Brixton, London, is the United Kingdom's national memorial to African and Caribbean service personnel who fought in the First and Second World Wars. It originated with a project for a memorial to Caribbean Royal Air Force veterans of World War II who arrived in Britain in 1948 on the MV Empire Windrush; this was an extension of the commemorative plaque and sculpture scheme run by the Nubian Jak Community Trust to highlight the historic contributions of Black and minority ethnic people in Britain.[1] The memorial was originally to have been placed at Tilbury Docks, as part of the commemoration for the centenary of the outbreak of World War I. However, as the project began to evolve into a larger tribute that included both World Wars and commemorated servicemen and women from both Africa and the Caribbean, it was agreed by the memorial recipient – the Port of Tilbury – and the project organisers that a new, more accessible location needed to found. The memorial was ultimately permanently installed and unveiled on 22 June 2017 in Windrush Square, Brixton.[2]


While the Imperial War Museum holds records for almost 70,000 memorials to the First and Second World Wars in the UK,[3] there was not one memorial specifically dedicated to commemorating the contributions to victory made by more than two million servicemen and -women from the Caribbean and Africa in both World Wars, until the initiation of the African and Caribbean War Memorial project by the Nubian Jak Community Trust,[4] which set out to remedy the neglect and oversight.[5][6]


After exploring a number of potential sites, including the National Arboretum in Staffordshire and the South Bank and Peckham Square in London, and having consulted local stakeholders, the Trust finally settled on Windrush Square in the heart of Brixton, South London.[7] The area has a strong connection with African and Caribbean culture and history, since the arrival on the MV Empire Windrush at Tilbury, near London, on 22 June 1948, bringing the first large group of West Indian migrants to the UK, among them many former servicemen.[8] The arrivals were temporarily housed in the Clapham South deep shelter in southwest London, about two miles away from Coldharbour Lane in Brixton. Many only intended to stay in Britain for a few years, and although a number returned to the Caribbean, the majority remained to settle permanently.[8]

The African and Caribbean War Memorial was temporarily displayed outside the Black Cultural Archives, 1 Windrush Square, Brixton, at 11:11 am, on 11 November 2014, at an Armistice Day ceremony — attended by veteran Sam King (1926–2016) among others — marking the centenary of World War I.[9][10][11]


The African and Caribbean War Memorial was designed by Jak Beula of the Nubian Jak Community Trust. It consists of two 6-foot obelisks made from Scottish whinstone,[1] weighing approximately 0.75 tons. It is inscribed with the name of every regiment from Africa and the Caribbean who served in World Wars I and II, as well as where they served, and when.[12] It also includes a pyramidal plinth made from Ancaster stone and weighing just under 1.5 tons (combined weight 3 tons). The memorial is supported by Lambeth Council, the Department of Communities and Local Government, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the Heritage Lottery Fund, the Black Cultural Archives, Madstone Limited, the Association of West Indian Personnel and a number of community stakeholders.[12]

Inscribed on the memorial are the names of every regiment from Africa and the Caribbean that contributed services to both world wars, and the words:

In Memory Of The Service Men And Women From Africa And The Caribbean Who Served Alongside The Forces Of The British Commonwealth And Her Allies During WW1 and WW2[13]

Installation and unveiling

The memorial was in storage after November 2014, while two planning applications were submitted, and fundraising efforts made to cover the cost of its manufacture, plinth design and installation ceremony (which had originally planned for Armistice Day in November 2016).[14] Planning permission was finally granted on 28 September 2016.[15] When the Prince of Wales visited the Black Cultural Archives in February 2017 and was made aware of the memorial, he said in a speech:

"It’s so encouraging that now, at last, you have a centre such as this, which allows you to develop so many opportunities but also to bring the message to so many people in this country and elsewhere about the remarkable contribution made over so long, by people of African and Caribbean descent who have contributed so much to this country."[16]

The date chosen for the African and Caribbean War Memorial to be permanently installed in Windrush Square was 22 June 2017, when an unveiling and dedication ceremony was held.[17][18][19][20][21] Other associated activities included a play, Remembered, at the Paul Robeson Theatre in Hounslow, West London,[22][23] and the launch of a book entitled Remembered: In Memoriam, an anthology of essays, articles and narratives about African and Caribbean experiences during and in the aftermath of the world wars, compiled by Jak Beula and Nairobi Thompson.[1][24][25] In a letter of support to the Nubian Jak Community Trust, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II said: "It is now over 70 years since the end of that war, but it is just as important to remember the ultimate sacrifice made by those men and women who were prepared to lay down their live for our freedoms."[1]

The unveiling ceremony was attended by war veterans, Commonwealth High Commissioners and other dignitaries, as well as members of the public.[26][27] Jak Beula said: "More than two million African and Caribbean military servicemen and servicewomen participated in the two world wars but they have not been recognised for their contribution. The unveiling of this memorial is to correct this historical omission and to ensure young people of African and Caribbean descent are aware of the valuable input their forefathers had in the two world wars."[28]

The Voice newspaper reported:

"Proceedings opened with instrumental offerings from the Ministry of Defence (MOD) military band, London All Stars Steel Orchestra and African and Caribbean drummers. These were followed by neutral prayer, delivered by two children, as well as a Christian prayer and a Muslim one. A libation was given by Professor Gus John,[29] a priest of African traditional religious persuasion – an ode to the diverse beliefs nurtured across this country. The ceremony began with a spectacular, traditional military salute and a display of flag and ensigns for each regiment by commonwealth defence representatives of land, air and sea. This was followed by African commemorative war music and dance. Medals were given out to the ex-servicemen and women who made extraordinary contributions to the war effort and public life."[26]

Those named as being honoured with medals were Alhaji Grunshi, Lionel Turpin, Walter Tull, William Robinson Clarke, Cy Grant, Ulric Cross, Sam King, Una Marson, Charles Drew, Norma Best and Allan Wilmot.[26] Present to receive his medal in person, 93-year-old veteran Wilmot (former member of 1950s group The Southlanders),[30] said: "I'm glad that I'm still alive to witness it (the recognition)."[5] Also in attendance was the Defence Secretary Michael Fallon, who said that the recognition is long overdue: "The UK is indebted to all those servicemen and women from Africa and the Caribbean who volunteered to serve with Britain during the First and Second World Wars. It is thanks to their bravery and sacrifice that we are able to enjoy our freedoms today. We should also congratulate those who have worked tirelessly to place this memorial in the heart of Brixton."[6][31] Mayor of London Sadiq Khan spoke in his address of the "courageous African and Caribbean men and women who fought with the British army during the First and Second World War", noting: "As a society we must never forget the sacrifices they made. It's vital that we pass this on to future generations, connecting children with their history."[32][33]

"I Have a Song: Memorial Aid Project"

In support of the memorial, a fundraising single entitled "I Have A Song", composed and performed by Eric Roberson and Jak Beula,[34] was launched at the Houses of Parliament in 2016.[35][36][37][38] Nonagenarian veteran Allan Wilmot has a starring role in the video of the song, which also features many artists representing reggae, hip-hop, Afro Beat and World music.[39]


  1. ^ a b c d Tracey Francis, "African and Caribbean War Memorial", Keep The Faith, 18 May 2017.
  2. ^ "First ever memorial to African and Caribbean Service Personnel unveiled in Brixton", Times Caribbean, 27 June 2017.
  3. ^ "War Memorials Register", Imperial War Museums.
  4. ^ "Black British War memorial by Nubian Jak" (video), Black History Walks, 30 May 2017.
  5. ^ a b "African and Caribbean service in world wars recognised", ITV News, 22 June 2017.
  6. ^ a b "First ever memorial to African and Caribbean Service Personnel unveiled in Brixton", Ministry of Defence, 22 June 2017.
  7. ^ "Memorial for fallen African and Caribbean service personnel", The Brixton Society, 15 August 2015. Archived 8 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ a b Mike Phillips, "Windrush - the Passengers", British History: The Making of Modern Britain, BBC Online, 1998. Retrieved 4 October 2006.
  9. ^ Shez Chung Blake, "African and Caribbean War Memorial unveiled at the Black Cultural Archives in Brixton", Brixton Buzz, 12 November 2014.
  10. ^ Nick Marsh, "UK's first African Caribbean war memorial unveiled in Brixton", YouTube, 20 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Unveiling of New African & Caribbean War Memorial, London", Centenary News, 22 June 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Memorial To 'Overlooked' African And Caribbean War Veterans – The sculpture is the first of its kind in Europe to honour black personnel", The Voice, 10 November 2014.
  13. ^ Lucy Skoulding (23 February 2021). "The story behind the giant statue you will have spotted in Brixton". MyLondon. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  14. ^ "TCTK Media: Nubian Jak - AC Memorial Promo 1 by DJ Mr.P". YouTube.
  15. ^ Leah Sinclair, "The First Black War Memorial In Europe To Be In Brixton", The Voice, 25 November 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  16. ^ James Twomey, "UK’s first memorial to African and Caribbean regiments to be unveiled in Brixton the ‘heart of the black European community’", Kingston Courier, 13 April 2017.
  17. ^ "African and Caribbean War Memorial, Brixton", WW2 Talk, 31 January 2017.
  18. ^ "ACMemorial Unveiling Ceremony 22/6/17", Events, African and Caribbean memorial website.
  19. ^ "Countdown To Unveiling Of Historic Memorial Begins" Archived 22 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Voice, 22 May 2017.
  20. ^ Stephen Spark, "Brixton memorial will honour African and Caribbean troops", Soca News, 23 May 2017.
  21. ^ Linda Quinn, "Brixton’s Windrush Square to be home of the brave", Brixton Bugle Blog, 26 May 2017.
  22. ^ Linda Quinn, "Date fixed for memorial to recognise Black servicemen and women", Brixton Bugle Blog, 14 December 2016.
  23. ^ Nubian Jak Community Trust, "African & Caribbean War Memorial", Minority Perspective, 17 May 2017.
  24. ^ "How To Support This Work" Archived 2017-06-23 at the Wayback Machine, African and Caribbean Memorial.
  25. ^ Jak Beula and Nairobi Thompson (eds), Remembered: In Memoriam: An Anthology of African & Caribbean Experiences WWI & WWII, Independent Publishing Network, 2017, ISBN 978-1788089005.
  26. ^ a b c Nadine White, "Memorial Unveiled For Black Soldiers Who Fought For Britain", The Voice, 26 June 2017.
  27. ^ "UK: First War Memorial to African and Caribbean Soldiers Unveiled", VoxAfrica UK, 23 June 2017.
  28. ^ "Black Poppies – Britain’s Black Community and the Great War by Stephen Bourne", London News Online, 14 August 2019.
  29. ^ "Unveiling of African and Caribbean War Memorial" Archived 2018-02-26 at the Wayback Machine, Prof. Gus John website.
  30. ^ Delores Williams, "Brixton Calling: Alan Wilmott – soldier, singer and star", Brixton Blog, 22 June 2017.
  31. ^ "War memorial to Afro-Caribbean soldiers unveiled in London", BBC News, 22 June 2017.
  32. ^ "Sir Michael Fallon hopes to see more ethnic minority recruits join armed forces", Aol, 22 June 2017.
  33. ^ "African and Caribbean war memorial finally unveiled in Brixton", ODN, 22 June 2017.
  34. ^ "I Have A Song: Memorial Aid Project" at
  35. ^ "Song released for memorial to African & Caribbean veterans of both world wars", Centenary News, 2 March 2016.
  36. ^ "The African & Caribbean War Memorial share fundraising single 'I Have A Song'" Archived 3 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine, MOBO, 23 March 2016.
  37. ^ Ade Onibada, "Record to raise funds for African and Caribbean soldiers", The Voice, 30 April 2016.
  38. ^ "Memorial Aid, featuring Nubian Jak and Eric Roberson - Official Video" at Colourful Radio.
  39. ^ "'I Have a Song' for the African & Caribbean Memorial" Archived 2 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, David F. Roberts, 7 March 2016.

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